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Alcohol summary slides


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  • 1. Week 3Drunkenness and AlcoholismProfessor John Scott
  • 2. “Despite expressions ofsubstantial concern about ‘drug’use, alcohol is by far the mostpopular mood-altering drugconsumed in the United Statestoday. In fact, two drugs – alcoholand tobacco – actually causemore physical, medical, social,and psychological problems thanany other drugs” (Clinard andMeier 2004, 254)
  • 3. What is alcohol?“Alcohol is a chemical substance created throughprocesses of fermentation or distillation” (Clinardand Meier 2004, 255)“Alcohol is a naturally occurring chemical that isproduced by the action of yeast on sugar. Thechemical process that produces alcohol is calledfermentation; chemicals from the sugar areconverted into a substance that chemists callethanol and most people know as alcohol” (Rooney2013, 6)“Alcohol is a central nervous system depressant,although in smaller amounts it may appear to havea mild stimulant effect” (DASSA)
  • 4. Stages BAC Likely EffectsFeeling of well-beingUp to .05 g% •Talkative•Relaxed•More confidentSome raisedrisk.05-.08 g% •Talkative•Acts and feels self-confident•Judgment and movement impaired•Inhibitions reducedModeratelyraised state.08-.15 g% •Speech slurred•Balance and coordination impaired•Reflexes slowed•Visual attention impaired•Unstable emotions•Nausea, vomitingVery elevatedrisk.15-.30 g% •Unable to walk without help•Apathetic, sleepy•Laboured breathing•Unable to remember events•Loss of bladder control•Possible loss of consciousnessDeath Over .30 g% •Coma•DeathAlcoholeffectsonbehaviour{Source:}
  • 5. Sparklingwine100 ml13% alc/volRegularbeer285 ml4.9%alc/volWine100 ml13%alc/volFortifiedwine60 ml20%alc/volSpirits30 ml40% alc/volStandard drink measures
  • 6. “In the United States• 1 standard drink = 0.5 oz (13.6 g) of pure alcohol• = 12 oz of beer or cooler• = 5 oz of wine• = 8-9 oz of malt liquor• = 1.5 oz of spirits (hard liquor)In the United Kingdom• 1 unit = 10 ml (8 g) of pure alcohol• = a third of a pint of beer that is 5-6% abv• = half a standard (175 ml) glass of wine that is 12% abv• = a single measure (25 ml) of spirits that is 40% abvIn Australia• 1 standard drink = 10 g of pure alcohol• = 375 ml of beer that is 3.5% abv• = 100 ml of wine• = one nip (30 ml) of spirits”{Source: Anne Rooney, Alcohol, Chicago: Britannica Digital Learning, 2012, 8}
  • 7. {Source: World Health Organisation}
  • 8. Footnote(s):(a)Litresofpurealcoholpercapitaofpeopleaged15yearsandover.(b)DataaretheaverageoftheOECDcountrieswithdataavailable.Source(s){Source:}.
  • 9. {Source: WHO Global Status Report on Alcohol 2004}
  • 10. {Source: WHO Global Status Report on Alcohol 2004}
  • 11. Cultural contradictions of alcohol“a determination of deviance requires moreinformation than a simple statement about thepresence of alcohol; this judgment also depends oninformation about the conditions under whichpeople drink” (Clinard and Meier 2004, 255)“Many U.S. residents share a fundamentalambivalence about drinking. Many regard beverageswith alcohol as permissible elements of many socialsituations; others regard drinking as impermissiblebehaviour virtually all the time and in every situation.Many people laugh at jokes about drunkenness andyet condemn drunken behaviour in public” (Clinardand Meier 2004, 255).
  • 12. • People are drinking more than ever before• Alcohol consumption generally declines with age• Males drink more than females• Younger and younger children now experimentingwith alcohol• Binge drinking now associated with young people• Drinking varies by religion, culture, education andincome levels (higher education = higher rates ofconsumption, higher income level = higherconsumption level)• Religion – heaviest drinkers: Jewish, Catholic,Lutheran• More drinking in larger cities than in small• Unmarried people higher consumption rates thanmarried people
  • 13. Socialisation of drinking• People are socialised into drinking• Many drinking patterns inherited from previous generations• No universal patterns found across cultures• US - drinking not socially accepted at funerals• Ireland – drinking is important aspect of a wake• Australia – people usually go to pub to drink after formalgathering after a funeral• NZ – alcohol important part of funeral ritual• Alcohol important part of meals for European cultures• Alcohol important to celebrations such as marriage, births,sporting events etc• Alcohol served at important business luncheons
  • 14. Drinking patterns in Australia• Drinking patterns generally declining• 83% population over 14 yrs identified as ‘recent drinkers’• Harmful drinking associated with risky drinking• According to young people: drinking is positive activity, centralto Australian culture and identity, attractive as cheap and peergroup activity, reject stereotypes of ‘out of control’ drinkers,do not think guidelines apply to them, prefer risks of drinkingthan social exclusion of not drinking, and drink to fit in• Key deterrents are risks of drink driving, parental pressuresand the responsibilities of work and study• Problem with sports clubs serving of alcohol to under-agemembers in the presence of parents• (both reports available at Bad Judgment the Cause and Effect of Adolescent Binge Drinking?
  • 15. Types of drinkers• Social or controlled drinkers – occasional drinker and drinks atsocial occasions to be sociable and to conform to social norms• Heavy drinker – regularly consumes alcohol & large quantities• Alcoholic drinker – someone who needs to consume alcoholregularly• Light drinkers• Frequent early evening drinkers• Heavy hotel-tavern drinkers• Club drinkers• Solitary drinkers• Party drinkers
  • 16. The Problem drinker• Not necessarily an alcoholic or a heavy drinker• Problem drinker indicates a person whose drinkingcauses problems in their personal, social, andprofessional livesThe effects of problem drinking• Ugly hangovers• Physical collapse• Blackouts• Nausea• Deteriorating interpersonal relationships• Encounters with police
  • 17. Symptoms of chronic alcoholism:• Solitary drinking• Morning drinking• General physical deterioration• Preoccupied with drinkingDirect biochemical effects - influencechronic disease either in a beneficial (e.g.,protection against blood clot formation frommoderate consumption) or harmful way(e.g., toxic effects ).Intoxication - powerful mediator for acuteoutcomes (accidents, injuries , death,domestic conflict and violence)Alcohol dependence - sustaining alcoholconsumption, impacting chronic and acuteconsequences of alcohol(WHO Global Status Report on Alcohol 2004, 35-36)
  • 18. Dangers of alcohol withdrawalSymptoms commence 6-24 hrs after last drink:• Tremors• Nausea and vomiting• Anxiety and agitation• Depression• Sweating• Headaches• Difficulty sleeping (can last several weeks)Source:
  • 19. {Source: WHO Global Status Report on Alcohol 2004}
  • 20. Social problems linked to alcohol consumption• Physical and psychological dependency• Physical illnesses• Breakdown in social relationships• Poor work performance• Work related injuries• Absenteeism• Lower productivity• Unemployment• Lower parenting skills• Child abuse and neglect• Criminal activity• Domestic violence2010 alcohol relatedoffences:- 70,000 Australiansvictims of assault,24,000 were victimsof domestic violence
  • 21. Intoxication risks• 30% of road accidents• 44% of fire injuries• 34% of falls and drowning’s• 16% of child abuse cases• 12% of suicides• 10% of industrial accidents{Source:
  • 22. {}Drink driving
  • 23. Health risks of alcoholDiseases shown to be fullyattributable to alcohol:• Alcoholic psychoses• Alcohol-dependencesyndrome• Alcohol abuse• Alcohol polyneuropathy• Alcohol cardiomyopathy• Alcohol gastritis• Alcohol liver cirrhosis• Excess blood alcohol• Ethanol and methanol toxicityDiseases and health problems wherealcohol plays a contributory role:• Gastrointestinal disorders• Pancreatitis• Liver disease• Haemorrhagic stroke• Nutritional deficiency• Impairments of the central nervoussystem functions• Disorders of the endocrine system• Cardiovascular• Some birth defects• Some cancers.
  • 24. Alcohol and pregnancyPhysical characteristics of a child affected by fetal alcoholsyndrome
  • 25. Strategies to control alcohol consumption• Prohibition• Legal regulation– Age limits on service: USA 21 yrs; Australia 18 yrs– Limits on blood alcohol levels for driving,operating machinery, specific jobs (ie, mines,pilots, surgeons etc)– Closing times for venues serving alcohol• Education– National guidelines for safe drinking• Media– Campaigns to highlight negative consequences ofalcohol consumption (ie, drink driving, domesticviolence etc)• Social– Alcoholics Anonymous etc“If you’re trying to loseweight, you probably need tostop drinking alcohol. Youbooze, you don’t lose.”
  • 26. Recommended viewing• Four Corners “Punch Drunk” investigativeprogram on the impact of alcohol in Australia• Broadcast on ABC• Screened Monday 25 February 2013, 8:30pm• Available for viewing at:
  • 27. References:• Rooney, Anne. 2012. Alcohol, Chicago: BritannicaDigital Learning.• McDonald, T. 2010. Alcohol abuse costs $36 billion ayear: study, ABC Radio, August 24, 12:10pm.• Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2010-2011. Apparentconsumption of alcohol, Australia.• Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2012. Australian SocialTrends.• Drug and Alcohol Services South Australia. Alcohol andits effects.• Family fact of the week. Marriage’ssobering effects.
  • 28. Weblinks Australian Institution of Healthand Welfare, research on alcohol and other drugs WHO Global Health Observatory WHO Global InformationSystem on Alcohol and Health Alcoholism.org$file/ab07.pdf Costing alcohol-related injuries presenting to St Vincent’s HospitalEmergency Department – a methodological note$file/bb53.pdf An analysis of alcohol and psycho-stimulant use from the 2007 NationalDrug Strategy household survey$file/CJB147.pdf The association between alcohol outlet density and assaults on andaround licensed premises
  • 29.$file/CJB137.pdf The impact of restricted alcohol availability on alcohol relatedviolence in Newcastle NSW World HealthOrganisation Global strategy to reduce the harmful effects of alcohol World Health Organisation Global status report on alcohol 2004 World HealthOrganisation Global status report on alcohol 2004 – Australia WorldHealth Organisation Global Information Status on Alcohol and Health$File/mono64.pdf The costs of tobacco, alcohol andillicit drug abuse to Australian society in 2004/05 Australian Institute of Health andWelfare Drinking patterns in Australia 2001-2007 ‘What a great night’: The cultural drivers of drinking practices among14-24 year-old Australians