Open Access Explained


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Going for Gold and Greener Pastures: Open Access Explained
Presentation by Lisa Kruesi, Helen Morgan and Andrew Heath from The University of Queensland Scholarly Publishing and Digititisation Service for Open Access Week, October 2012.

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  • Jan Velterop Open access – gold versus green accessed: 22 August 2012Acting Manager UQ eSpace, Manager Research Data Collections
  • In its finest form – full OA permits any user to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search or link to the FT of the articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal or technical barriers…. This is taken from the Budapest OA Initiative.OA refers to the provision of unrestricted access via the Internet
  • Green open access: Delivered by repositories, usually occurs after an embargo period e.g. PMC, (physics), eSpaceGold open access: Delivered by journals, these are typically peer reviewed Gold = immediate open access and open licences. Can also be green when papers can be deposited without embargo or limits on use anywhere by anyoneGreen = delayed open access and all rights reserved copyrights. Cannot be gold.
  • Image: Author died more than 70 years ago - public domain
  • 3 minutes
  • In 2012 there are approximately 25,000 peer-reviewed journals in publication, of these 7,891 journals have been listed by the Directory of Open Access Journals as Open AccessThis is the number indexed by Ulrich’s Periodical DirectoryOnly 30% of the world’s peer reviewed journals are open access. (Editorial, Ensuring open access for publicly funded researchBMJ 2012; 345 doi: 10.1136/bmj.e5184 (Published 8 August 2012) Cite this as: BMJ 2012;345:e5184 )
  • The UQ Library has arranged for Supporter Membership for PloS, SpringerOpen and BioMed Central. These memberships allow UQ researchers to have discounted article processing charges.Andrew will elaborate on UQ eSpace – lk will give a summary of how UQ Library can help
  • PLOS medicine established 2004 – only 8 years agoBMC Medicine established – 2003 – nine years ago --- demonstrating the OA journals can compete and make it the top ten amongst journals that are 200 years old !!!PLOS Biol is the no 1 biology journal – 2003 nine years – no. 1 Biology Journal
  • The Chronicle of Higher Education published an article March 4, 2012 titled “‘Predatory’ Online Journals Lure Scholars Who Are Eager to Publish.” It describes the hidden danger of open access publications. Many new publishers and journals have been developed during the past 5-10 years to take advantage of scholars who want to publish their work in open access journals. Some of these “predatory” publishers have set up journals to earn money rather than advance scholarship.Is the publisher on the list of Predatory Publishers? Jeffrey Beall, Metadata Librarian at the University of Colorado at Denver,
  • Mention definition OABioMed Central Report BioMed Central (BMC) is a publisher of open access, online, peer-reviewed journals. All original research articles published by BMC are made freely and permanently accessible online immediately upon publication. BMC charges an article-processing fee to cover the cost of the publication process. Authors publishing with BMC retain the copyright to their work, licensing it under the Creative Commons Attribution License which allows articles to be re-used and re-distributed without restriction, as long as the original work is correctly cited. Central and ERAOf the 265 journal titles listed within BMC, 192 (72%) appear on the ERA 2012 Journal List.A search of author affiliations attached to BioMed Central journal publications revealed that over the period from 2009-2012, 423 papers with University of Queensland author affiliations*******For journal articles published by UQ authors 2005-2010 PLoS one was the third highest, in terms of number of journal articles published, as identified from the results of the ERA research performance exercise
  • Tom Joyce developing Addendum
  • – mandated that articles would be available free within 12 months of publicationResearch Councils UK. Research Councils UK’s updated position statement on access to research outputs. 2006. MANDATES THROUGHOUT WORLD
  • Three significant announcements in July 2012Department of Business Innovation and Skills. Government to open up publicly funded research. 2012. Information Network. Finch report. 2012. Education Funding Council for England. Working group on expanding access to published research findings. 2011.,62276,en.html.Over to Andrew and Helen will follow him
  • Live DemoHome page – Login vs OA / recently popular /recently add / top papers (don’t login)Browse – IMB  IMBShow Views/Downloads/CitationsSort Citations / DownloadsFull record (UQ:8334)– HERDC codes / ERA journal links / DOI link / OA attachment /Q-Index code /CitationsPublications by… /e1mluSearchLogin – (Masquarade e1mlu)
  • We are aiming to automate the population of eSpace as much as possible by downloading records from the Thomson ISI Web of Science service. Currently we are downloading from WOS any records with UQ as the nominated instititution. Records are downloaded to a specific collection in eSpace and whenever possible we use ‘smart matching’ to add codes such as the Q Index code. These records are not linked to specific authors
  • Available through at no charge. Contains records of digital resources from open-archive collections worldwide. More than 23 million records representing digital resources from more than 1,100 contributors. Mention DOAB – gone live August 2012
  • OA Clip – Part 2Scholarly Publishing Series: Open Access Data Sets. Part 2 -- Prof Matthew Brown
  • Small number of dominant publishers – no creative role in the research or writing
  • Jeffrey Beall, Metadata Librarian, University of Colorado
  • LK need to check these – this was taken from BW’s presentation
  • Open Access Explained

    1. 1. Going for Gold and Greener Pastures: Open Access Explained Lisa Kruesi, Helen Morgan and Andrew Heath Scholarly Publishing and Digitisation Service Open Access Week, October 2012Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under
    2. 2. Session Objectives• Introduction to open access (OA)• Setting the scene• Situation at UQ – eSpace & green OA – Development of OA research data• Opportunities & pitfalls• Who to contact at UQ Library for helpOpen Access Logo: Art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, andJakobVoss
    3. 3. Open Access (OA) Definition• OA literature is digital, free of most copyright and licensing restrictions• Focus on peer-reviewed scholarly journal articles via Internet• There are two different ways of obtaining open accessibility to scientific research results: Green and Gold.• Open access is also increasingly being provided to data, books and book chapters, conference papers, theses, working papers and preprints.• Open content is similar to OA, but may include the right to modify the work• While open access relies on the consent of copyright holders to share their work, making material open access will not deprive copyright holders of any rights. Copyright laws still apply.1. "Open Access." Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 18 June 2012. Web 3 September 2012. available: Suber, Peter. Open Access. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2012
    4. 4. Open Access (OA) Definition• Green Self Archiving - • Gold authors publish in OA authors publish in a journal journals that provide free, and self-archive a freely immediate access to the available version of the articles via publisher web manuscript in their sites that may or may not institutions repository, or carry author fees. The in a national repository (for Public Library of Science example, PubMed Central) (PLOS) is an example. or post them on other OA • There are hybrid OA sites. Green journal journals providing Gold OA publishers are those that for authors who pay an up- allow self-archiving. front-fee to publish on their journal’s web site.
    5. 5. World’s firstscientific journalSource: ARC Statistics 2006-2007, Association of Research Libraries, Washington, D.C.*includes electronic resources from 1999-2000 onward.
    6. 6. Scholarly Publishing Trends Australian Many Universities set GovernmentAccess shifts from up research Most libraries need to invests $26 millionpersonal subscriptions repositories to record & cancel journals to pay to establish digitaltowards library- store research outputs for new subscriptions repositories inprovided access. by University staff and UniversitiesTenopir, C. students 1970-1990s 1990s+ 2000+ 2001 2008-2009 2012 Sales of large portfolios of e- Open access emerges led by There is a patchy- journals content (‘big-deals’) scholars, to make publicly approach world-wide to to libraries via consortia deals funded research available establishing funding is the predominant way to all. The Budapest Open schemes to pay for OA research content is purchased Access Iniative occurs. author fees at Creative Commons universities founded.
    7. 7. New model Subscriber pays User pays• Journals paid for by • Publication paid for by the readers, libraries and author, the author’s institution or institutions research grant• Payment by annual • Payment is a publication fee subscription / consortia deal / page charges • Payments are transparent• One-off payments for specific issues or a fee for • Publisher can be the author article delivery (pay per view) • No access restrictions• Licensed content • Subject to Copyright Act /• Content is restricted Creative Commons Solomon, D. J., & Björk, B. C. (2012). A study of open access journals using article processing charges. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 63(8), 1485-1495
    8. 8. Budapest Open Access Initiative“Open access is economically feasible, it gives readers extraordinary power to find and make use of relevant literature, and it gives authors and their works vast and measurable new visibility, readership, and impact.”
    9. 9. Set the Scene: Sign HereGo To This Video License: Creative Commons Attribution license (reuse allowed)
    10. 10. Growth peer-reviewed OA journals
    11. 11. How can the UQ Library help?• UQ eSpace – Research outputs including UQ research higher degree theses – Text Queensland – Digilib• Advice & updates (Copyright & Library Lawyer)• The Library’s web site for access• eScholarship: research data, publishing, impact blog• UQ Library Catalogue / support/open-access-week
    12. 12.
    13. 13. Top ten journals from Thomson Reuters JCRWeb,General & Internal Medicine 2011: Myriad of options Medicine, General & Internal 2011 Abbreviated Journal Title ISSN Total Cites Impact Factor Open Access Status OA 1990+ research articles free after 6 mths/ BLUE 1 NEW ENGL J MED 0028-4793 232068 53.298 GREEN 2 LANCET 0140-6736 158906 38.278 WHITE 3 JAMA-J AM MED ASSOC 0098-7484 117668 30.026 WHITE 4 ANN INTERN MED 0003-4819 45683 16.733 *National GOLD 5 PLOS MED 1549-1277 12574 16.269 licence paid GREEN 6 BRIT MED J 0959-535X 74759 14.093 for in Australian WHITE 3 ARCH INTERN MED 0003-9926 37598 11.462 by the WHITE 3 CAN MED ASSOC J 0820-3946 11413 8.217 NHMRC GOLD 9 BMC MED 1741-7015 1835 6.035 BLUE 10 COCHRANE DB SYST REV * 1469-493X 29593 5.715 RoMEO Colour Archiving policy Green Can archive pre-print and post-print or publishers version/PDF Blue Can archive post-print (ie final draft post-refereeing) or publishers version/PDF Yellow Can archive pre-print (ie pre-refereeing) White Archiving not formally supported Gold
    14. 14. Independent of OA• Journals can be more open or less open. But there degree of openness is independent from their: *Impact, *Prestige, *Quality of Peer Review, *Peer Review Methodology *Sustainability, *Effect on Tenure & Promotion *Article QualityTaken from: HowOpenIsIt:
    15. 15. Where to publishIdentifying publishing opportunities• Decide early (before drafting the paper). Look for a journal and then write the paper• Look for journals that have published in your discipline area• Consider journals that have published work you cite• Audience – who will read your article?• Prestige – does the journal appear on the ERA journal listings?• Predatory Publishers List• Checklist for evaluation• Access – will you publish in an open access journal?• Impact – refers to how often a journal’s content is cited by other authors, thereby giving an indication of the influence of a publication.• Likelihood of acceptance – top tier v’s less prestigious journals• Does it cost to publish in the journal?• More details: Fact Sheet 8 Where to Publish Your Journal Article and the Open Access Spectrum (OAS) HowOpenIsIt Guide
    16. 16. Open Access - Evolving• BioMed Central (BMC)• Of the 265 journal titles listed within BMC, 192 (72%) appear on the ERA 2012 Journal List Processing fee 15% payable Amount by UQ payable by author AUS $1841 AUS $275 AUS $1566• The Wellcome Trust has teamed up with the Max Planck Society in Germany and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute in the US to set up a new open-access journal called eLife.• According to the new editor: the journal will take on the very top end of the scientific publishing industry, as a visible high- profile competitor to Nature and Science“• PLOS Medicine is number five in the top Medicine, General & Internal – JCRWeb, 2011 – Impact Factor 16.3• More details: Open Access
    17. 17. Addendum• All OA journals and 70% non-OA journal allow authors to self archive their peer reviewed post prints - for the remaining journals an authors addendum can be used to vary the terms of a publication agreement• UQ Addendum on the UQ Library OA website
    18. 18. Mandates• UK Wellcome Trust and the Research Councils (2006)• US National Institute of Health (2007)•• Australia National Health and Medical Research Council (2012) – The Australian Government makes a major investment in research to support its essential role in improving the wellbeing of our society. To maximise the benefits from research, publications resulting from research activities must be disseminated as broadly as possible to allow access by other researchers and the wider community. NHMRC acknowledges that researchers take into account a wide range of factors in deciding on the best outlets for publications arising from their research.• And More
    19. 19. Policy transforming open access• Stronger version of the UK Research Councils OA policy• Most of the OA Finch Report recommendations accepted UK government• Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) plan to require OA research be submitted to the next Research Excellence Framework in 2014• European Commission make OA general principle for their Horizon Plans 2014-20• Australian Research Council 2012
    20. 20. What is UQ eSpace?• A place to record and showcase UQ research publications, raising visibility and accessibility• An institutional repository for: – open access publications – other digitised materials such as photographs, audio, videos, manuscripts and other original works – UQ Research Higher Degree Theses + some others• The single authoritative source for the publication outputs of UQ systems internal systems such as Q-Index and UQ Researchers (and those currently under development)• Provides data for reporting requirements such as ERA and HERDC
    21. 21. What is in eSpace?Document type Total records OA recordsJournal Article 94965 4245ConferencePapers 36486 2608Book Chapters 10127 431Theses * 9681 550Images 5515 5515Books 5343 575* 7484 theses - UQ staff and students onlyOther documents types include: Research Reports, Preprints, WorkingPapers, Creative Works, Designs, Audio and Videos
    22. 22.
    23. 23. How do records get into eSpace?• Weekly downloads from Web of Science – publications with UQ as the nominated institution• Automatic downloads from Researcher ID accounts• Manual entry via the My UQ eSpace page (by staff and Unit Public• RHD Theses – electronic upload is compulsory
    24. 24. MY UQ eSpace• My Research – lists publications linked to the author’s Aurion ID• Possibly My Research? – lists records not yet linked to an id but where there is a name match• Add Missing Publication – allows researcher to add publications not yet in eSpace
    25. 25. Flow of records to other systems• Q – Index – updated daily from eSpace (this includes records not yet published in eSpace)• UQ reSEARCHers – updated daily; only includes published records• Used in HERDC and ERA submissions as required
    26. 26. Benefits of UQ eSpace• UQ eSpace Data is harvested by major search engines• Page views and Download statistics recorded• Access Scopus and WOS citation counts• Supported and ongoing access to your research publications• Researcher homepage (• ResearcherID integration (updates and links)• Unique Author ID• Accurate data for reporting and individual research reporting (e.g. Q-Index)
    27. 27. UQ eSpace – future developments• OA support – Sherpa/Romeo integration – UQDI project (800 items to be added) – NHMRC OA mandate• Automated Scopus downloads• Author ID linking (ORCID, Scorcid, ResearcherID)• Development of UQ OA policy and considerations for OA theses
    28. 28. Green Repositories 23 million recordsPubMedCentral 2.4 millionarXiv (physics) 766,772 (230 records added daily)RePEC (Research Papers in Economics) 1 million documents (333 addeddaily)Social Sciences Research Network (350,000 fulltext docs)doab (directory of open access books) are more: Registry of Open Access RepositoriesVideo – Green versus Gold + Benefits of OA
    29. 29. Development of OA Research DataOpen Data is the idea that certain data should be freely available to everyoneto use and republish as they wish, without restrictions from copyright, patentsor other mechanisms of control.The concept of open access to scientific data was institutionally establishedwith the formation of the World Data Centre system in 1957-1958.World Data Centres were established by the International Council for Science tominimize the risk of data loss and to maximize data accessibility.While the open-science-data movement long predates the Internet, theavailability of fast, ubiquitous networking has significantly changed the context,since publishing and obtaining data has become much less expensive andtime-consuming."Open Data." Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 18 June 2012. Web 28 August 2012. available:
    30. 30. Why make research data OA?The Denton Declaration, An Open Data Manifesto• Open access to research data is critical for advancing science, scholarship, and society.• Research data, when repurposed, has an accretive value.• Publicly funded research should be publicly available for public good.• Transparency in research is essential to sustain the public trust.• The validation of research data by the peer community is an essential function of the responsible conduct of research.• Managing research data is the responsibility of a broad community of stakeholders including researchers, funders, institutions, libraries, archivists, and the public.The Denton Declaration, An Open Data Manifesto, The University of North Texas. Web 23 Oct 2012. available
    31. 31. Why make research data OA?Benefits to researchers - • Increase how visible your research is • Preserve your data • Meet funding requirements • Stop duplication of effort • Further the advance of science • Support Open Access• Data sharing has the potential to increase citations of your work. The authors of one study1 established that publicly available data was associated with a 69% increase in citations, independent of journal impact factor, date of publication, and author country of origin.1. Piwowar HA, Day RS, Fridsma DB, 2007 ‘Sharing Detailed Research Data is Associated with Increased Citation Rate’. PLoS ONE 2(3): e308. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0000308
    32. 32. OA research data Australian Code for the Responsible Conduct of Research “Policies are required that address the ownership of research materials and data, theirstorage, their retention beyond the end of the project, and appropriate access to them by the research community.” Funding bodiesThe NHMRC revised policy for the dissemination of research findings came into effect on 1 July 2012. The NHMRC requires that any publications arising from an NHMRC supported research project must be deposited into an open access institutional repository within a twelve month period from the date of publication. Journal requirements Publishing in a Nature journal? “… authors are required to make materials, data and associated protocols promptly available to readers.” Nature Publishing Group
    33. 33. Open Data - The Future © ANDS 2011
    34. 34. Open DataFrom a Nature News special on Data Sharing: “Research cannot flourish if data are not preserved and made accessible. All concerned must act accordingly.” “Data management should be woven into every course in science, as one of the foundations of knowledge.”Editorial: Datas Shameful Neglect" (10 September 2009). Nature 461, 145 doi:10.1038/461145a; Published online 9 September 2009; Corrected 23September 2009
    35. 35. Present situation• Taxpayers’ fund research• New knowledge not available to all• Researchers do the intellectual work – writing & peer review• Publishers make huge profits• Established journals, often have prestige (high impact factor)• Small number of dominant publishers• Evidence OA results in increased impact• Significant increase in OA journals• Mandates & policy developments
    36. 36. Opportunities, Pitfalls & Way Forward• Prof Matthew Brown’s videos: Part 1: Importance of Open Access to Discovery• Series of Scholarly Publishing Videos including Open Access• Vanity Publishing & Predatory Publishers List – OMICS case example• Summed up: Whither Science Publishing http://the-• Open Access Week Oct 22-28 2012• Academic Paper
    37. 37. Inescapable conclusions• Argued an open access publishing system would be less costly than the current system, less time- consuming and cumbersome for users, since complicated authentication systems can go and users could be assured a full-text copy of whatever research they need.• Open access would not only guarantee access to current scholarship, but would also safeguard the long term archiving of the existing body of scholarly research literature.
    38. 38. The FutureIt is predicted that Gold OA will accountfor 50 percent of the scholarly journalarticles sometime between 2017 and2021, and 90 percent of articles as soonas 2020 and more conservatively by2025.Lewis, D. W. (2012) The Inevitability of Open Access, College & ResearchLibraries, 73(5), 493-506
    39. 39. Who to contact• UQ Library’s Research Information Service• Copyright questions• eSpace questions• General enquiries• Lisa Kruesi, Andrew Heath & Helen Morgan