Lecture 9 - Evolving policy perspectives on innovation
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Lecture 9 - Evolving policy perspectives on innovation Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Science, Technology and innovation policy Merit course – 2006 The evolution of innovation policy A neoclassical perspective on innovation policy An evolutionary perspective on innovation policy
  • 2. Big Science and WW II Francis Bacon (1627), J.D. Bernal (1939) and V. Bush (1945) The social and economic utility of science Large scale projects: Manhattan Project, nuclear energy, Apollo programme (Big Science) Little science and the linear model
  • 3. Science policy Mobilization of sufficient funds and allocation to projects / disciplines Serendipity vs. demand steering A modern issue: should university knowledge be patented?
  • 4. Technology policy Science based technologies as an engine of growth Specialization and strategic industries (Krugman’s strategic trade) Latecomers and catching-up
  • 5. Technology policy questions Which technologies? At what stage of development? What about competition? The market knows best?
  • 6. Innovation policy Innovation as a broad phenomenon (not only high-tech sectors) Innovation systems: – systemic failures (lack of coordination) – Interaction (public-private) Learning and education
  • 7. Neoclassical policy: market failure Spillovers and the lack of incentives – Basic science (the Ps) – R&D subsidies (growth models) But also: negative spillovers – R&D taxes?
  • 8. The implementation of policies Tax cuts vs. subsidies Additionality of R&D subsidies? “Picking winners”? and generic vs. specific policies
  • 9. Evolutionary innovation policy The blind watchmaker revisited – Does the free market generate enough experimentation? No role for optimality The adaptive policymaker (Metcalfe)
  • 10. Adaptive policy – the basics A disequilibrium approach: deviant economic behaviour drives change Innovation systems are capable of multiple responses to incentives Innovation outcome is unpredictable Brings in resources and capabilities (to manage innovation processes)
  • 11. Collaboration and systems Linked to the management of innovation resources Missing system elements: are all relevant knowledge sources present? – Set up new research organizations – Entrepreneurship Missing connections: opportunities and incentives for collaboration – Enhancing awareness – Removing barriers to collaboration
  • 12. Trends Privatization of (semi-)public research organizations Globalization and European integration: the FWP Entrepreneurship and innovation