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2012-06-21 Dr Mario Novelli presents at INCORE Summer School 2012
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2012-06-21 Dr Mario Novelli presents at INCORE Summer School 2012

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Presentation given at the Magee campus of the University of Ulster by Dr Mario Novelli, Senior Lecturer in International Education and Development University of Sussex, at a seminar entitled ...

Presentation given at the Magee campus of the University of Ulster by Dr Mario Novelli, Senior Lecturer in International Education and Development University of Sussex, at a seminar entitled 'Education and Peacebuilding in Conflict Affected Situations' run by the UNESCO Centre for the INCORE Summer School 2012.

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2012-06-21 Dr Mario Novelli presents at INCORE Summer School 2012 2012-06-21 Dr Mario Novelli presents at INCORE Summer School 2012 Presentation Transcript

  • UNESCO Centre
  • Peacebuilding or Pacification? Education and the Politics ofPeacebuilding in Sierra Leone Mario Novelli, Centre for International Education (CIE), University of Sussex INCORE Summer School, June 2012
  • METHODOLOGICAL INSIGHTS Education Politics and Politics of Education. Education can‟t be understood in isolation from its broader location and embeddedness in a complex local, national and global political economy Need to go beyond ‘Education Parochialism’ and explore relationship between education, IR, politics, geography – interdisciplinarity – beyond educationism Need to get under the skin of Global Discourses – Peacebuilding – that often mask more than they reveal In conflict and education research there needs to be more Critical Approaches to research – particularly in exploring the role of international actors in the production and reproduction of conflict-both now and in the past.  Critical Globalisation & Education Theory – Roger Dale, Susan Robertson & the Bristol School‟
  • SIERRA LEONE AS PEACEBUILDINGSUCCESS?  War in SL began in 1991 when RUF attacked villages in east of country, opposed to one party state of All Peoples Congress  Conflict underpinned not only by diamonds, but social exclusion, SAPS, authoritarian rule  After several failed attempts at peace, Lome Peace Accord agreed in 1999 and fighting stopped by 2001  Between 50-75,000 killed, 50% of population displaced  Infamous for child soldiers/amputations/widespread use of rape  70% of schools destroyed, teachers fled, colleges and Higher Ed institutions damaged or destroyed  Over a decade after the end of the conflict war has not returned – yet many of the drivers of conflict remain
  • THEORISING THE CONFLICTGreed vs Grievance (Paul Collier, World Bank ) Greed – homo-economicus and resource conflicts – diamond war and mindless guerillas Grievance – Colonial/Post-Colonial legacy of high levels of inequality, youth marginalisation, regional disparities, enclave resource extraction & patronism Post-Conflict Peacebuilding Strategy appears to be underpinned by the former – rather than the latter
  • UN AND INT. COMMUNITY LIBERAL PEACE THESIS: PEACEBUILDING AS PACIFICATION Hegemonic approach sees Security, Democracy and Markets as priority in post conflict peacebuilding SECURITY FIRST then ……Development? Social Sectors seen as less of a priority, education marginalised Current Model in Sierra Leone has created Security and Misery rather than Development – a flawed model based on a flawed analysis? In Galtung‟s terms – Negative Peace (absence of war) rather than Positive Peace (transformation of conditions that led to conflict) Zizek on „Violence‟‟ - Subjective and Systemic Violence: “the often catastrophic consequences of the smooth functioning of our economic and political systems (Zizek, Violence 2).” – symptoms & causes
  • EDUCATION‟S MARGINALISATIONMISPLACED Education System in Sierra Leone contributed to the drivers of the conflict and education improvements key to popular understanding of „wellbeing‟ and a decent society.  Colonial education system post colonial legacy reproduced highly unequal system favouring elites and Freetown and Western Areas over other regions.  RUF rebels saw educational equity as a key demand and was included in initial ceasefire agreements  Ongoing failure to prioritise education system inequalities (gender, geography, class) is part of the mechanism through which the drivers of war are reproduced
  • CONCLUSIONS Need for a more‟ Social Model of Peacebuilding‟ : Education agencies need a new language to talk about education‟s role in sustainable post-conflict peacebuilding & a strategy to fight their corner in the broader debate within the UN and beyond More investment in social sectors could address drivers of conflict in Sierra Leone – if based on good analysis and strategy Political Economy and Conflict Analysis is NOT the panacea – it is also political (e.g Collier vs Duffield) In Sierra Leone UN „Peacebuilding‟ has led to the restoration of an old pre-conflict order. Success. in Zizek‟s terms, is a return to the catastrophic consequences of the smooth functioning of our economic and political systems (Zizek, Violence 2).” Where the continuities between colonial and post-colonial are evident….
  • UNESCO Centre