Etxepare Basque Institute
EXPOLINGUA BERLIN 2011• In Defense of Linguistic Diversity  Itziar Idiazabal  University of the Basque Country
EXPOLINGUA BERLIN 2011• Presentation of the Chair: main goals and  some works:  –   Languages of the World, of Europe, of ...
EXPOLINGUA 2011. In Defense of Linguistic Diversity. Itziar Idiazabal, UPV/EHU   UNESCO Chair on World Language Heritage o...
EXPOLINGUA 2011. In Defense of Linguistic Diversity. Itziar Idiazabal, UPV/EHUWorld Language Diversity at Risk•6000 langua...
6000 LANGUAGES OF DIFERENT FAMILIES
Martí f., Ortega, p.Idiazabal i., Barreña, a.,Juaristi, p., Junyent, c.,Uranga, b. & Amorrortu, e.(Ed.) (2005). Words andW...
EXPOLINGUA 2011. In Defense of Linguistic Diversity. Itziar Idiazabal, UPV/EHUEUROPE•230 languages•There are no monolingua...
Geographic distribution of european languages
European Language Families
EXPOLINGUA 2011. In Defense of Linguistic Diversity. Itziar Idiazabal, UPV/EHUMAIN LANGUAGE FAMILIES IN EUROPE•Slavic•Lati...
Germanic languages in Europe
EXPOLINGUA 2011. In Defense of Linguistic Diversity. Itziar Idiazabal, UPV/EHU100 LANGUAGES OF IMMIGRATION IN THE BASQUE C...
Geographical origin of Immigration Languages Spoken in the Basque Country
EXPOLINGUA 2011. In Defense of Linguistic Diversity. Itziar Idiazabal, UPV/EHU    Immigrant population of the Basque Count...
-Uranga, B., Aierdi,X., Idiazabal, I.,Amorrortu, E.,Barreña, A., Ortega,A. &. Izagirre, E.(2008) Hizkuntzak etaimmigrazioa...
EXPOLINGUA 2011. In Defense of Linguistic Diversity. Itziar Idiazabal, UPV/EHU-How do the basques feel about languagediver...
EXPOLINGUA 2011. In Defense of Linguistic Diversity. Itziar Idiazabal, UPV/EHU•What can we do to revitalize an endangeredl...
EXPOLINGUA 2011. In Defense of Linguistic Diversity. Itziar Idiazabal, UPV/EHU                                 EMBERA•Embe...
•Endangered Language Windows in AZKUE Foundation        • http://www.hizkuntzagutxituak.net/
•Endangered Language Windows in AZKUE Foundation        • http://www.hizkuntzagutxituak.net/       Aimara (Amerika) Aymara...
Languages of Colombia. Landaburu,2007
EXPOLINGUA 2011. In Defense of Linguistic Diversity. Itziar Idiazabal, UPV/EHU•SITUATION OF THE EMBERA LANGUAGE•Even if pr...
EXPOLINGUA 2011. In Defense of Linguistic Diversity. Itziar Idiazabal, UPV/EHU•CLASIFICATION OF THE LANGUAGE•Embera and Wa...
EXPOLINGUA 2011. In Defense of Linguistic Diversity. Itziar Idiazabal, UPV/EHU•FEATURES OF THE LANGUAGE•The Embera phonolo...
EXPOLINGUA 2011. In Defense of Linguistic Diversity. Itziar Idiazabal, UPV/EHU•GLOSSARY•Note: As there isn’t a unified ort...
EXPOLINGUA 2011. In Defense of Linguistic Diversity. Itziar Idiazabal, UPV/EHU•USEFUL LINKS•http://www.todacolombia.com/et...
EXPOLINGUA 2011. In Defense of Linguistic Diversity. Itziar Idiazabal, UPV/EHU Revitalization Project of Embera language o...
EXPOLINGUA 2011. In Defense of Linguistic Diversity. Itziar Idiazabal, UPV/EHU  Revitalization Project of Embera language ...
EXPOLINGUA 2011. In Defense of Linguistic Diversity. Itziar Idiazabal, UPV/EHU•PEN CLUB 10 COMMANDMENTS (2011)•1. Linguist...
EXPOLINGUA 2011. In Defense of Linguistic Diversity. Itziar Idiazabal, UPV/EHU                                            ...
EXPOLINGUA 2011. In Defense of Linguistic Diversity. Itziar Idiazabal, UPV/EHU                            Milesker!       ...
Itziar.idiazabal@ehu.eswww.unesco-hizkuntza-katedra.ehu.es
Itziar IdiazabalUniversity of the Basque CountryItziar.idiazabal@ehu.eswww.unesco-hizkuntza.katedra.ehu.es      Etxepare B...
In Defense of Linguistic Diversity. EXPOLINGUA 2011
In Defense of Linguistic Diversity. EXPOLINGUA 2011
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In Defense of Linguistic Diversity. EXPOLINGUA 2011

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EUS - Itziar Idiazabalek egindako Munduko Hizkuntza Ondarearen UNESCO Katedraren aurkezpena Expolingua 2011n //
CAST - Presentación de la Cátedra UNESCO de Patrimonio Lingüístico Mundial realizada por Itziar Idiazabal en Expolingua 2011.
EN - UNESCO World Language Heritage Chair's presentation by Itziar Idiazabal in Expolingua 2011

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  • EUS - Itziar Idiazabalek egindako Munduko Hizkuntza Ondarearen UNESCO Katedraren aurkezpena Expolingua 2011n.

    CAST - Presentación de la Cátedra UNESCO de Patrimonio Lingüístico Mundial realizada por Itziar Idiazabal en Expolingua 2011.

    EN - UNESCO World Language Heritage Chair's presentation by Itziar Idiazabal in Expolingua 2011
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In Defense of Linguistic Diversity. EXPOLINGUA 2011

  1. 1. Etxepare Basque Institute
  2. 2. EXPOLINGUA BERLIN 2011• In Defense of Linguistic Diversity Itziar Idiazabal University of the Basque Country
  3. 3. EXPOLINGUA BERLIN 2011• Presentation of the Chair: main goals and some works: – Languages of the World, of Europe, of America,… – Languages of Immigration in the Basque Country – Language attitudes – An example of a project of revitalization of an endangered language: Embera
  4. 4. EXPOLINGUA 2011. In Defense of Linguistic Diversity. Itziar Idiazabal, UPV/EHU UNESCO Chair on World Language Heritage of the UPV/EHU•The chair was created in 2006 as an agreement between UNESCOand the University of the Basque Country.•Principal supporter and promoter: Unescoetxea (Unesco Centre of theBasque Country)•The main goal of the Chair is to know and to let it know the liguisticdiversity of both the World and the Basque Country.•The purpose is to strengthen the minorized/endangered languages.•Main research topics are: language diversity knowledge, languageattitudes, language normalisation policies, multilingual educationsystems
  5. 5. EXPOLINGUA 2011. In Defense of Linguistic Diversity. Itziar Idiazabal, UPV/EHUWorld Language Diversity at Risk•6000 languages in the world•Diferent language families: Indoeuropean, australian, amerindian,…•22% of the world population speaks 98% of the languages•78% of the population speaks only the 1,2% of the languages•Most of the languages are threatened.•In the XXI century, 50% of the languages could dissapear if measuresare not taken(Martì et al. 2005)
  6. 6. 6000 LANGUAGES OF DIFERENT FAMILIES
  7. 7. Martí f., Ortega, p.Idiazabal i., Barreña, a.,Juaristi, p., Junyent, c.,Uranga, b. & Amorrortu, e.(Ed.) (2005). Words andWorlds. World LanguageReview: Clevedon U.K.:Multilingual Matters
  8. 8. EXPOLINGUA 2011. In Defense of Linguistic Diversity. Itziar Idiazabal, UPV/EHUEUROPE•230 languages•There are no monolingual States•Only 35 languages are oficial/cooficial in the 50 States ofEurope. (Barreña et al., 2005)
  9. 9. Geographic distribution of european languages
  10. 10. European Language Families
  11. 11. EXPOLINGUA 2011. In Defense of Linguistic Diversity. Itziar Idiazabal, UPV/EHUMAIN LANGUAGE FAMILIES IN EUROPE•Slavic•Latin/romanice•Germanic•Celtic•Caucasian•Uralian•Altai•Other Indo-European languages•Isolated languages as Basque
  12. 12. Germanic languages in Europe
  13. 13. EXPOLINGUA 2011. In Defense of Linguistic Diversity. Itziar Idiazabal, UPV/EHU100 LANGUAGES OF IMMIGRATION IN THE BASQUE COUNTRYAkoose (bakossi), Alemán, Amárico, Árabe de Argelia, Árabe de Iraq, Árabe de Libia,Árabe de Marruecos, Árabe del Sahara, Armenio, Aymara, Azerí, Balanta, Bambara(bamanankan), Basa, Bayangi (Kenyango), Bengalí, Bete, Bielorruso, Bozo (boso),Bubi, Búlgaro, Caboverdiano, Calmuco, Castellano, Catalán, Chino cantonés, Chinomandarín, Coreano, Criollo inglés, Danés, Diola (Jula), Duala, Edo, Empongompongo(mboh), Entomba (ntomba), Ewondo, Fang, Fante, Fe’fe’ (bamileke), Finlandés,Francés, Gaélico de Irlanda, Gallego, Georgiano, Griego, Guaraní, Gun (goun goun),Hausa, Hindi, Húngaro, Igbo, Inglés, Italiano, Japonés, Jola, Kongo (kikongo), Krioulode Bijagos, Lingala, Lituano, Lyele, Mandinga, Maninka, Maninkakan, Mapudungun,Mingrelio, Mongo, Nederlandés, Nepalí, Ngombe, Ngumba, Ngumbi (kombo), Pashto,Penjabí, Pidgin inglés de Nigeria, Polaco, Portugués, Pular, Quechua, Quichua,Romaní, Rumano, Ruso, Saraiki, Senufo, Serbio, Serere sine, Serpa, Songhay(songái), Soninke, Sueco, Susu, Svano, Swahili, Tagalo, Tamazight, Tuba (Kituba),Tunén (mbanen), Ucraniano, Urdu, Wolof, Yombe, Yoruba. (Uranga et al. 2008)
  14. 14. Geographical origin of Immigration Languages Spoken in the Basque Country
  15. 15. EXPOLINGUA 2011. In Defense of Linguistic Diversity. Itziar Idiazabal, UPV/EHU Immigrant population of the Basque Country (2008) and their languages by geographic continents (Source: Uranga et al., 2008)
  16. 16. -Uranga, B., Aierdi,X., Idiazabal, I.,Amorrortu, E.,Barreña, A., Ortega,A. &. Izagirre, E.(2008) Hizkuntzak etaimmigrazioa.Lenguase inmigración. Bilbao:Ikuspegi-AmaraunaUNESCO Etxea.
  17. 17. EXPOLINGUA 2011. In Defense of Linguistic Diversity. Itziar Idiazabal, UPV/EHU-How do the basques feel about languagediversity?-For instance, what are the attitudes concerning Basquelanguage, if they are non-basque speakers?(Amorrortu et al. 2008)-Basque speaking population: 35% of 2 milion people. - 65% of non-Basque speakers have tried to learn Basque - Less than 10% say that are not interested in this language.
  18. 18. EXPOLINGUA 2011. In Defense of Linguistic Diversity. Itziar Idiazabal, UPV/EHU•What can we do to revitalize an endangeredlanguage? Example: Revitalization Project of Embera language of Chocó, Colombia (2011-2013) Project supported by: AECID (11-CAP1-0534) and Basque Government (Orden 2011/03716)
  19. 19. EXPOLINGUA 2011. In Defense of Linguistic Diversity. Itziar Idiazabal, UPV/EHU EMBERA•Embera is spoken in the South-west of Panamaand in the western side of Colombia, the Pacificcoastal regions of Antioquia, Córdoba, Chocó,Cauca, Caldas and Nariño (Hoyos Benitéz, 2000).•In the map, Emberas’ territory is in green (L1:Embera, in Panama and Colombia). Uranga et al.,2007 •Endangered Language Windows in AZKUE Foundation http://www.hizkuntzagutxituak.net/
  20. 20. •Endangered Language Windows in AZKUE Foundation • http://www.hizkuntzagutxituak.net/
  21. 21. •Endangered Language Windows in AZKUE Foundation • http://www.hizkuntzagutxituak.net/ Aimara (Amerika) Aymara, aymara Amharera (Afrika) Amharic, amarico Aranera (Europa) , Aranese, aranés Bambara (Af) , Bambara, bambara Emberera (Am), Embera, embera Fangera (Af) , Fang, fang Frisiera (E) Frisian, frisio Igboera (Af) , Igbo, igbo Mandikera (Af) Mandinka, mandinka Maninka (Af) Maninka, maninka Mapudungun (Am) , mapudungun, mapudungun Quechuera (Am), Quechua, quechua Quichuera (Am), Quichua, quichua Sherpera (Asia), Sherpa, sherpa Swahilia (Af), Swahili, swahili Tagaloga (As), Tagalog, tagalog Tamazigtha (Af), Amazig, tamazight
  22. 22. Languages of Colombia. Landaburu,2007
  23. 23. EXPOLINGUA 2011. In Defense of Linguistic Diversity. Itziar Idiazabal, UPV/EHU•SITUATION OF THE EMBERA LANGUAGE•Even if precise data are not available, it is believed that the approximate number of Embera speakers is around 70,000(Aguirre, 1999), although others decrease the figure to around 50,000 (Moreno Cabrera, 2003). Generally, most of thespeakers try to live in their own community, and it is in this situation that their language and culture are best maintained.• However, Embera and the preservation of its culture are very much linked to the serious situation in the region.The armed groups expelled the Embera from their native lands and, the Embera often find themselves displacedwithout a place to live in. The region is very rich in valuable minerals, but the exploitation of these minerals brings with itthe expropriation of the Embera territory.• Landaburu (2007) saiys that, out of more than sixty ethnic groups in Colombia, the Embera are among thosewith the greater number of speakers, together with the Nasas (who speak Yuwe) and the Wayuus (Wayuu language).Because of this reason Embera is believed to stand a good chance to survive.• There are descriptive grammars, phonological investigations and lexical inventories on Embera, ( all of themmade by non-embera researchers). Recently, the Embera have shown an interest in using their language in theirschools and in their writings, and are taking the first steps in this direction.• The native culture and believes prevail among the Embera. Among them the jai and the jaibana should bementioned. Anybody who takes part in the Embera believes has its own energy, jai. The main ones are the jai of water(dojura), the jai of the river side plants and animals (wandra) and the jay of the forest (antumia). The Jaibanas areshamans that can attract and use the jai for the protection and development of the group and for their own protectionfrom outsiders. By way of a special ceremony, the jaibanas can call the jais and use them to enhance the jaibanasenergy (Vasco, 1985).
  24. 24. EXPOLINGUA 2011. In Defense of Linguistic Diversity. Itziar Idiazabal, UPV/EHU•CLASIFICATION OF THE LANGUAGE•Embera and Waunana are the only surviving languages from the Chocólanguage group. So far it has not been proven their relation to any surroundinglanguage. Waunana is spoken by 5,000 people, on the Pacific coast ofColombia, in the southern part of the Embera territory.• Embera has various dialects, but even if before they were dividedaccording to territory, nowadays the speakers of the different Embera dialectscan be found together in the same community, due to displacements provokedby the armed forces. Apparently they can communicate with each other,regardless of the dialect or the variety spoken (Romero Loaiza, 2002).• The three dialects spoken in the department of Chocó are oibida orchamí, dobida, and eyabida or katio (the dialect of the forest, of the river, andthe mountain, respectively, coming from where the speakers live). In the rest ofthe territory there are other varieties also, but there is not unanimity amongresearchers, that’s why the names given to the dialects change often.
  25. 25. EXPOLINGUA 2011. In Defense of Linguistic Diversity. Itziar Idiazabal, UPV/EHU•FEATURES OF THE LANGUAGE•The Embera phonologic system is quite complex: it has 12 vowels (6 oral and 6 nasal)and 16 consonants –according to Aguirre (1999) – or 20 –according to Hoyos Benítez(2000) and Cayo Atienza (2002). As far as the syllabic structure is concerned, the mostcommon are (C) V and (C) VC.• With regard to its morphology, Embera shows neither genre nor number in thenoun phrase. With the animate nouns compounds including the word makira (masculine)and wera (feminine) are used to mark sex, for example, chumakira (man) y chuwera(woman) (Cayo Atienza, 2002). The verb and the pronoun, in contrast, do show number:pakuru ntu bua / pakuru ntu pana (the tree is big / the trees are big).• The case system in Embera seems to be rich, as it is common in agglutinativelanguages. As it is an ergative language, the transitive and intransitive verbs aredistinguished by different marks: Ergative (-pa) and absolutive (-Ø).• The verbal system displays great complexity due to the fact that person, number,time, aspect, and mood are shown in the verb.• An interesting feature is that the numeric system of the traditional culture has fivebases.
  26. 26. EXPOLINGUA 2011. In Defense of Linguistic Diversity. Itziar Idiazabal, UPV/EHU•GLOSSARY•Note: As there isn’t a unified orthographic system for Embera yet, the examples given below lookmuch hispanicized but note should be taken that the phonological value of certain graphemes do notcorrespond to the ones they have in Spanish or English. And some phonological features are notindicated, for example, the nasal vowels. The examples are Cayo Atienza’s (2002).•aba, ume, unbea, chimare, juatsoma, juakiraraba, juakiraraba audu aba, juakiraraba audu ume, …•1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, …•tsetse, papa, tsetsera, tsetsetsora, papachondra, chiuarra, chicau, biu, nanebau, nabekau, umrnbea,chumakira, chuuera, chima, choronara, yamba, yambachondra, umenbea•father, mother, parents, grandfather, grandmother, son, daughter, grandson/granddaughter, brother(of a girl), sister (of a boy), sister (of a girl)/brother (of a boy), husband, wife, spouse, ancestors, uncle,aunt, relative•buru, küburu, dabu, chira, chirame, chirandarra, chida, chidakarra, itae, datru, kenbu, i, ikara, va,kengu, so•head, ear, eye, face, cheek, tongue, tooth, gum, mouth, forehead, nose, lip, beard, blood, vein, heart
  27. 27. EXPOLINGUA 2011. In Defense of Linguistic Diversity. Itziar Idiazabal, UPV/EHU•USEFUL LINKS•http://www.todacolombia.com/etnias/gruposindigenas/embera.html•http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emberá•http://www.galeon.com/culturasamerica/Emberas.htm•REFERENCES•Aguirre, D. (1999). Embera. Licom Europa.•Cayo Atienza, A. (2002). El idioma katío. Ensayo gramatical. Frankfurt and Main:Iberoamericana – Vervuert.•Hoyos Benítez, M. E. (2000) Informe sobre la lengua embera del río Napipí. In Gonzálezde Pérez, M.S. & Rodríguez de Montes, M.L. (eds.) Lenguas Indígenas de Colombia.Santafé de Bogota: Instituto Caro y Cuervo, 73-79.•Landaburu, J. (2007). Kolonbian egun hitz egiten diren hizkuntzak. In Uranga, B.,Barreña, A., Idiazabal, I., Amorrortu, E., Ortega, A. & Izagirre, E. (eds.) Amerikakohizkuntza-aniztasuna, Mexikotik Hego Konoraino - La diversidad lingüística en América,de México al Cono Sur. Donostia: Erein, 35-37.•Moreno Cabrera, J.C. (2003). El universo de las lenguas. Madrid: Castalia.•Romero Loaiza, F. (2002). La oralidad y la escritura entre los embera-chami: aspectoseducativos.•Vasco, L.G. (1985). Jaibanás, los verdaderos hombres. Bogotá: Banco Popular.
  28. 28. EXPOLINGUA 2011. In Defense of Linguistic Diversity. Itziar Idiazabal, UPV/EHU Revitalization Project of Embera language of Chocó, Colombia (2011-2013)FUCLA (Fundación Universitaria Claretiana) from Quibdó(Chocó, Colombia) asked the Chair to advice the emberacommunities to help them to get a written standard and tocreate pedagogical material to make posible the use oftheir own language in the school.Main local indigenous organisations also agreed onsupporting this project.Communities’ determination to preserve and use their ownlanguage is the main condition for its revitalisation.
  29. 29. EXPOLINGUA 2011. In Defense of Linguistic Diversity. Itziar Idiazabal, UPV/EHU Revitalization Project of Embera language of Chocó, Colombia (2011-2013)Work in progress:-Basic lexical gathering of the Embera from the Chocó- A basic dictionary to be published soon.- Colourful Posters with a selection of terminology, to beused in schools- Teachers’ training in bi/multilingual education
  30. 30. EXPOLINGUA 2011. In Defense of Linguistic Diversity. Itziar Idiazabal, UPV/EHU•PEN CLUB 10 COMMANDMENTS (2011)•1. Linguistic diversity is a world heritage that must be valued and protected.•2. Respect for all languages and cultures is fundamental to the process of constructing andmaintaining dialogue and peace in the world.•3. All individuals learn to speak in the heart of a community that gives them life, language, culture andidentity.•4. Different languages and different ways of speaking are not only means of communication; they arealso the milieu in which humans grow and cultures are built.•5. Every linguistic community has the right for its language to be used as an official language in itsterritory.•6. School instruction must contribute to the prestige of the language spoken by the linguisticcommunity of the territory.•7. It is desirable for citizens to have a general knowledge of various languages, because it favoursempathy and intellectual openness, and contributes to a deeper knowledge of ones own tongue.•8. The translation of texts, especially the great works of various cultures, represents a very importantelement in the necessary process of greater understanding and respect among human beings.•9. The media is a privileged loudspeaker for making linguistic diversity work and for competently andrigorously increasing its prestige.•10. The right to use and protect ones own language must be recognized by the United Nations asone of the fundamental human rights.
  31. 31. EXPOLINGUA 2011. In Defense of Linguistic Diversity. Itziar Idiazabal, UPV/EHU References•- MARTÍ F., ORTEGA, P. IDIAZABAL I., BARREÑA, A., JUARISTI, P., JUNYENT, C., URANGA, B. & AMORRORTU,E. (Ed.) (2005). Words and Worlds. World Language Review: Clevedon U.K.: Multilingual Matters•- BARREÑA, URANGA, B., IDIAZABAL I., AMORRORTU, E. & ORTEGA, A. (2005) Europako Hizkuntzak, Bilbao:UNESCO ETXEA, AMARAUNA•URANGA, B., BARREÑA, A., IDIAZABAL, I., AMORRORTU, E., ORTEGA, A. &. IZAGIRRE, E. (2007) Amerikakohizkuntza aniztasuna. Mexikotik Hego Konoraino. La diversidad lingüística en América. De México al Cono Sur,Donostia: Erein-- URANGA, B., AIERDI, X., IDIAZABAL, I., AMORRORTU, E., BARREÑA, A., ORTEGA, A. &. IZAGIRRE, E. (2008)Hizkuntzak eta immigrazioa.Lenguas e inmigración. Bilbao: Ikuspegi-Amarauna UNESCO Etxea•- AMORRORTU, E., ORTEGA, A. IDIAZABAL, I. & BARREÑA, A., (2009) Actitudes y prejuicios de los novascohablantes hacia del euskera, Bilbao: Eusko Jaurlaritza/Gobierno Vasco.•- AMORRORTU, E., ORTEGA, A. IDIAZABAL, I. & BARREÑA, A., (2009) Erdaldunen euskararekiko aurreiritziak etajarrerak. Bilbao: Eusko Jaurlaritza/Gobierno Vasco.•http://www.unesco-hizkuntza-katedra.ehu.es,• http://www.hizkuntzagutxituak.net/•http://www.unescoetxea.org/•http://www.unesco.org/culture/languages-atlas•http://www.gela.cat/doku•http://www10.gencat.cat/casa_llengues•http://www.ogmios.org/•www.amarauna-languages.com
  32. 32. EXPOLINGUA 2011. In Defense of Linguistic Diversity. Itziar Idiazabal, UPV/EHU Milesker! ¡Muchas Gracias! Danke! Thank you! Merci Beaucoup!
  33. 33. Itziar.idiazabal@ehu.eswww.unesco-hizkuntza-katedra.ehu.es
  34. 34. Itziar IdiazabalUniversity of the Basque CountryItziar.idiazabal@ehu.eswww.unesco-hizkuntza.katedra.ehu.es Etxepare Basque Institute

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