Climb Via, Descend                          Federal Aviation                                            AdministrationVia,...
What is climb via?   “Climb Via” is new phraseology designed to    provide controllers with a single instruction that    a...
What is climb via?                                       Definition:   CLIMB VIA – Used in an ATC clearance to    authoriz...
Climb Via Implementation                 VERTICAL NAVIGATION     ATC assigns altitudes on the majority of conventional    ...
Clearance to climb via authorizes pilots to:   VERTICALLY and LATERALLY navigate on a   SID/RNAV SID. “Climb via the DAWGS...
Climb Via - Vertical Navigation                                                         “….via (transition)               ...
Climb Via- Vertical Navigation Changing the final altitude: If it is necessary to assign an interim altitude, or assign a ...
Climb Via - Vertical Navigation    When issuing a climb via clearance, the aircrew will climb to comply     with altitudes...
Climb Via - Vertical NavigationCAUTION: Clearance to maintain an altitude after issuing aclimb via clearance will authoriz...
Climb Via - Vertical Navigation       Pilots cleared for vertical navigation using the        phraseology “climb via” must...
Descend Via - Vertical Navigation          Change to air crew reporting           Pilots cleared for vertical navigation u...
Descend Via - Vertical Navigation    When issuing a descend via clearance, the aircrew will descend to     comply with alt...
Climb Via / Descend Via - VerticalNavigationFor aircraft on direct routing to a STAR/RNAV STAR orSID/RNAV SID waypoint/fix...
Climb Via - Vertical Navigation  If it is necessary to change a published altitude on a STAR/RNAV  STAR or SID/RNAV SID, t...
Climb Via - Vertical Navigation    If an aircraft has been vectored off of a SID, use    “resume” phraseology to rejoin th...
Paragraph 5-6-2c Reminder   Issue with Seven Eleven leaving four and all    “United the vector an altitude to maintain   a...
Climb Via - Lateral Navigation When cleared to a waypoint depicted on a SID/RNAV SID with a published altitude restriction...
Climb Via - Lateral Navigation      When cleared to a      waypoint/fix without a      published altitude    “Proceed dire...
Climb Via - Lateral Navigation              ATC IS RESPONSIBLE FOR OBSTRUCTION            CLEARANCE UNTIL THE AIRCRAFT IS ...
Speed Control  Speed Adjustment Development      The Air Traffic Organization (ATO) identified a need for standardized    ...
Speed Control     Speed Termination / Published Speed     Restrictions     Current phraseology has proven inadequate for s...
Speed Adjustment Phraseology Changes                                 OLD         “RESUME NORMAL SPEED” – Used by ATC to ad...
Speed Adjustment Phraseology Changes    “COMPLY WITH RESTRICTIONS” – Used by ATC to    instruct a pilot to comply with res...
Speed Termination         Published Speed Restrictions     Speed termination/restriction phraseology:             Instruc...
Speed Termination         Published Speed Restrictions     Speed termination/restriction phraseology             Instruct...
Speed Restriction Phraseology - Examples      Comply with published restrictions with exceptions:      CLIMB/DESCEND VIA (...
Speed Restriction Phraseology - ExamplesRejoining at fix/waypoint without a published altitude restriction:CROSS (fix/wayp...
Speed Restriction Phraseology - Examples   Speed adjustments for procedures with published speed   restrictions: MAINTAIN ...
Canadian/ICAO Procedural                 Differences        Controllers should be alert to possible flight crew         mi...
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Climb via, descend via, and speed adjustment phraseology & procedures

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  • The phrase “Vertical Navigation” should not be misinterpreted to mean “VNAV.” VNAV is an onboard navigational capability that is available in some aircraft. It (VNAV) is not required to fly a SID (or STAR) with vertical restrictions. In this context, vertical navigation refers to aircraft flying SIDs and STARS (both conventional and RNAV) with published vertical restrictions.
  • NOTE− 1. Restating previously issued altitude to “maintain” is an amended clearance. If altitude to “maintain” is changed or restated, whether prior to departure or while airborne, and previously issued altitude restrictions are omitted, altitude restrictions are canceled, including SID/STAR/(ATC) altitude restrictions if any.
  • FAA JO 7110.65 , Para 5-6-2, Methods, f. Aircraft instructed to resume a procedure which contains restrictions (SID/STAR/FMSP, etc.) shall be issued/reissued all applicable restrictions or shall be advised to comply with those restrictions. WHAT THIS MEANS: IF YOU DON’T WANT THE A/C TO COMPLY WITH RESTRICTIONS, SAY “RESUME THE BOACH TWO DEPT” NOT “CLIMB VIA”.
  • ATC is responsible for obstacle clearance until the aircraft is established on the route.
  • If an aircraft is beyond a point on a procedure where any published speed restrictions would apply, “Resume Normal Speed” could be used without causing any confusion.
  • Climb via, descend via, and speed adjustment phraseology & procedures

    1. 1. Climb Via, Descend Federal Aviation AdministrationVia, and SpeedAdjustmentPhraseology andProceduresPresented to: AJT/E/SBy: Performance Based Navigation Policy &Support Group, AJV-14Date: March 16, 2012
    2. 2. What is climb via? “Climb Via” is new phraseology designed to provide controllers with a single instruction that authorizes pilots to navigate a SID/RNAV SID vertically and laterally, complying with all published restrictions. Climb via is used by ATC AFTER departure to join or rejoin a SID/RNAV SID and also to amend published vertical restrictions. “Climb Via” procedures and phraseology are consistent with existing “Descend Via” procedures and phraseology.Climb Via , Descend Via & Speed Adjustment Phraseology and Federal Aviation 2Procedures Administration
    3. 3. What is climb via? Definition: CLIMB VIA – Used in an ATC clearance to authorize a pilot to navigate vertically and laterally on a SID or RNAV SID. The pilot is responsible to meet all published speed and altitude restrictions. Climb can be made at the discretion of the pilot.Climb Via , Descend Via & Speed Adjustment Phraseology and Federal Aviation 3Procedures Administration
    4. 4. Climb Via Implementation VERTICAL NAVIGATION ATC assigns altitudes on the majority of conventional SIDs and some RNAV SIDs. Recently, more RNAV SIDs are being published with altitude restrictions along the lateral path and a final (or “top”) altitude to maintain in lieu of ATC assigned altitudes. Climb via provides an efficient means to either issue or amend these published altitudes.Climb Via , Descend Via & Speed Adjustment Phraseology and Federal Aviation 4Procedures Administration
    5. 5. Clearance to climb via authorizes pilots to: VERTICALLY and LATERALLY navigate on a SID/RNAV SID. “Climb via the DAWGS FIVE DEPARTURE” Climb via authorizes the pilot to climb (at pilot discretion) to the published or ATC assigned altitude and comply with all published restrictions. ATC is responsible for obstacle clearance when issuing a “climb via” clearance until aircraft are established on the lateral and vertical path of a SID/RNAV SID.Climb Via , Descend Via & Speed Adjustment Phraseology and Federal Aviation 5Procedures Administration
    6. 6. Climb Via - Vertical Navigation “….via (transition) maintain FL230 or lower filed altitude.” The published final altitude of the procedure can be found in the narrative, usually on page two of the procedureClimb Via , Descend Via & Speed Adjustment Phraseology and Federal Aviation 6Procedures Administration
    7. 7. Climb Via- Vertical Navigation Changing the final altitude: If it is necessary to assign an interim altitude, or assign a final altitude not contained on a SID/RNAV SID, the provisions of subparagraph 4-5-7h may be used in conjunction with subparagraph 4-5-7a.“Climb via the JOHNN Two Departure, exceptafter BARET maintain flight level one ninerzero” This clearance authorizes climb to a new assigned altitude and requires compliance with ALL other published restrictionsClimb Via , Descend Via & Speed Adjustment Phraseology and Federal Aviation 7Procedures Administration
    8. 8. Climb Via - Vertical Navigation When issuing a climb via clearance, the aircrew will climb to comply with altitudes published on the procedure or as amended by ATC. When issuing speed or altitude adjustments or combined speed/ altitude adjustments in conjunction with a clearance to climb via charted procedures with published speed and/or altitude restrictions, specify the point at which the restriction begins, ends, or changes the charted restrictions. “Climb via the SUZAN Two departure, except cross Mkala at or above seven thousand.” “Climb via the SUZAN Two Departure, maintain two three zero knots until MKALA.”Climb Via , Descend Via & Speed Adjustment Phraseology and Federal Aviation 8Procedures Administration
    9. 9. Climb Via - Vertical NavigationCAUTION: Clearance to maintain an altitude after issuing aclimb via clearance will authorize an unrestricted climb to thenew altitude and cancel all remaining published altituderestrictions (FAAO JO 7110.65, Para. 4-2-5b, 4-5-7h). “Climb Via the BOACH FOUR DEPARTURE, maintain FL 230”Do not use this combination of clearances as they are contradictory!! Climb Via , Descend Via & Speed Adjustment Phraseology and Federal Aviation 9 Procedures Administration
    10. 10. Climb Via - Vertical Navigation Pilots cleared for vertical navigation using the phraseology “climb via” must inform ATC, upon initial contact, of the altitude leaving, and the assigned SID. Advise the controller of any assigned restrictions not published on the procedure. “United Seven Eleven leaving four thousand for climbing via the via the STAAV FOUR FL 240, climbingSTAAV FOUR DEPARTURE.” DEPARTURE.”Climb Via , Descend Via & Speed Adjustment Phraseology and Federal Aviation 10Procedures Administration
    11. 11. Descend Via - Vertical Navigation Change to air crew reporting Pilots cleared for vertical navigation using the phraseology “descend via” must inform ATC, upon requirements with Descend initial contact, of the altitude leaving, the runway Via procedures transition if assigned, and any assigned restrictions not published on the procedure.Standard: “Delta Fifty Five, leaving FL190 descending via the FRAZI ONE ARRIVAL runway 26 transition”Amended:“Delta Fifty Five, leaving FL190 for eight thousand, descending via the FRAZI ONE ARRIVAL runway 26 transition” Climb Via , Descend Via & Speed Adjustment Phraseology and Federal Aviation 11 Procedures Administration
    12. 12. Descend Via - Vertical Navigation When issuing a descend via clearance, the aircrew will descend to comply with altitudes published on the procedure or as amended by ATC. When issuing speed or altitude adjustments or combined speed/ altitude adjustments in conjunction with a clearance to descend via charted procedures with published speed and/or altitude restrictions, specify the point at which the restriction begins, ends, or changes the charted restrictions. “ Descend via the HARIS One Arrival, except after BRUNO, maintain one zero thousand.”Climb Via , Descend Via & Speed Adjustment Phraseology and Federal Aviation 12Procedures Administration
    13. 13. Climb Via / Descend Via - VerticalNavigationFor aircraft on direct routing to a STAR/RNAV STAR orSID/RNAV SID waypoint/fix, paragraph 4-5-7h.1 requirescontrollers to assign an altitude to cross the waypoint/fix if nopublished altitude is depicted.Controllers should assign an altitude that will insureobstruction clearance and permit normal climb/descent to thenext published altitude on the procedure Climb Via , Descend Via & Speed Adjustment Phraseology and Federal Aviation 13 Procedures Administration
    14. 14. Climb Via - Vertical Navigation If it is necessary to change a published altitude on a STAR/RNAV STAR or SID/RNAV SID, the provisions of subpara 4-5-7h may be used in conjunction with subpara 4-5-7a.“Climb Via theSHEAD SEVEN DBIGEDEPARTURE, 21000 SHEADexcept after DBIGE 14000climb and maintainflight level twothree zero.”Climb Via , Descend Via & Speed Adjustment Phraseology and Federal Aviation 14Procedures Administration
    15. 15. Climb Via - Vertical Navigation If an aircraft has been vectored off of a SID, use “resume” phraseology to rejoin the procedure and assign a new altitude when compliance with published altitude restrictions are no longer required. “Resume the BOACH FOUR DEPARTURE, climb and maintain FL230” (Para. 4-5-7h.4. NOTE, Para. 5-6-2f)Climb Via , Descend Via & Speed Adjustment Phraseology and Federal Aviation 15Procedures Administration
    16. 16. Paragraph 5-6-2c Reminder Issue with Seven Eleven leaving four and all “United the vector an altitude to maintain appropriate altitude restrictions when: thousand climbing via the STAAV FOUR DEPARTURE.”take the instructions, i.e., instrument approach, 1. The vector will which contains altitude aircraft off an assigned procedure nonradar SID, FMSP, etc. “United Seven Eleven, turn right heading Since the RNAV procedure contains the altitude instructions and/or restrictions (traditionally issued by the three-one-zero, climb and maintain one-five controller), once the aircraft is vectored off the procedure, thousand.” the pilot must be given alternate altitude instructions, until returned to the procedure.Climb Via , Descend Via & Speed Adjustment Phraseology and Federal Aviation 16Procedures Administration
    17. 17. Climb Via - Lateral Navigation When cleared to a waypoint depicted on a SID/RNAV SID with a published altitude restriction. BOACH“Proceed direct BOACH, 13000 climb via the BOACH FOUR DEPARTURE”Climb Via , Descend Via & Speed Adjustment Phraseology and Federal Aviation 17Procedures Administration
    18. 18. Climb Via - Lateral Navigation When cleared to a waypoint/fix without a published altitude “Proceed direct HITME, cross HITME at or above one zero thousand, climb via HITME the BOACH FOUR (No altitude published) DEPARTURE”Climb Via , Descend Via & Speed Adjustment Phraseology and Federal Aviation 18Procedures Administration
    19. 19. Climb Via - Lateral Navigation ATC IS RESPONSIBLE FOR OBSTRUCTION CLEARANCE UNTIL THE AIRCRAFT IS INITIALLY ESTABLISHED OR RE-ESTABLISHED ON THE PROCEDURE, BOTH LATERALLY AND VERTICALLYClimb Via , Descend Via & Speed Adjustment Phraseology and Federal Aviation 19Procedures Administration
    20. 20. Speed Control Speed Adjustment Development The Air Traffic Organization (ATO) identified a need for standardized phraseology to address speed restrictions/adjustments in SIDs/STARS/RNAV and SIDs/RNAV STARs Solutions:  Add speed restrictions to “descend via” and “climb via”  Restrict application and redefine “resume normal speed”  Add “resume published speed” definition and application  Add “delete speed restrictions” and “comply with restrictions”Climb Via , Descend Via & Speed Adjustment Phraseology and Federal Aviation 20Procedures Administration
    21. 21. Speed Control Speed Termination / Published Speed Restrictions Current phraseology has proven inadequate for speed restriction / adjustment / termination. “Resume Normal Speed” has caused confusion for both pilots and controllers as it is applied to procedures with published speed restrictions.Climb Via , Descend Via & Speed Adjustment Phraseology and Federal Aviation 21Procedures Administration
    22. 22. Speed Adjustment Phraseology Changes OLD “RESUME NORMAL SPEED” – Used by ATC to advise apilot that previously issued speed control restrictions are deleted.An instruction to resume normal speed does not delete speedrestrictions that are applicable to published procedures ofupcoming segments of flight, unless specifically stated by ATC.This does not relieve the pilot of those speed restrictions whichare applicable to 14 CFR Section 91.117. NEW “RESUME NORMAL SPEED” – Should only be used toterminate ATC assigned speeds in instances where an aircraft isflying a procedure or route without published speed restrictions.This does not relieve the pilot of those speed restrictions whichare applicable to 14 CFR Section 91.117.Climb Via , Descend Via & Speed Adjustment Phraseology and Federal Aviation 22Procedures Administration
    23. 23. Speed Adjustment Phraseology Changes “COMPLY WITH RESTRICTIONS” – Used by ATC to instruct a pilot to comply with restrictions applicable to the charted Note: Speed restrictions may be procedure or route being flown or when joining or resuming a published to meet procedure procedure or route with published speed and altitude restrictions. development criteria. When deleting “RESUME PUBLISHED SPEED” – Used by ATC to advise published restrictions, ATC is a pilot to resume published speed when aircraft are cleared to responsible for obstacle clearance climb or descend via a charted instrument flight procedure that contains published speed restrictions. It is issued to terminate a and airspace containment until previously issued speed adjustment where speed restrictions are published on a charted procedure. aircraft are established on a route where no published restrictions “DELETE SPEED RESTRICTIONS” – Used by ATC to apply. advise a pilot when published speed restrictions on a charted instrument flight procedure are no longer required.Climb Via , Descend Via & Speed Adjustment Phraseology and Federal Aviation 23Procedures Administration
    24. 24. Speed Termination Published Speed Restrictions Speed termination/restriction phraseology:  Instruct pilot to comply with restrictions when navigating on a SID/RNAV SID, STAR/RNAV STAR that contains published restrictions (does not authorize pilot discretion climb/descent): “Resume the DAWGS FIVE DEPARTURE, comply with restrictions”  When no published speed restrictions to a charted route or procedure are affected: “Resume normal speed”Climb Via , Descend Via & Speed Adjustment Phraseology and Federal Aviation 24Procedures Administration
    25. 25. Speed Termination Published Speed Restrictions Speed termination/restriction phraseology  Instruct pilot to comply with speed restrictions applicable to the charted route or procedure: “Resume published speed”  Advise pilot when published speed restrictions on a charted procedure are no longer required: “Delete speed restrictions”Climb Via , Descend Via & Speed Adjustment Phraseology and Federal Aviation 25Procedures Administration
    26. 26. Speed Restriction Phraseology - Examples Comply with published restrictions with exceptions: CLIMB/DESCEND VIA (SID/RNAV SID/STAR/RNAV STAR), EXCEPT AFTER (waypoint name) MAINTAIN (assigned speed/altitude)“Descend via“Climb via thethe KEPECDAWGS FourTWO ARRIVAL,departure NIPZOexcept after ZALLE 9000 210KNIPZO maintainmaintain two Maintainone eight knotsfour zero zero 250 KIAS until ZALLEknots”until ZALLE” Climb Via , Descend Via & Speed Adjustment Phraseology and Federal Aviation 26 Procedures Administration
    27. 27. Speed Restriction Phraseology - ExamplesRejoining at fix/waypoint without a published altitude restriction:CROSS (fix/waypoint) AT (altitude/speed), THEN CLIMB/ DESCEND VIA(SID/RNAV SID/STAR/RNAV STAR)“Cross LEETZ LEETZat one-three No speed orthousand at altitude istwo three zero publishedknots, thenclimb via theLEETZ TWODEPARTURE” Climb Via , Descend Via & Speed Adjustment Phraseology and Federal Aviation 27 Procedures Administration
    28. 28. Speed Restriction Phraseology - Examples Speed adjustments for procedures with published speed restrictions: MAINTAIN (speed) until (fix/waypoint), THEN CLIMB/DESCEND VIA (SID/RNAV SID/STAR/RNAV STAR)When deleting HUCKK “Climb via the “Maintain “Maintain twopublished restrictions, LEETZ TWO 12000 230KIAS three zeroATC is responsible for maximumSpeed restrictions DEPARTURE, ZELMAobstaclespeedmay be published and knots clearance to delete until forward speedairspace containment FL240 LEETZ, then until ZELMA, restrictions”meet procedureuntil aircraft are climbresume then via the LEETZdevelopment criteriaestablished on a route LEETZ TWO published No Speedwhere no published Restriction DEPARTURE”. speed.” Publishedrestrictions apply. Climb Via , Descend Via & Speed Adjustment Phraseology and Federal Aviation 28 Procedures Administration
    29. 29. Canadian/ICAO Procedural Differences Controllers should be alert to possible flight crew misunderstanding with international air crews. (PANS (U.S.)6.5.2.4) ATM 6.3.2.4)When an arriving aircraft onon STAR is cleared to descenda When a departing aircraft a a altitude without specifying to ATC issues an amended SID climb toa level lower than the level or the level(s) specified level(s)thelevel higher than the initially cleared level or or changes point at which restriction begins, ends, the in aSTAR, the aircraft shall (i.e., usingpublished “except”),thespecified restrictions follow theshall follow vertical profile of charted in a SID, the aircraft the word the publisheda STAR,canceling altitude restrictionsexplicitly cancelled bythereby profile ofsuch restrictions are restrictions in thevertical unless a SID, unless such contained are explicitlyATC. Publishedpossibility exists that international clearanceSID/STAR, the minimum levels based on terrain air crews cancelled by ATC.shall comply with intermediate published restrictions,may always be applied.including leveling off during a climb or descent.Climb Via , Descend Via & Speed Adjustment Phraseology and Federal Aviation 29Procedures Administration
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