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An Overview of RiskPreparedness & UNESCOONE UN Project “Building Capacity in Natural Risk Preparedness for Cultural Heritage Sites in Albania”. Tirana, Albania Dr. D. Poletto UNESCO Venice Office email@example.com
Risks and DisastersAs pointed out by the :2009 global assessmentreport on disaster riskreductionthe number of disasters around theworld increases … along with its riskwhich may be considered as acombination of (natural-human induced)hazards and scarce resilience of humanand natural environments to cope withthem.
Stresses and MultiplierRisk FactorsHazards have always stalked mankindhowever, disaster vulnerability haveincreased due to societal “tectonic stresses”and “multiplier factors” (T.O.Dixon 2007):a. tectonic stresses are mainly determined byan intertwined relation betweennatural/human settings:1.Population stress: population growth (doublingof world population in the past 40 years) andgeogr. divide and megacities growth in DC(quintupling of urban popolation);2.Environmental stress from human inducedtransformation in the biosphere (land, watersetc.) including atmosphere and climate change;
Stresses and MultiplierRisk Factors3. Energy stress (depletion of oil based sources);4. Economic stress resulting from instabilities in global economic system and the ever widening social polarisation.b. Multiplier risk factors are making Hazards more severe and widespreading in their impact…The globe has become a “single operational unit” in which human kind is acting as a physical force in the natural system of the planet due to the global connectivity of our activities….therefore, hazards that once would have been local shocks now may effect whole regions if not the whole planet!
Reduction ofvulnerability is possible?UNESCO is strongly committed toHyogo Framework for Action2005-2015 adopted at the 2005Kobe World Conference onDisaster Reduction.Cost/benefit analysis demonstrates that reductionof vulnerability is possible and convenient (1$invested in disaster preparedness and mitigationwill prevent 4 to 8 $ in disaster losses). Howevergovernments are refrained to invest to preventsomething uncertain
UN ISDR PlatformUNESCO works in team (UNDP-UNEP-UNICEF-UNHabitat-WMO-WHO-FAO-IAEA-WB group) in the frame of theinternational strategy for disasterreduction (ISDR) 4 objectives:- Increase public awareness to understand risk,vulnerability and disaster reduction globally;- Obtain commitment from public authorities toimplement disaster reduction policies andactions;-Stimulate interdisciplinary and intersectoralpartnerships, including the expansion of risksreduction networks;-Improve scientific knowledge about disasterreduction.
UNESCO DDR Strategyinto EducationThe Hyogo framework for Action: building theresilience of communities and Nations toDisasters (HFA) designates priority 3: use ofknowledge innovation and education to build aculture of safety and resilience;Disaster prevention and preparedness hasbeen included in EDS, as a part of promotingedu and awareness to reduce disasters.Work to integrate the disaster risk reduction intoedu curricula in realizing target 2 MDG onachieving universal primary school (adhered tothe world campaign on disaster reductionDisaster reduction begins at school”.
Education and PublicAwarenessTo seek political commitment in integratingdisaster risk reduction (DDR) into educationcurricula, school construction and educationsector plans;To highlight the role and contribution of localcommunalities in particular women as well aslocal authorities and implementing partners inthe educational process;To launch pivotal initiative, identify goodpractices and identify national champions inintegrating disaster risk reduction into schoolcurricula and in developing school safetyprogrammes.
Natural HazardsMajor natural hazards which major damage tohuman properties and lives losses :Earthquakes: 50.000 occur on average everyyear. Cities and megacities around the worldhave major earthquake default.Tsunami: 2004 Indian Ocean 240.000 peoplekilled;Floods: among the most frequent and deadly ofnatural phenomena (affecting 520 million peoplea year) also in relation to tropical hurricanessouring
Education and PublicAwarenessThe best science and technology in theworld are of little value unless they can beturned into effective disaster warningsthat ordinary people can understand.People, communities can build a culture of resilience tonatural by been taught how to defend themselves.It turns to dramatically reduce casualties and loss oflivelihood when disaster strikes. Educational andcommunication aspects of disaster mitigation such as thepreparation of an information kit for the media, teachingmaterial Disaster risk reduction begins at school.
Protecting cultural heritageHosting the secretariat of the World HeritageConvention, UNESCO has been stronglyinvolved, along with its three advisory bodiesof the Convention, in risk assessment andrescue operations to protect monuments andurban historic centers, sites etc.- risk assessment- rescue and safeguard operations (Cuzco,Florence, Venice, Bam (Iran), etc.- manuals : a strategy for reducing risks at the WHproperties
Protecting cultural heritageDespite Cultural and natural properties areincreasingly affected by hazardous events, thenumber of WH properties that have developeda risk reduction plan is very low:-More focus is devoted to visible stress on theproperties (mass tourism, estate speculation etc).- vulnerability is invisible until manifested throughthe happening of hazardous events.-General ideas upon which catastrophic event arebeyond human control.
Protecting cultural heritageThe impact of disasters in WHS may beof great relevance as may hinder:their “outstanding universal value” andundermine the peculiar character andfunction which apply to the criteria definedin the Operational Guidelines for theimplementation of the WH Convention tobe enlisted.Pose risks to local communities lives and livelihoods dwellingthe site, threat visitors security, undermine local economyand tourism.
DRM and HERITAGEDRM should:•aim to prevent or reduce the impacts of disaster on WHproperties and to human lives and livelihoods;•secure resilience to the core value upon which theproperty was inscribed on the WH List. This should be thedriving element to risk plans development;•consider also the creeping vulnerability factor (lack ofmaintenance, deterioration etc.) which may turn anhazardous event into a full fledge disaster;•play a role also in the buffer zones of the WHP accordingto the surrounding urban and env.al environment.
Challenges•Lack of coordination between a given WH sitemanagement systems (including a siteDRM-ifany) and the disaster management machinery ofthe nation and region in which the property islocated;•Stand alone plans- single issues oriented versuslarger scale disaster risk reduction plans;•Poor-No risk assessment which shouldencompass natural, human, logistic andinfrastructural, economic settings of a given site;•No updated inventory of the cultural heritagesites of its movable and immovable componentsand related location…
ONE UN ALBANIAWhen the UN Secretary General launchedDelivering as ONE in 2007, Albania, amongother 7 countries, volunteered to become atesting ground for the implementation of areformed UN system agency on field.This underpins an integrated framework ofaction based on : One UN programme Albaniafocused on better support the country to achieveits strategic goals as expressed by key politicaldocuments and the UN Development AssistanceFramework (UNDAF) – 2006-2010.
ONE ProgrammeFramework UNDAF pursue 5 priorities along with theencompassing principles of gender equalityand development of national capacity:-More transparent and accountable governance;-Greater inclusive participation in decision making;-More equitable access to quality basic services;-Regional development to reduce regional disparities;-Environmentally sustainable development.
ONE Budgetary FrameworkONE UN coherence fund provides a clearimage of sources allocated or fund gaping forthe implementation of the programmeframework.Donors are encouraged to commit multi-year funding to thissingle financial pool which should be the financial hand toimplement the strategic priorities by the one UN programmeas jointly determined by Government, UN ResidentCoordinator and participating agencies.
ONE LeaderThe One UN programme is implemented ina collaborative manner through a jointexecutive committee chaired by theDirector of the Department of strategy anddonor coordination and the ONE UNResident Coordinator.They both allocate the ONE UN CoherenceFund according to the priorities decided alsowith the participating agency.
Project ConsistencyThe project has to be considered an activity inline with the following Regional and Nationalactions:1. REGIONALThe Disaster Preparedness and Prevention initiative for SEE(DPPI) developed by the Regional Cooperation Council(RCC)- 10 signatories countries including Albania.Proposed WMO-UNDP initiative of building capacity inDisaster Risk reduction through Regional Cooperation andCollaboration in SEE (2009-2010) aimed at increasingregional disaster risk reduction cooperation in WesternBalkans and harmonisation of methodologies, plans andstrategies at regional scale.
Project Consistency2. NATIONALAlbania has been beneficiary of relevant projects devoted toDisaster Preparedness and Management:-Disaster Management and Emergency Preparedness(DMEP, 2002-2005). UNDP implementing project aimed atreducing the disaster risks faced by the vulnerablepopulations in Albania by strengthening the national disastermanagement system at different levels;- Disaster Risk Mitigation and Adaptation Project (AL-DRMAP): consolidate national based capacity to plan formitigate and respond to disasters and the approval of acomprehensive countrywide disaster risk reduction andadaptation strategy
Cultural and educational needsThere are still important needs to bemet both at cultural and educationallevel, by working side by side under theONE UN Albania thought technicalcooperation.The project in Natural Risk preparedness and Mitigation incultural and UNESCO designated sites is an attempt ofUNESCO to launch a new season of cooperation in Albaniaon these sensitive issue area.Considerable amount of work has also to be likely put inawareness campaign to educate young people, and thepublic of Albania at large on natural risk preparedness,although not in the immediate focus of this project.
OBJECTIVESAlbeit Albania is vulnerable to the mosttypologies of hazards as stressed out by theseismicity map in Europe [EC-DG EnvironmentJuly 2003], the importance of seismic activityin SEE is concentrated in Albania, Greece,Turkey and Southern Italy.Proceeding from this, and according to the government ofAlbania priorities, the project is conceived to assist thecountry to achieve:Update understanding and raise awareness of seismologicvulnerability in particular and natural hazards affectingAlbania in general, among national officers and sitemanagers and local authoritiesCapacity building in the field of risk mitigation andpreparedness for Cultural Heritage properties in cooperationwith WHC and ICCROM.
FORESEEN ACTIVITIES1. Risk assessment and AwarenessRaising [on going to be completed in ….]:-It is an interdisciplinary activity conducted byinterfacing seismology and cultural heritageknowledge based disciplines devoted to takestoke of the existing data, maps andassessment report;- This will help elaborate specific guidelinesand recommendations tailored on theSeismologic Risk threatening Cultural HeritageSites and properties in Albania.
FORESEEN ACTIVITIES2. Training on Site Managers:This will be designed, planned and conductedin collaboration with ICCROM and the WHCand will aimed at:-Illustrating the core principles of Disaster RiskManagement (DMR) for heritage and the appliedmethodology to identify, assess and mitigatedisaster risk;-To train sensitive stakeholders and site managersin to reduce risks to the cultural heritageproperties;- teaching in a demonstrative way how to preparea DRM plan in cultural heritage properties (WHS).
FORESEEN ACTIVITIES3. Regional Workshop in Tirana:It will be a conclusive milestone conceived toshare the results achieved with the regionalepistemic communities, stakeholders andgovernmental officers interested in riskdisaster preparedness in Cultural Sites atRegional/international level.Particular focus will be devoted to promote theintegration of DRM in the WHS and its followingintegration in regional/national disastersmanagement strategies and plans.