Objective:
Background—IOP approach:
 A farming production system is viewed
  as a whole across years.

 Several parameters are stud...
Background—IOP approach:
Background—Integrated Organic Grants
   obtained by Organic Working Group:
Background—Primary Investigators:
Background—Certified Organic Research Land




   Sidney (HPAL), Clay Center (SCAL) , Concord (HAL), and Mead (ARDC)
Background—State Advisory Committee
Methods—Test yield performance in replicated trials
 State Variety
 Trials at four
 research
 stations on
 organic land
 a...
Methods—Standard screening and notes:

Field
Disease
notes



Dough
Mixing
and
Baking
Results—Yield of Organic and Conventional in 2008
Results—Yield Genotype x Environment Interaction
  ANOVA   — 2008 SVT Wheat Yields at HPAL, Mead and Clay Center
Results—No Yield G x E Interaction at Sidney
Conclusions—Yield effects of Common Bunt
         Yield loss from susceptibility to the
          seed born disease, comm...
Methods—Bread Quality:

4-location   Baystate:             UNL (2-location samples):
composite      •  Flour Analysis     ...
Caveat
for
           Range from
Results:        poor to
Quality    very good
           across years at
Example    the sa...
Caveat
for
Results:
           Range from
Quality    very poor to
           very good
Example    across
from       locati...
Long-term
Caveat     average is
           important.
for
Results:
Quality
Example
from
USDA
database
Caveat
for
Results:
Quality
Example
from
USDA
database
Baystate      Heartland          UNL

Results:       4-location
             HATCHER
                              4-locat...
2-location Composite Samples
                                  Overall Mix
                                               ...
Multiple Years
                                           2009 Organic                         2008 Organic
              ...
Conclusions—Bread Quality
  Overland and Goodstreak should not be planted if the target market is for
 making bread.

  ...
Methods


    Workshops for organic farm groups
       OCIA, two chapters and International Conferences
       Annual R...
Example:
Crossing
video clips in
powerpoint
to be
available on
the Web
Example:   Misconceptions and barriers identified
OCIA       in previous conversations:
seminar
           •  Some organic...
Example:
OCIA
seminar
Example:
OCIA
seminar
Example:
OCIA
seminar
Example:
OCIA
seminar
Example:
OCIA
seminar




           released Clark’s Cream in 1972
Results:
OCIA       •  Hopefully corrected some
seminar    misconceptions and gained respect
           for our method of ...
Methods: Screen in Breeding Nurseries
          in addition to State Variety Trials
 Three generations
    on organic plot...
Methods—Gaining Input
     •  Advisors and conference panelists
     provide direction for production traits.

     •  End...
Results—Traits important to organic farmers
              •  Tall for residue cover
Specific to
Western
Nebraska:     •  D...
Results—Traits important to organic farmers
Coleoptile
Length –
expand
testing to
earlier
generations
Results—Traits important to organic farmers

Specific to   •  Resistance to seed-born disease:
Eastern           •  Common...
Methods:   Input from Beyond the Producers
Results:                    Input from Baystate Milling
Test        Parameter            Outstanding   Acceptable     Marg...
Results:                  Input from Kelloggs and Hesco
       Test       Parameter       Outstanding   Acceptable     Mar...
Summary—Traits important to grain buyers and users
Tests added to breeding program:
 Whole Wheat Tests:
   •  Sedimentation
   •  Digestible Fiber
   •  Antioxidants




   ...
Kelloggs
                              Total Digestible Fiber


Results:   Winners Overall:

           Karl 92***
Fiber  ...
Results:   Quality for Selected NIN
Preliminary                   Phenols for Sidney, 21 Varieties
Results             0.9000
                    0.8000
     ...
Results                       Phenols Across Four Locations, 12 Varieties
                   0.7000

                   0....
Conclusions—Value-added Quality Traits
   White varieties are unlikely to be singled out for high
antioxidants or high di...
Methods and Results—Agronomic Traits

•  Competitiveness against Weeds

•  Testweight

•  Coleoptile Length

•  Height
Thumbnail previews for plots at Haskell




 Cover = 9      (scale of 0 – 9)
Thumbnail previews for plots at Haskell




 Cover = 3      (scale of 0 – 9)
Filemaker Pro Database Application
All reps for an entry are viewed simultaneously to assign a composite score.




         Relative scale of 0 – 9
Plots are scored relative to the minimum and maximum for the nursery.




       Relative scale of 0 – 9
East    Sidney
                            Variety   2009    2009
                                      Cover   Cover
    ...
Results—
Testweight


Consistently Poor—
  •  Wahoo
  •  Harry

Not Consistent—
  •  Millennium
  •  Mace
  •  Wesley
Results—
Height and
Coleoptile
Length
3.5 inch Coleoptiles
         in NIN 2009:

NE06469
NE06545
NE07469
NE07477
NE07484
...
Conclusions—Agronomic Traits

      Veryfew tall and long-coleoptile lines are
    available in the pipeline.

      No ...
Further Research— Wheat Germplasm Development

      Evaluate tall crosses between Oklahoma elite
    lines and Australia...
Further Research— Wheat Germplasm Development




[Chuan-Mai 18/2*Westonia (RHT8)]/Duster//OK07S130W:       Ulianovka:
   ...
Chris Hoagland’s Masters Thesis
Experiments to Optimize Wheat in the Rotation

          1.  Preliminary Protein Enhancement Experiment
Haskell
          ...
1.  Preliminary Protein Enhancement Experiment, 2008

Methods          Top-dress State Variety Trial:

                 • ...
1.  Preliminary Protein Enhancement Experiment

Results: Grain Protein Content
                                  2008     ...
check   treated               check    treated
                ALICE     10.5      11.7      NE01481    10.1      11.2
   ...
2.  Cover Crop/Fertility Experiment, 2009

Methods:
          Five treatments:
Haskell     •  Previous crop (corn or alfal...
2.  Cover Crop/Fertility Experiment, 2009

Layout:         First # - Manure t/a Second # - Manure Timing Third # - Top Dre...
2.  Cover Crop/Fertility Experiment, 2009
Results: Yields
          •  Wheat averaged less following alfalfa (53.8 bu/acre...
2.  Cover Crop/Fertility Experiment, 2009
Results: Grain Protein Content

Haskell   •  not affected by manure rate.
      ...
Experiments to Optimize Wheat in the Rotation
          1.  Preliminary Protein Enhancement Experiment

Haskell
          ...
3.  Preliminary Protein Enhancement Experiment

Results: Grain Protein Content (%)
                                   2008...
4.  Cover Crop/Fertility Experiment, 2009-10
 Methods:
Treatments:
 N = Summit 10

 Manure:
•  0
•  5
•  10 tons/acre

...
4.  Cover Crop/Fertility Experiment, 2009
             Wheat yield, moisture and testweight
Results:     following green m...
4.  Cover Crop/Fertility Experiment, 2009
Results:    Grain Protein Content
         •  Very few treatment differences amo...
4.  Cover Crop/Fertility Experiment, 2009
Results:   Nitrogen Removal
         •  Nitrogen removal was 76.5 and 82.5 lb/ac...
Conclusions:
        Grain protein was affected somewhat by treatments
      in the eastern environment but not in the mo...
Experiments to Optimize Wheat in the Rotation

          1.  Flaming Wheat as Cover Crop or Grain Crop
Haskell

          ...
1.  Flaming of wheat as cover crop or as grain crop
1.  Flaming of wheat as cover crop or as grain crop
                                60


                                 ...
1.  Flaming of wheat as cover crop or as grain crop
Conclusions:
2.  Suppression of Cover Crops after Winter Wheat
   Methods:




   Crimper
2.  Suppression of Cover Crops after Winter Wheat
   Methods:




   Crimper
   demo
2.  Suppression of Cover Crops after Winter Wheat
   Methods:
2.  Suppression of Cover Crops after Winter Wheat
   Methods: Experimental Design
2.  Suppression of Cover Crops after Winter Wheat
Results:      Effects of cover crop management
 Residue         Corn    ...
2.  Suppression of Cover Crops after Winter Wheat

                 The roller does not work well when
Conclusions:   the...
Crop Environment Factors
Row Spacing
      Sidney




    Eastern
    Locations
Current Rotations

Haskell                 Clay Center
  •  3 years alfalfa      •  3 years of alfalfa
  •  Winter Wheat  ...
Recommended Rotations

Haskell                            Clay Center
  •  3 years alfalfa                 •  3 years of a...
Crop Environment Factors

Sidney




         Wheat is affected by moisture use
         of preceding green fallow
Crop Environment Factors

Eastern
locations




             Wheat following soybeans
             results in late plantin...
Further Research— Cropping Systems
     Haskell—test promising wheat lines in low
   and high nitrogen environments.

   ...
Further Research— Cropping Systems
     In the final year, we will take systems
   developed with appropriate varieties t...
Dr. Stephen Baenziger, Small Grains Breeding
Lincoln       Dr. Vicki Schlegel, Food Science
              Dr. Stephen Wegu...
Organic variety and systems development 2010 extended
Organic variety and systems development 2010 extended
Organic variety and systems development 2010 extended
Organic variety and systems development 2010 extended
Organic variety and systems development 2010 extended
Organic variety and systems development 2010 extended
Organic variety and systems development 2010 extended
Organic variety and systems development 2010 extended
Organic variety and systems development 2010 extended
Organic variety and systems development 2010 extended
Organic variety and systems development 2010 extended
Organic variety and systems development 2010 extended
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Organic variety and systems development 2010 extended

  1. 1. Objective:
  2. 2. Background—IOP approach:  A farming production system is viewed as a whole across years.  Several parameters are studied simultaneously or in close sequence by researchers of varying disciplines.  Social and ecological components are encouraged.
  3. 3. Background—IOP approach:
  4. 4. Background—Integrated Organic Grants obtained by Organic Working Group:
  5. 5. Background—Primary Investigators:
  6. 6. Background—Certified Organic Research Land Sidney (HPAL), Clay Center (SCAL) , Concord (HAL), and Mead (ARDC)
  7. 7. Background—State Advisory Committee
  8. 8. Methods—Test yield performance in replicated trials State Variety Trials at four research stations on organic land allowing comparison to conventional trials
  9. 9. Methods—Standard screening and notes: Field Disease notes Dough Mixing and Baking
  10. 10. Results—Yield of Organic and Conventional in 2008
  11. 11. Results—Yield Genotype x Environment Interaction ANOVA — 2008 SVT Wheat Yields at HPAL, Mead and Clay Center
  12. 12. Results—No Yield G x E Interaction at Sidney
  13. 13. Conclusions—Yield effects of Common Bunt   Yield loss from susceptibility to the seed born disease, common bunt, was observed only in the organic plots because seed was not treated.   Conditions for common bunt apparently did not materialize in the years before the susceptible line was entered in the State Variety Trial.
  14. 14. Methods—Bread Quality: 4-location Baystate: UNL (2-location samples): composite •  Flour Analysis •  Flour Analysis samples •  Milling •  Milling •  Farinograph •  Mixograph •  Baking •  Baking Heartland: •  Alveograph
  15. 15. Caveat for Range from Results: poor to Quality very good across years at Example the same locations from USDA database
  16. 16. Caveat for Results: Range from Quality very poor to very good Example across from locations in the same year USDA database
  17. 17. Long-term Caveat average is important. for Results: Quality Example from USDA database
  18. 18. Caveat for Results: Quality Example from USDA database
  19. 19. Baystate Heartland UNL Results: 4-location HATCHER 4-location HATCHER 2-location HATCHER Legend: Bread CAMELOT NE03490 WAHOO CAMELOT NE03490 WAHOO CAMELOT NE03490 WAHOO Quality GOODSTREAK PRONGHORN GOODSTREAK PRONGHORN GOODSTREAK PRONGHORN BUCKSKIN BUCKSKIN BUCKSKIN 2009 CLARKSCREAM DANBY CLARKSCREAM DANBY CLARKSCREAM DANBY ARROWSMITH ARROWSMITH ARROWSMITH Winners: ALICE ALICE ALICE Losers: KARL92 KARL92 KARL92 DARRELL DARRELL DARRELL Karl 92*** NE99495 NE99495 NE99495 Goodstreak WESLEY WESLEY WESLEY Darrell ALLIANCE ALLIANCE ALLIANCE Arrowsmith MILLENNIUM MILLENNIUM MILLENNIUM Wesley OVERLAND OVERLAND OVERLAND Overland Millennium SD05118 NW03681 SD05118 NW03681 SD05118 NW03681 NE04424 NE04424 NE04424 NE04424 NE01481 NE01481 NE01481 NE01481 NE05548 NE05548 NE05548 NE05425 NE05425 NE05548 ANTELOPE NE05425 ANTELOPE ANTELOPE
  20. 20. 2-location Composite Samples Overall Mix Quality Ratio UNL and Bake Protein Score MixBake/Protein Score Results: 2-location HATCHER 0 ppm Oxidant 0 ppm Oxidant 4 3 0 ppm Oxidant 1.3 Legend: Protein CAMELOT 4 5 0.7 NE03490 4 3 1.4 WAHOO 3 4 0.7 Quality GOODSTREAK PRONGHORN BUCKSKIN 1 4 4 5 4 4 0.3 1.0 0.9 2009 CLARKSCREAM DANBY 2 2 8 3 0.3 0.7 ARROWSMITH 1 8 0.1 Winners: ALICE 3 5 0.6 Losers: KARL92 5 7 0.7 DARRELL 3 5 0.7 Karl 92*** NE99495 1 4 0.3 Goodstreak WESLEY 4 6 0.6 Darrell ALLIANCE 2 2 0.8 Overland MILLENNIUM 2 5 0.4 Wesley OVERLAND 0 4 0.1 (Arrowsmith) SD05118 NW03681 5 5 5 6 1.0 0.9 and others NE04424 NE04424 5 4 1.3 NE01481 4 3 1.7 NE01481 NE05548 4 4 1.0 NE05425 7 5 1.3 NE05548 ANTELOPE 4 4 0.9
  21. 21. Multiple Years 2009 Organic 2008 Organic Conventional Baystate Heartland UNL UNL USDA/ARS Results: 4-location Composite Samples 4-location Composite Samples 2-location Composite Samples 4-location Many Locations Quality Mill Mix and Bake Alveograph Mix and Bake Mill Mix and Bake Mill Mix and Bake 2008 Red Red Red 15 9 17 HATCHER CAMELOT NE03490 HATCHER CAMELOT NE03490 HATCHER CAMELOT NE03490 6 5 5 5 5 5 AVE VG and Red 15 WAHOO WAHOO WAHOO 6 5 AVE AVE Red 13 GOODSTREAK GOODSTREAK GOODSTREAK 4 4 G P Red 19 PRONGHORN PRONGHORN PRONGHORN 6 7 G VG Red 18 BUCKSKIN BUCKSKIN BUCKSKIN 7 5 2009 White White White 21 20 11 CLARKSCREAM DANBY ARROWSMITH CLARKSCREAM DANBY ARROWSMITH CLARKSCREAM DANBY ARROWSMITH 5 6 AVE G G P vs. White Red Red 23 22 18 ALICE KARL92 DARRELL ALICE KARL92 DARRELL ALICE KARL92 DARRELL 6 5 6 5 G G G VG VG G USDA Red 22 NE99495 NE99495 NE99495 5 5 P G Red 23 WESLEY WESLEY WESLEY 5 7 G VG Red 24 ALLIANCE ALLIANCE ALLIANCE 6 5 P G Red 17 MILLENNIUM MILLENNIUM MILLENNIUM 5 6 G G Red 13 OVERLAND OVERLAND OVERLAND 5 3 AVE VP Red 16 SD05118 SD05118 SD05118 AVE G White 15 NW03681 NW03681 NW03681 6 7 VG G Red 16 NE04424 NE04424 NE04424 5 6 Red 18 NE01481 NE01481 NE01481 4 5 VP VG Red 21 NE05548 NE05548 NE05548 Red 24 NE05425 NE05425 NE05425 White 15 ANTELOPE ANTELOPE ANTELOPE 4 6 P G
  22. 22. Conclusions—Bread Quality  Overland and Goodstreak should not be planted if the target market is for making bread.   Karl 92 is reliable for bread quality mainly because of its high protein content.   Before considering planting NE01481 (a potential release) or Antelope, the record of poor milling should be discussed with the grain buyer and end-user.   Other experimental lines require more data.   Milling and baking quality of Darrell, Wesley, and Millennium have been acceptable from most environments.   The other named varieties, except Alliance, can make a good loaf of bread if grown in an environment that is likely to produce moderate to high protein.
  23. 23. Methods  Workshops for organic farm groups  OCIA, two chapters and International Conferences  Annual Research Farm Tours  Annual Organic Wheat Conference  Jan. 2009—Mead, focusing on Eastern Nebraska  Dec. 2009—Ogallala, focusing on Western Nebraska  Websites  Cropwatch: ‘Variety Testing’ and ‘Organic’  http://organic.unl.edu/wheat/wheat.shtml
  24. 24. Example: Crossing video clips in powerpoint to be available on the Web
  25. 25. Example: Misconceptions and barriers identified OCIA in previous conversations: seminar •  Some organic farmers believe that a variety ‘adapts’ to their farms over time; therefore they continue to grow the same variety year after year. •  Organic farmers have been led to think that new germplasm lacks the genetic background for adaptation to organic farms.
  26. 26. Example: OCIA seminar
  27. 27. Example: OCIA seminar
  28. 28. Example: OCIA seminar
  29. 29. Example: OCIA seminar
  30. 30. Example: OCIA seminar released Clark’s Cream in 1972
  31. 31. Results: OCIA •  Hopefully corrected some seminar misconceptions and gained respect for our method of introducing variation through crossing. •  Validated some aspects of farmers’ viewpoints to provide room for dialogue
  32. 32. Methods: Screen in Breeding Nurseries in addition to State Variety Trials Three generations on organic plots at two locations:   F6   F7   F8-9 Interstate Nursery Sidney and Mead
  33. 33. Methods—Gaining Input •  Advisors and conference panelists provide direction for production traits. •  End-users who test varieties from organic trials contribute to quality targets discussion.
  34. 34. Results—Traits important to organic farmers •  Tall for residue cover Specific to Western Nebraska: •  Drought tolerant •  Long coleoptile for planting deep
  35. 35. Results—Traits important to organic farmers Coleoptile Length – expand testing to earlier generations
  36. 36. Results—Traits important to organic farmers Specific to •  Resistance to seed-born disease: Eastern •  Common bunt Nebraska •  Early vigor and canopy cover •  Sprouting resistance
  37. 37. Methods: Input from Beyond the Producers
  38. 38. Results: Input from Baystate Milling Test Parameter Outstanding Acceptable Marginal Unacceptable Grain Moisture (%) 10.0 - 13.5 < 10 > 13.5 Grain Ash (12 % m.b.) 1.4 - 1.6 1.6 - 1.8 > 1.8 Grain Protein(12 % m.b.) > 11.5 11.0 - 11.5 < 11.0 Grain Testweight (lbs/bu) > 58 56 - 58 < 56 Flour Milling Value 20 - 40 15.0 - 19.9 < 15 Flour Ash (14% m.b.) < 0.5 0.5 - .54 > 0.54 Flour Protein(14 % m.b.) > 10.5 10.0 - 10.5 < 10.0 Flour Falling Number Value > 350 300 - 350 < 300 Farinograph Absorption (14 % m.b.a) > 56 54 - 56 < 54 Farinograph Peak (minutes) > 6 5-6 < 5 Farinograph Mix Time Integral < 30 30 - 40 > 40 Farinograph Stability (minutes) > 12 10 - 12 < 10 Absorption (14 % Baking m.b.) > 56 54 - 56 < 54 Loaf Volume 4 hour Baking (cc) > 3200 3000 - 3200 < 3000 Crumb Grain 4-hour Baking score > 8 6-8 < 6
  39. 39. Results: Input from Kelloggs and Hesco Test Parameter Outstanding Acceptable Marginal Unacceptable Testweight Grain (lbs/bu) > 58 57 - 58 < 57 Total Digestible Fiber > 14? 12.8 - 14? 11.5 - 12.8? < 11.5? Grain Ash 1.4 - 1.6? 1.6 - 1.8? > 1.8? RVA Peak Viscosity > 230? 175 - 230? 140 - 175? < 140? Hot Paste RVA Viscosity > 125? 100 - 125? < 100? RVA Final Visosity 225 - 270? 225 - 200? Most important traits: Traits not important: •  testweight (grain buyer) •  digestible fiber •  Will take low protein wheat, •  “strong starch” even at 9%. •  “flaking ability”
  40. 40. Summary—Traits important to grain buyers and users
  41. 41. Tests added to breeding program: Whole Wheat Tests: •  Sedimentation •  Digestible Fiber •  Antioxidants Competitiveness with weeds
  42. 42. Kelloggs Total Digestible Fiber Results: Winners Overall: Karl 92*** Fiber Darrell Wesley for Millennium White Sidney NE04424 NE01481 2009 Also of note: White Overland ClarksCream
  43. 43. Results: Quality for Selected NIN
  44. 44. Preliminary Phenols for Sidney, 21 Varieties Results 0.9000 0.8000 0.7000 0.6000 Anti- 0.5000 0.4000 Total Phenols oxidants 0.3000 0.2000 Total 2008 0.1000 Flavonoids 0.0000 •  White varieties Arrowsmith, Antelope and Anton plus the red varieties Darrell and Mace tested low for total phenols. This study must be redone.
  45. 45. Results Phenols Across Four Locations, 12 Varieties 0.7000 0.6000 Anti- 0.5000 0.4000 Total oxidants 0.3000 0.2000 Phenols 2008 0.1000 Total Flavonoids 0.0000 •  For total phenols, Wahoo stood out. The white varieties, Alice and NW03681 were significantly lower, but had a higher percentage of flavonoids.
  46. 46. Conclusions—Value-added Quality Traits   White varieties are unlikely to be singled out for high antioxidants or high digestible fiber. •  Clarks Cream may be an exception for digestible fiber, but hasn’t been tested for antioxidants.
  47. 47. Methods and Results—Agronomic Traits •  Competitiveness against Weeds •  Testweight •  Coleoptile Length •  Height
  48. 48. Thumbnail previews for plots at Haskell Cover = 9 (scale of 0 – 9)
  49. 49. Thumbnail previews for plots at Haskell Cover = 3 (scale of 0 – 9)
  50. 50. Filemaker Pro Database Application
  51. 51. All reps for an entry are viewed simultaneously to assign a composite score. Relative scale of 0 – 9
  52. 52. Plots are scored relative to the minimum and maximum for the nursery. Relative scale of 0 – 9
  53. 53. East Sidney Variety 2009 2009 Cover Cover MACE 5.3 4.8 Results: MILLENNIUM 6.0 5.8 NE03490 6.1 5.6 NE04490 6.1 4.6 Cover, 2009 CLARKS CREAM NE01481 HATCHER 6.2 6.2 6.3 6.0 5.2 4.0 DANBY 6.3 5.4 ALLIANCE 6.3 4.4 NE04424 6.4 5.2 OVERLAND 6.4 5.6 HARRY 6.5 5.4 NE06469 6.5 5.2 ANTELOPE 6.6 3.2 Consistently Better— NW03681 NE99495 6.8 6.8 5.0 5.2 •  Wesley NE05425 CAMELOT 6.9 6.9 5.2 5.0 DARRELL 7.0 4.2 GOODSTREAK 7.0 5.0 BUCKSKIN 7.1 4.2 Consistently Poorer— WESLEY NW03666 7.2 7.2 6.4 4.8 ARROWSMITH 7.2 5.0 •  NE04490 SD05118 KARL92 7.2 7.3 4.6 4.6 •  Hatcher PRONGHORN NE05548 ALICE 7.4 7.4 5.0 4.8 7.4 5.0 •  Alliance WAHOO Mean 7.6 6.8 5.4 5.0 C.V. 9.6 16.5 LSD.05 0.8 1.0
  54. 54. Results— Testweight Consistently Poor— •  Wahoo •  Harry Not Consistent— •  Millennium •  Mace •  Wesley
  55. 55. Results— Height and Coleoptile Length 3.5 inch Coleoptiles in NIN 2009: NE06469 NE06545 NE07469 NE07477 NE07484 NE07487 NI07703
  56. 56. Conclusions—Agronomic Traits   Veryfew tall and long-coleoptile lines are available in the pipeline.   No outstanding lines for cover in 2008.   Lineswith good yield performance like Wahoo and NE3490 might not be marketable because of consistently low test weight.
  57. 57. Further Research— Wheat Germplasm Development   Evaluate tall crosses between Oklahoma elite lines and Australian lines with long coleoptiles and drought resistance.   Introgress traits for soft endosperm and winterhardiness to obtain lines for the breakfast cereal market. See next slide for photos of representative germplasm
  58. 58. Further Research— Wheat Germplasm Development [Chuan-Mai 18/2*Westonia (RHT8)]/Duster//OK07S130W: Ulianovka: Tall, Long Coleoptile, increased root density (?), Soft Endosperm, Drought resistant (?), vigorous (?) Winterhardiness
  59. 59. Chris Hoagland’s Masters Thesis
  60. 60. Experiments to Optimize Wheat in the Rotation 1.  Preliminary Protein Enhancement Experiment Haskell 2.  Cover Crop/Fertility Experiment, 2009 Sidney 3.  Preliminary Protein Enhancement Experiment 4.  Cover Crop/Fertility Experiment, 2009
  61. 61. 1.  Preliminary Protein Enhancement Experiment, 2008 Methods Top-dress State Variety Trial: •  2 reps sprayed with Summit 10 Haskell •  2 reps without spray •  2008—split application at early jointing and three weeks later for a total of 14 lbs N/acre •  2009—one application at early boot stage with 20 lbs N/acre
  62. 62. 1.  Preliminary Protein Enhancement Experiment Results: Grain Protein Content 2008 2009 Haskell Without With Without With Summit 10 Summit 10 average 10.2 10.4 10.5 11.2 LSD (.05) 0.1 0.1 •  Significant differences were also detected among varieties for response to the top-dressing treatment.
  63. 63. check treated check treated ALICE 10.5 11.7 NE01481 10.1 11.2 ALLIANCE 9.6 10.2 NE03490 10.0 10.7 Results: ANTELOPE ARROWSMITH 10.3 11.1 NE04424 NE04490 10.7 11.3 10.8 11.7 10.5 11.4 Grain BUCKSKIN 10.7 10.7 NE05425 10.8 11.4 CAMELOT 10.5 11.2 NE05548 10.5 11.4 Protein CLARKS CREAM 11.2 12.2 NE06469 10.3 11.1 DANBY NE99495 Content DARRELL 10.4 10.8 10.8 10.8 NW03666 10.2 10.4 10.9 11.1 at GOODSTREAK HARRY 10.5 10.1 11.3 11.1 NW03681 OVERLAND 11.1 10.6 11.9 11.5 Haskell HATCHER KARL92 10.7 11.3 11.8 12.0 PRONGHORN SD05118 10.2 10.7 10.5 11.3 MACE 10.8 11.7 WAHOO 10.1 10.8 MILLENNIUM 10.8 11.5 WESLEY 10.0 11.2 •  Many varieties increased protein content above the market threshold of 11.0 % in response to the top-dressing treatment. LSD = 0.5 (check) and 0.6 (treated).
  64. 64. 2.  Cover Crop/Fertility Experiment, 2009 Methods: Five treatments: Haskell •  Previous crop (corn or alfalfa) •  manure type •  field pea green manure •  composted cattle manure •  manure rate •  manure timing •  supplemental nitrogen (Summit 10)
  65. 65. 2.  Cover Crop/Fertility Experiment, 2009 Layout: First # - Manure t/a Second # - Manure Timing Third # - Top Dress lbs N/a 1=0 2 = 20 3 = 40 1 = Fall, 2 = Spring 1=0 2 = 10 3 = 20 Haskell Previous Crop Alfalfa Corn Corn Alfalfa Alfalfa Corn Alfalfa Corn
  66. 66. 2.  Cover Crop/Fertility Experiment, 2009 Results: Yields •  Wheat averaged less following alfalfa (53.8 bu/acre) than following corn (57.4 bu/acre), possibly from Haskell competition for moisture by alfalfa re-growth. •  Fall manure application resulted in 7 bu/acre more than spring or no manure applications. •  Late spring manure application damaged the crop and reduced yields by 5 bu/acre compared to the no manure fall application.
  67. 67. 2.  Cover Crop/Fertility Experiment, 2009 Results: Grain Protein Content Haskell •  not affected by manure rate. •  increased from 13.3 to 13.7% for the later timing. •  increased from 13.3 to 13.6% for the higher N top-dressing rate.
  68. 68. Experiments to Optimize Wheat in the Rotation 1.  Preliminary Protein Enhancement Experiment Haskell 2.  Cover Crop/Fertility Experiment, 2009 Sidney 3.  Preliminary Protein Enhancement Experiment 4.  Cover Crop/Fertility Experiment, 2009
  69. 69. 3.  Preliminary Protein Enhancement Experiment Results: Grain Protein Content (%) 2008 2009 Sidney Without With Summit 10 Average 11.7 12.0 LSD (.05) 0.4 •  No significant differences were detected among varieties for response to the top-dressing treatment.
  70. 70. 4.  Cover Crop/Fertility Experiment, 2009-10 Methods: Treatments:  N = Summit 10  Manure: •  0 •  5 •  10 tons/acre  Fallow: •  with pea disked •  without peas
  71. 71. 4.  Cover Crop/Fertility Experiment, 2009 Wheat yield, moisture and testweight Results: following green manure and black fallow Treatment Grain Yield Grain Test Weight bu./acre Moisture lbs./bu Sidney % Green Manure 44.2 b 12.8 a 56.6 b Black Fallow 47.5 a 10.8 b 60.6 a All means are statistically different at the 5 % probability level
  72. 72. 4.  Cover Crop/Fertility Experiment, 2009 Results: Grain Protein Content •  Very few treatment differences among composted manure, green manure or Summit Ten top-dressing. Sidney •  Grain Protein averaged 12.1% for all treatments. •  This protein level is well above the threshold for bread market acceptance.
  73. 73. 4.  Cover Crop/Fertility Experiment, 2009 Results: Nitrogen Removal •  Nitrogen removal was 76.5 and 82.5 lb/acre following green manure and black fallow, respectively. Sidney •  There was no difference in nitrogen removal rates between composted manure and Summit Ten treatments
  74. 74. Conclusions:   Grain protein was affected somewhat by treatments in the eastern environment but not in the more arid western environment.   Haskell represented perfectly the targeted N- deficient environment. Protein levels at Sidney were above the market threshold because of dry conditions and adequate soil nitrogen fortification during previous years of the rotation.   Benefits of treatments may require several years to be realized in the semi-arid environment because of slow mineralization rates particularly in dry years.
  75. 75. Experiments to Optimize Wheat in the Rotation 1.  Flaming Wheat as Cover Crop or Grain Crop Haskell 2.  Suppression of Cover Crops after Wheat
  76. 76. 1.  Flaming of wheat as cover crop or as grain crop
  77. 77. 1.  Flaming of wheat as cover crop or as grain crop 60 a) SES 50 b) FNS c) BS 40 43 % Yield Loss (%) 30 32 % 20 25 % 10 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 !1 Propane rate (kg ha )
  78. 78. 1.  Flaming of wheat as cover crop or as grain crop Conclusions:
  79. 79. 2.  Suppression of Cover Crops after Winter Wheat Methods: Crimper
  80. 80. 2.  Suppression of Cover Crops after Winter Wheat Methods: Crimper demo
  81. 81. 2.  Suppression of Cover Crops after Winter Wheat Methods:
  82. 82. 2.  Suppression of Cover Crops after Winter Wheat Methods: Experimental Design
  83. 83. 2.  Suppression of Cover Crops after Winter Wheat Results: Effects of cover crop management Residue Corn Corn Corn Soybean Soybean Management Plants/acre Test wt. yields yields Plants/acre Sept. 2009 Lbs/bu Bu/ac Bu/ac 15.5 % 13 % Crimper 11,906 43.4 23.7 32.5 153,100 Flamer 15,701 49.2 46.5 38.6 161,400 Disk 19,534 52.2 102.7 48.2 156,600 Winter kill 19,437 52.0 114.8 49.2 160,200
  84. 84. 2.  Suppression of Cover Crops after Winter Wheat   The roller does not work well when Conclusions: the cover crop is dry.   Flaming only worked a bit better.   Yield performance of corn and soybeans after winter kill of cover crops following winter wheat is acceptable.
  85. 85. Crop Environment Factors Row Spacing Sidney Eastern Locations
  86. 86. Current Rotations Haskell Clay Center •  3 years alfalfa •  3 years of alfalfa •  Winter Wheat •  Winter Wheat/vetch •  Corn •  Corn •  Soybeans •  Soybeans Mead Sidney •  Winter Wheat •  Green fallow (3 years) •  Corn or compost/fallow (3 years) •  Soybeans •  Wheat •  Millet or Oilseed crop
  87. 87. Recommended Rotations Haskell Clay Center •  3 years alfalfa •  3 years of alfalfa •  Winter Wheat /soybean cover •  Winter Wheat/vetch •  Corn •  Corn •  Soybeans •  Soybeans Mead Sidney •  Winter Wheat /soybean cover •  Green fallow (3 years) •  Corn or compost/fallow (3 years) •  Soybeans •  Wheat •  Millet or Oilseed crop
  88. 88. Crop Environment Factors Sidney Wheat is affected by moisture use of preceding green fallow
  89. 89. Crop Environment Factors Eastern locations Wheat following soybeans results in late planting date
  90. 90. Further Research— Cropping Systems   Haskell—test promising wheat lines in low and high nitrogen environments.   Clay Center (irrigated)—crimp an early maturing triticale before soybeans.   At Sidney—annual medic (Medicago rigidula) green manure in place of peas.   East locations—use hooded flamer to control weeds in soybeans.
  91. 91. Further Research— Cropping Systems   In the final year, we will take systems developed with appropriate varieties to organic farms in each ecoregion for further testing and refinement.
  92. 92. Dr. Stephen Baenziger, Small Grains Breeding Lincoln Dr. Vicki Schlegel, Food Science Dr. Stephen Wegulo, Plant Pathology Dr. Teshome Regassa, State Variety Trial Testing Richard Little, Breeding Specialist and Coordinator Dr. Drew Lyon, Cropping Systems and Site Co-Manager HPAL Dr. Dipak Santra, Alternative Crops and Co-Manager Vernon Florke, Organic Field Technician Mead ARDC Dr. James Brandle, Forestry and Site Manager Mike Cieslik, Organic Field Technician Dr. Charles Shapiro, Soil Fertility and Site Manager Haskell Dr. Stevan Knezevic, Weed Science Mike Mainz, Field Technologist Liz Sarno, Organic Extension Educator Santiago Ulloa, Graduate Student Dr. Bob Wright, Entomology and Site Manager Clay Center Ryan Gerloff, Organic Field Technician

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