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Summer University 2013: URBACT Talk - Furio Honsell: Leadership and European Networking or, “how to turn a bunch of keywords into concrete practices”
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Summer University 2013: URBACT Talk - Furio Honsell: Leadership and European Networking or, “how to turn a bunch of keywords into concrete practices”

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Talk given by Furio Honsell, mayor of the Italian city of Udine, during the URBACT Summer University 2013, in Dublin.

Talk given by Furio Honsell, mayor of the Italian city of Udine, during the URBACT Summer University 2013, in Dublin.

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  • Meeting of Phase IV (2003-2007) WHO Healthy Cities Network
  • Meeting of Phase IV (2003-2007) WHO Healthy Cities Network
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    • 1. Leadership and European Networking or, “how to turn a bunch of keywords into concrete practices” Furio Honsell {M, } uni {cipal,vers} ity of Udine Mayor of Udine (ITALY)
    • 2. Leadership & European Networking UDINE pop 100,000 Greater Udine pop 180,000 FRIULI pop 1,000,000
    • 3. Leadership & European Networking DIFFICULT TIMES – Economic downturn, recession, austerity – Political dissatisfaction – Anti-establishment movements • The recession is extremely virulent – It acts as a multiplicative factor mostly for the worst – Inequalities and inequities increase dramatically (reverse “spirit level” effect)
    • 4. Leadership & European Networking The CSDH – closing the gap in a generation The Marmot Review – Fair Society Healthy Lives The Spirit Level A Fair Society •Study evidence of low sense of control, self efficacy and self esteem in population in unequal areas •Almost everyone benefits from greater equality; usually the benefits are greatest among the poor but extend to the majority of the population
    • 5. Leadership & European Networking Lorenz curve, Gini coefficient
    • 6. Leadership & European Networking • BUT We live a very important discontinuity, a time of paradigm revolution, an opportunity to improve, go beyond across borders, sectors, nations, professions – intersectoral, interdisciplinary, international, interprofessional – transectoral, transdisciplinary, transnational, transprofessional • the scope of many of our principles (development vs progress) and concepts (e.g. citizenship, care, well- being, prevention) can change for the better • More holistic approach: whole-of-{society, government} • How to achieve Unlimited Progress without Unlimited Growth?
    • 7. Leadership & European Networking WHAT ARE THE MAIN THREATS, CHALLENGES, OPPORTUNITIES, STRATEGIES IN TIMES OF AUSTERITY and FRUGALITY? Democratic and Scientific methods: two of a kind • “Promoting knowledge is much more an ethical issue than it is a metaphysical issue, and moreover it is a duty and the hope of humanity”
    • 8. Leadership & European Networking The Mathematics of Politics What matters is the first derivative, that is, the increase not the absolute amount
    • 9. Leadership & European Networking Scientific and democratic methods: an interesting analogy • Science and Democracy, scientific method and democratic method • Public debate • Incremental growth • Foster progress rather than achieve perfection (Sen’s Principle) • It is not necessary to eliminate all conflicting positions until only one is left – Promote justice and equity and eliminate injustice and inequity – Accountability, transparency – Innovation – Literacy – transnationality • Good explanations correspond to actions which increase justice and equity
    • 10. Leadership & European Networking Strategic standpoints • High commitment, engagement • Provide objectives (meaning, sense, points) to citizens and motivation to workers • Break up the stabilization triangle in a number of wedges to reduce • “best care at lower cost” • “sometimes less is more” • “doing more with less”
    • 11. Leadership & European Networking STRATEGIES • Avoid fragmentation of services – it leads to duplication – continuity costs and coordination costs • Efficiency: reduce waste of human, economic, and financial resources – Reduce gulf between research and practice, – Hospice, the right of a swan’s song – Various rebound effects – over treatment over diagnosis – Bureaucracy – Excessive cost of technologies - tenders – Frauds and abuses – transparency and control • Third sector, NPO’s and voluntary workers
    • 12. Leadership & European Networking social capital as a common good • Services of general interest • Avoid Tragedy of Commons • What is a citizen? Community welfare. mutually supportive. resilient. • Care should not be category –specific: elderly, physically or mentally disadvantaged disabled, marginalised , addicted, chronically ill, immigrants • Collective responsibility of each and everyone towards all • Equity (do not leave anyone behind) , equal opportunitie, sustainibility, solidarity cohesion • The “bus” principle: the for-all movement e.g. sports for all • Prevention and promotion, rehabilitation – Literacy, lifestyles • turn interaction into integration, in society but also within service providers • take into account – be accountable
    • 13. Leadership & European Networking The European Dilemma: nations vs cities, liberism vs solidarity? • efficiency  market competitiveness • freedom + transparency  liberism • Trasymachus in Plato’s Republic : – “justice is what suits best the strongest”, – “power goes where power is”, – “justice goes where power is”, – “it rains always where it is already wet” • Constitution  reduce the excess of power • Human rights  Customers Rights, Subscribers Rights • Sustainibility  the Rights of the Environment of • the Rights of Future Generations • In Need of a European Constitution
    • 14. Leadership & European Networking GOLDEN RULES THINK OUT OF THE BOX ONLY TRUE ARTISTS ARE ABLE TO COPY
    • 15. Leadership & European Networking • When should a settlement/hub be called a city? – The ontological issue • public institutions, services or size – The psychological issue • relations, community, identity, attachment, security, history • The numbers of a city: – 100.000 pop, 0.5t, 9t, 100m3 , 278m2 , 200 l, 46y, 1:4, 1:8 • The numbers of a political agenda: – 33%, >0, 100%, 500-steps, 20-25, 202020, 252525, 90% CHALLENGES OF URBANIZATION KNOW YOUR CITY! NUMBERS PROVIDE COMPARISON, SET TARGETS
    • 16. Leadership & European Networking THE CENTRE or HYPERCENTRE? Imgres1.htm
    • 17. Leadership & European Networking Immagine1.jpg Immagine1.jpg
    • 18. Leadership & European Networking
    • 19. Leadership & European Networking The “rogge”The “rogge” waterwaywaterway system:system: brought freshbrought fresh water forwater for drinkingdrinking andand washingwashing, as, as well aswell as energyenergy for operatingfor operating mills and othermills and other machineriesmachineries
    • 20. Leadership & European Networking A street or a square?A street or a square? pedestrian streets?pedestrian streets? why preserve old buildings?why preserve old buildings?
    • 21. Leadership & European Networking
    • 22. Leadership & European Networking
    • 23. Leadership & European Networking
    • 24. Leadership & European Networking
    • 25. Leadership & European Networking 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65-69 70-74 75-79 80-84 85-89 90-94 95-99 100- M - F 1871 20011936 • UDINE POPULATION PYRAMIDS • snapshots of demographic change 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65-69 70-74 75-79 80-84 85-89 90-94 95-99 100- M - F
    • 26. Leadership & European Networking 1:4, 1:8, 1:20 31 dicembre 2011 -5.000 -4.000 -3.000 -2.000 -1.000 0 1.000 2.000 3.000 4.000 5.000 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65-69 70-74 75-79 80-84 85e + NATALITY AND MORTALITY BETWEEN 1968 & 2006NATALITY AND MORTALITY BETWEEN 1968 & 2006
    • 27. Leadership & European Networking OLDER PEOPLE IN UDINE, ITALY & EUROPE Udine (2011) Italy (2011) Europe (2010) Average age 46 43 40.9 Senior citizens 24.9 20.3 17.4 Old age index Population (65+) 211.7 144.5 111.5 Population (0-14) Dependency ratio Population [(0-14) + (65+)] 57.8 52.3 49.3 Population (15-64) Old dependency ratio Population (65+) 39.3 30.8 25.9 Population (15-64) Exchange rate Population (60-64) 163.4 130.3 - Population (15-19)
    • 28. Leadership & European Networking PERCENTAGE OF OLDER PEOPLE LIVING ALONE Age Males Females Total % over 65 21,2 52,1 39,6 % over 75 10,5 35,9 25,6 % over 85 3,8 15,6 10,8 centenaries 14 49 63
    • 29. Leadership & European Networking Beautiful cities vs Ugly cities • have to exhibit rules and principles, which produce joy when we become aware of them • allow to read off the history • promote well-being • are rich in green areas • foster sustainability • are functional • balance between empty and full volumes • ensure safety • are chaotic (even if chaos has its regularities) • increase discomfort • induce traffic • are noisy • induce solitude and isolation • are unsafe
    • 30. Leadership & European Networking Principles underpinning the new UDINE City General Development Plan • Reduces potential inhabitants from 125,000 to 115,000 • Flexible and telescopic • Promotes re-use of brownfield and industrial and military unused sites • Ensures eco-corridors, green and blue networks • Provides Cycle and pedestrian paths • Reduces functional promiscuity: fun areas, call-centres, penny arcades • Avoids linear glueing between urban settlements • Promotes urban densification • Limits farmland usage: • 1,840,000 m2 transformed into green areas • 290,000 m2 residential areas not re-assigned • Building potential reduced by 1,000,000 m3
    • 31. Leadership & European Networking Principles underpinning the new UDINE Urban Mobility Plan • Sets the 252525 goal for the mobility mode distribution • Reduces excessive use of private vehicles, above all by commuters • Cancels parasitical traffic • Designs mobility and radial circulation corridors • Encourages the use of alternative means of transport • Promotes a ‘Slow town’
    • 32. Leadership & European Networking GENERAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN GREEN AREAS DISTRIBUTION
    • 33. Leadership & European Networking Perception and paradigm shifts
    • 34. Leadership & European Networking The missing card
    • 35. Leadership & European Networking Memorize one of the following… Done?
    • 36. Leadership & European Networking Now I’ll make it disappear!
    • 37. Leadership & European Networking
    • 38. Leadership & European Networking Socio – political manipulations and fallacies often deriving from innumeracywe overestimate rare events Fooling with percentages Minorities viewpoints The progressive – tax swindle Xenophobic Paradox
    • 39. Leadership & European Networking Percentage shares of equivalised total gross and post-tax income, by quintile groups for all households, 1978 – 2007/8
    • 40. Leadership & European Networking BEWARE PREJUDICE • Suppose immigrants are 10% of the overall population • Suppose that Mrs. X.Y. has quite a good reaction time and has a reasonable probability to recognise an immigrant if she sees one, notwithstanding the predicament. Let’s say she can identify an immigrant in 80% of situations. • How likely is it that she is right and that the mugger was indeed an immigrant?
    • 41. Leadership & European Networking The Xenophobic paradox • Suppose immigrants are 10% of the overall population • But suppose that 15% of pickpocketers are immigrants, while 85 are locals. • Mrs X.Y. will identify correctly the mugger as an immigrant only 12% of the times while she will mistakenly identify a local mugger as an immigrant in 20% of the remaining 85 cases, that is 17%. • THIS IS USUALLY DISREGARDED • The probability that Mrs. X.Y. was mugged by an immigrant is therefore 12/(12 + 17) which is less than 50%. • Even if the lady is almost always right, she is more likely to bear false witness than not.
    • 42. Leadership & European Networking I always liked taking up challenges solving puzzles • For my first 30 years (1958-1988) I was driven by intellectual and social curiosity and Iiked solving puzzles, such as: – An explorer chased by a bear runs for 10 miles South, 10 miles East and 10 miles North before succeeding in getting rid of the beast, only to realize that he was back to the very spot where his run started from. What is the colour of the bear’s fur? • I enjoyed the adventures of knowledge and research, in Mathematics, Logic and Theoretical Computer Science, Semantics, Formal Languages in Pisa, Torino, Edinburgh, Stanford, Paris
    • 43. Leadership & European Networking A first turning point: from puzzle solving to problem solving • But in 1998 I felt the urge to pay back what my country had bestowed onto me in my public education. I had to go back to Italy • … in Udine a young developing university – I was appointed professor in 1989 • I had been only once in Udine before, hitch-hiking, on an occasional stop • The paradox effect of the 1976 Earthquake – the knowledge factory - I felt a missionary • Most of my colleagues left – but I remained – mostly for the sake of the students
    • 44. Leadership & European Networking Another turning point • In such a developing university it was inevitable to have to assume responsibilities • 1995 Dean and Rector-VC from 2001 to 2008 • The University had 17.000 students and nearly 1000 members teaching staff when I left as VC • I think I did a good job – but I think also that that time was of special fast changes and fast growth. • But the tide was changing
    • 45. Leadership & European Networking Yet another turning point • I must say I felt the recession coming, because, at least in Italy, there were cues of a deep moral and ethical recession • I felt that my duty was to take the offer of running for Mayor of the city of Udine • I thought I could address political issues meaningfully just by acting as a responsible citizen, as a thoughtful scientist, a rational person, a problem solver, and knowledge manager. • So I resigned as President of the University and ran for mayor • THE ELECTION CAMPAIGN AND WHAT HAPPENED IN THE NEXT 5 YEARS WERE A DEVASTATING EXPERIENCE
    • 46. Leadership & European Networking The role of the Mayor • Well … he has very little effective power • Planning and control not execution – Elected officials vs professional administrators – Majority (?) vs Opposition – Conflict, deliberate opposition or just friction, inertia • The MAYOR is held responsible for everything • the abundant but extremely rare snowfall • the increase in petty theft, • the lack of jobs for the young • the noise made by the local pub, • any speeding cars, any hole in the road • the water company which fells unnecessarily a tree • the right to justice of a father and a brain dead lady • 28 afghan political asylum seekers sleeping in a park
    • 47. Leadership & European Networking 5 YEARS OF SOLITUDE • Meetings and decisions to be taken every half hour about issues for which one has very little time to understand and ponder • Decisions which often have dramatic little impact because they end up absorbed by the slackness, sluggishness, bovinity, laziness, tropidity of the bureaucracy (nobody’s government e defencive mechanism of professional administrators for breaking up responsabilities thus resist accountability) • Crises which break out unexpectedly but to become the top-local news on the papers with the opposition capitalizing on the impossibility of an immediate solution • Often under police investigation
    • 48. Leadership & European Networking • Truth does not matter, but rather opinion • Media and public opinion are often superficial • Washing away prejudice is extremely difficult • Urgencies and today-ness use up all the time – no energy left for planning or strategy • Conflict, especially malevolent conflict, manipulation, stigma are everyday’s experience • Opportunistic views, racism, xenophobia, fragmentation
    • 49. Leadership & European Networking The main difficulty – A golden rule • Defend plurality of opinion, interest, diversity – Planning a city for disabled/disadvantaged people in fact helps you planning a better city for-all – Copernican revolution (put to use scientific metaphors) it is not people themselves who are at pains in coping with the environment because they are handicapped in some ways, it is the environment which makes them disabled
    • 50. Leadership & European Networking A case in point: the Roma informal settlement • It was there long before I first learnt that there was a city called Udine on the map • But they became the scapegoats, the symbol of the mounting opposition to my social and protective policies • I knew that they were the most disadvantaged minority, but to the eyes of the vast majority of my population they were the priviledged. They could break the rules and nothing would happen to them, they would get all social benefits • And I was the culprit • It makes a huge difference if you can tell your peers that you are part of an international network that is comitted to promoting health, houses, education, jobs
    • 51. Leadership & European Networking TRANSNATIONAL CITY NETWORKS – MOVEMENTS • Healthy Cities (1400 cities) – increase healthy life expectancy – promote healthy lifestyles, tackle obesity, etc. • Age-Friendly Cities (115 cities) – add life to years, not only years to life – promote the idea that what is good for old age is good for all age – foster accessibility and contrast the idea of an ‘enemy city’ • Learning Cities (450 cities) – promote lifelong learning and smart initiatives • Active Cities (50 cities) – encourage physical exercise and sports for everyone • Covenant of Mayors 202020 for sustainability (5000 cities) – Renewable sources, efficiency,reuce carbon footpint • Giona – Playing Cities (40 cities – national network) – To promote playing as a tool for learning, integration and socialisation • Local Agenda 21 (7000 cities) • URBACT ROMA NET NETWORK (10 cities) – To promote wellbeing and social inclusion of the Roma population and disadvantaged groups • Welfare  well-being  happiness : can we invert arrows?
    • 52. Leadership & European Networking the Science of Political Administration • SWOT analysis • Transnational networking between CITIES – Europe is a network of CITIES vs NATIONS • URBACT METHODOLOGY – LAP – LSG • Active learning (learning by doing) – The fish bowl environment
    • 53. Leadership & European Networking Roma-Net 139 Members of Local Support Groups
    • 54. Leadership & European Networking Roma-Net Integration of Roma Population ROMA SETTLEMENTS IN UDINE Integration of Roma population
    • 55. Leadership & European Networking IMPACT • Amazing tangible benefits • LSG brought together, health care workers, care-givers, NGO’s, municipality workers, residents, roma people, • Reduce by over 50% Roma population living in informal settlements • Achieve totality of children included in some schooling programme, • Achieve 100% vaccination programme
    • 56. Leadership & European Networking UDINE HEALTHY CITY 80 CO2kg/person x hr flight 0,1 CO2kg/km 20 CO2kg/tree x year Energy budget District heating Building regulations, Increase thermal insulation Turbines Orientation Direct light Geothermal Solar
    • 57. Leadership & European Networking Environmental policies of municipality of Udine development of action plans and long-term programs to address critical environmental issues ISO 14001 and EMAS – environmental management & Audit Scheme Certifications policies for energy saving development of regulations and specific projects to address energy saving issues in the building sector A significant part is represented by: Local Energy Plan and Covenant of Major Initiative joined since 2009 New energy building code and ClimaHouse certification Obtained in for the entire local authority organisation as elements of excellence in management of critical environmental aspects and good practice for both private and public actors.
    • 58. Leadership & European Networking INNOVATION • New generation network: Fiber To The Cabinet – Through the sewage & street lighting pipes – 50Mbps – European Digital Agenda 20 Mbps by 2020 • Open data
    • 59. Leadership & European Networking
    • 60. Leadership & European Networking
    • 61. Leadership & European Networking ENERGY DAY: Frugality, education, integration Archimedes Screw, Cochlea Archimedea
    • 62. Leadership & European Networking
    • 63. Leadership & European Networking eco
    • 64. Leadership & European Networking UDINE joined the Healthy Cities movement HEALTH ENLIGHTMENT in 1995
    • 65. Leadership & European Networking
    • 66. Leadership & European Networking Social determinants of health across the lifecourse
    • 67. Leadership & European Networking
    • 68. Leadership & European Networking World Health Day 2012 Copenhagen, 2 april 2012
    • 69. Leadership & European Networking
    • 70. Leadership & European Networking Slogans ADD LIFE TO YEARS NOT YEARS TO LIFE What is good for older people is good for other people You can’t help getting older, But You don’t have to get old But the hard truth is: People with high income benefit more from public funding than people with low income
    • 71. Leadership & European Networking You don't stop laughing because you grow old, You grow old because you stop laughing Where are their partners?
    • 72. Leadership & European Networking
    • 73. Leadership & European Networking HEALTHY AGEING SUBNETWORK of the WHO HEALTHY CITIES PROJECT working to empower older persons, increase their participation & social inclusion in the community & promote their health and quality of life
    • 74. Leadership & European Networking Core theme Phase IV HEALTHY AGEING PROFILES (2004-2008)
    • 75. Leadership & European Networking
    • 76. Leadership & European Networking POPULATION OVER 65 & BUS STOPS POPULATION OVER 65 & GPs
    • 77. Leadership & European Networking POPULATION OVER 65 & PHARMACIES POPULATION OVER 65 & GREEN AREAS
    • 78. Leadership & European Networking COMBINING Healthy Ageing with the Innovation Partnership On Active and Healthy Ageing
    • 79. Leadership & European Networking Age-friendliness community assessment • Collaborating cities involved: 33 cities (22 countries) • Objective: to identify age- friendliness features of the physical & social environment and elicit suggestions for improvement • Results published in COMBINING Healthy Ageing with the Age-Friendly Cities Programme
    • 80. Leadership & European Networking Age-friendliness community assessment applied to Udine • Methodology adopted: Vancouver Protocol • Period of assessment: January – December 2007 • Topics: What is it like to live in Udine as an older person? • People involved: about 100 people • 8 focus groups (10-12 people each group): – 4 with older people divided according to Age (2 groups aged 60-74 & 2 aged >75) & Income (2 groups with low income – & 2 with high-middle income) – 1 with caregivers – 1 with voluntary sector – 1 with public sector – 1 with private sector
    • 81. Leadership & European Networking Dublin Declaration 2011 Age Friendly Cities Conference
    • 82. Leadership & European Networking HEALTHY AGEING STRATEGIES • To promote healthy lifestyles and allow older people to remain PHYSICALLY, MENTALLY & SOCIALLY ACTIVE for as long as possible • To actively involve older people in INFLUENCING & MONITORING city policies regarding health and urban environments • To tackle SOLITUDE & ISOLATION by offering opportunities of socialization and participation in city life
    • 83. Leadership & European Networking Shortening the supply chain: “0 km Markets” Are healthy eating habits more expensive?
    • 84. Leadership & European Networking 1. Hands on the wall 2. On the tip of your toes 3. Eyes closed & lift your hands GENTLE FITNESS
    • 85. Leadership & European Networking PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AT HOME The aim is to stimulate the elderly towards a regular physical exercise and encourage them to participate to physical activity programmes
    • 86. Leadership & European Networking - Offering opportunities of socialization and tackling solitude - Turning our environment into a more attractive place where to be physically active - Encouraging healthy lifestyles in adult and old age, to prevent or delay the onset of physical disability WALKING GROUPS
    • 87. Leadership & European Networking
    • 88. Leadership & European Networking KEEP PHYSICALLY & MENTALLY MOVING Walk together up to the library and then read a book and have a healthy snack
    • 89. Leadership & European Networking PEDIBUS An intergenerational activity “Which vehicles have the smallest carbon footprint: black cars or blue cars with little white clouds painted on?”
    • 90. Leadership & European Networking BEFORE School entrance AFTER School entrance BEFORE AFTER Urban planning improvingUrban planning improving house to school route’shouse to school route’s through Children’s and Seniorthrough Children’s and Senior Citizen’s City CouncilsCitizen’s City Councils
    • 91. Leadership & European Networking HEALTH PYRAMID CONSUMERS AWARE OF THEIR CHOICES FOR HEALTHIER LIFESTYLES Social marketing and health info point in a supermarket
    • 92. Leadership & European Networking
    • 93. Leadership & European Networking
    • 94. Leadership & European Networking MINDS ON THE MOVE MOVE YOUR MINDS… • is an integral part of the comprehensive strategy aimed at improving the quality of life of older people in Udine • provides opportunities for people to meet and share learning activities in a useful and entertaining way
    • 95. Leadership & European Networking • Music • Story telling • maths & logic games • memory games • English words in common use • cards games • calligraphy • information on physical & mental health ACTIVITIES:
    • 96. Leadership & European Networking Giving support to older and frail people in their everyday life, especially those living alone, with disabilities or economic difficulties NO ALLA SOLIT’UDINE
    • 97. Leadership & European Networking Althought, worldwide, care for frail elderly people, is provided by the family, changes in family structure and increasing participation of women in the paid work force are gradually eroding the capacity of the family to provide care Now Before… &
    • 98. Leadership & European Networking Provision of services for the everyday life: • Listening • Commissions • Support for visits in the hospital • Company • Advice • Professional and legal advice • Medicines • Information • Injections • Doing the shopping • Transportation • Repairs • Other Richieste pervenute - anno 2011 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 consulenza legale consulenza abitativa volontari parrucchiere- barbiere altro prenot. esami-visite e prest. compagnia/passeggiata accompagn. da casa progr. spesa pedicure affiancamento in struttura riparazioni affian. in struttura progr. farmaci ritiro referti segnalazioni accompagnamento da casa commissioni ascolto consulenze compagnia/pass. program. trasporti comunicazioni varie spesa programmata informazioni trasporti programmati
    • 99. Leadership & European Networking modern-city leadership vs modern city-leadership Capacity building – Self esteem, self efficacy, empowerment • Values: scientific and democratic – Accountability, trasparency, – Responsibility, sustainability – Innovation, opportunity – Sometimes less is more – Transnationality
    • 100. Leadership & European Networking {Hum,Urb}anism is the science of the Future. • Since 2000 half population lives in cities • Progress (not development) depends on cities • Active citizenship, relations, participation • Promotion of civil rights, equity, sustainability • Networks: learning cities, healthy cities, age-friendly cities, Covenant of Mayors 202020. • To unravel the signs of history and the smartness of cities • Cities are a stage, a gym, a laboratory • The main principle is to pursue beauty • Cities are increasingly intolerant • Take on ones shoulders the collective future
    • 101. Leadership & European Networking Integration takes time and effort. More than one piece! Involve Involve Involve