Country Presentation Tunisia
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Country Presentation Tunisia Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Mitigating vulnerabilities and promoting sustainable Office of Legal and Procurement Support growth: Sequencing, cost-efficiency and fiscal UNDP, NY sustainability of social protection. Tunisia Case Study M. Sadok Elamri Program Specialist Environment, Energy and Sustainable Development UNDP Tunisia Tel : (216) 71 903 586 Sadok.el-amri@undp.org
  • 2. Scope of PresentationIntroductionThe contributory systemThe non contributory systemChallenges and recommandations 2
  • 3. IntroductionTotal population : 10.674 Millions (2011).Population growth rate : 1.29% (NSI 2010)Poverty rate (based on national poverty line):Absolute poverty rate : 4.6 % ; Poverty rate : 15,3 %.Unemployment : National : 18,9 %; inter-regional range : 9-32 %. Youth unemployment : 42 % university graduates : 30.5%GDP/Capita (PPP) : $ 8940 (WB, 2011)HDI : 0.698 (2011); Ranked 94/187Regional and social disparities : poverty, unemployment,access to education and health services,… 3
  • 4. Introduction No nationally agreed definition of social protection! Concretely 2 main pillars : - Contributory system: insurance / social security. - Non contributory system : social assistance Social Protection System Contributory pillar Non contributory pillar PNAFN - AMAL General Retirement Heath System Medical Assistanc Compen Program for Other social System : CNAM (One assistance e to needy sation unemplo protectio Common (1987) Fund yment n families (1970) (2011) CNRPS CNSS System) (1987) programs(for public (For private sector) - sector) - 1960 1976 4
  • 5. 1/ The contributory system : Insurance / social security1.1 The pension regime (Retirement system):3 branches: Elderly benefit Disability benefit Survivors’ benefit2 pension funds: •CNRPS : for public sector employees •CNSS : for private sector employeesBased on different legislation between private and public sector : retirment age, contributive rate. 5
  • 6. 1/ The contributory system : Insurance / social security1.1 The pension regime (Retirement system):• Benefits for a long while from favorable demographic evolution (notably due to the family planning program introduced in early sixties).• But ,Tunisia finished its demographic transition and is actually facing demographic trends of an ageing population : increase in life expectancy (70.3 in 1990; 74.7 in 2010), increase of the part of over 60 population, decreased in fertility rate.• Important impacts on the “PAY AS YOU GO” retirement system (intergenerational transfers) and on elders related health services expenditures (increase of incidence of chronic diseases).• Dependency ratio (number of contributors for one retiree) falls from 16.6 in 1980 to 4.5 in 2010.• Demographic change and high unemployment are creating important financial deficit which will be completely unsustainable if no reform in undertaken quickly. 6
  • 7. 1/ The contributory system : Insurance / social security1.1 The pension regime (Retirement system): Different regimes managed by CNSS. Progressevly integrated new categories of beefeciairies. Recently new regime created for domestic workers. High global coverage (73.7%). Low caverage of agricultural sector employees (12%) But, 60 % of retires receive a pension amount under the minimum wage. Only 35% of elderly declare receiving pensions. 7
  • 8. 1/ The contributory system : Insurance / social security1.2 The health insurance system (CNAM): Recently established (2007) unifying public and private sector health insurance systems No client satisfaction survey / cost effectiveness evaluation yet Weaknesses :- long reimbursement delays,- low annual maximum reimbursement amount (128$ vs an average of 22$ per medical visit).- Positive consolidated balance result of CNAM regime.- But, health insurance regime continuously in deficit, compensated by positive results of «the work accidents and occupational diseases » regime. 8
  • 9. 2/ The non contributory : social assistance systemSocial transfers increasing in recent years (17.1% of GDP in 2006; 18.4 % of GDP in 2010)-Ministry of social affairs.Tunisian authorities attempted to alleviatepoverty through 3 types of safety net programs: i) Food subsidies (cereals, vegetal oil, fuel,…); ii) direct transfer in kind and cash targeted to the needy (elderly, handicapped, schoolchildren and needy families); iii) “active labor market” and “public works” programs (short term jobs for unskilled workers, in both urban and rural areas, wages below the minimum wage, locating predominantly poor areas ). 9
  • 10. 2/ The non contributory : social assistance system2.1 The program for Need families (PNAFN) Created in 1986. To address negative effects of potential economic chocks due to Structural Adjustment Program. Most important “social transfer program”. Targeted Group : Poor families, Poor aged people, Poor handicapped persons. Benefits : Fixed Cash transfer (monthly $ 61 + $6/ children) . Demand for social assistance significally increased after January 14th revolution : 185 000 families in 2010; 235 000 in 2012. Recent assessment (WB): - highly politicized quota based program. - Covers only 17.3 % of poors. - Cost efficiency : each $ used reduces poverty by 0.12 to 0.23. 10
  • 11. 2/ The non contributory : social assistance system2.1 The program for Need families (PNAFN) PNAFN beneficiaries benefit also from Free medical assistance (AMG1 Card). But required regional/local/decentralized health infrastructure is insufficient. Sick people bear additional costs of transportation and risk delayed to access to emergency services. 50.7 % of women in rural areas declare having limited access to health centers due to remoteness. 11
  • 12. 2/ The non contributory : social assistance system2.2 The General Compensation Fund (GCF) Created in 1970 Benefits : Subsidies for selected products (cereals, sugar, vegetal oil, fuel,.…). Important and increasing pressure on state budget resources (1.4 % of GDP in 2007; 1.87 % of GDP in 2011). No targeted groups. Inefficient targeting needy families. Benefits more for high and middle income households……2.3 AMAL (hope in Arabic) program for the unemployed Introduced in 2011. Covers 50000 young university graduates. Benefits : Cash transfer ($ 123) + professional training to enhance employability. First descriptive report : only 3.6 % succeeded to find a job.; Side effects : reluctance of some beneficiairies to accepts $180-250 paid job. 12
  • 13. 2/ The non contributory : social assistance system Other social and development programs, indirectly linked to social protection, focusing on improving standard of living. Definition of social protection programs ?? Overlapping ? Cumulative benefits ? Name Date of Targeted group Actions creation Assistance to unmarried 1993 Unmarried mother Cash transfer mother with no resources Public works programs 1995 Short term jobs for unskilled Cash for work workers Regional program for 1973 Groups with low revenue in rural Infrastructure improve anddevelopment (Rural and urban and urban area job creation 1984 areas) 1992 National program for 1986 Low and Middle-income groups Create decent housing eliminating rudimentary Grant / loans housing National Solidarity Fund 1993 Groups with low revenue in rural Infrastructure improve and and urban area job creation …………………. 13
  • 14. Challenges and recommandationsNo reliable cost efficiency studies undertaken. Authotiritanregime tried to control data and was reluctant to anyevaluation (social protection = cost of social peace !).Social protection system challenged by demography,poverty, unemployment , January 14th Social uprising,…Strong institutional capacity and well developed basicadministrative tools.But clear problems of technical design andfragmentation.Assistance and active labor market programs managed bydifferent ministries operating with little coordination. 14
  • 15. Challenges and recommandationsNecessity to move gradually to a :• system view of social protection (definition, clear vision,…), to exploit positive interactions, improve efficiency and effectiveness, respond to different population groups..• More harmonization/ integration of social assistance transfers and more coordination/interaction with other relevant programs (Service continuum ).• Develop basic tools : beneficiaries identification systems and registries, targeting schemes, M$E arrangements (entry point for more systemic reform to improve program design and expand coverage). New initiative : creation of social protection programs e-platform with great challenges : (social protection definition? reluctance to share information,..) Revolutionary process : opportunity and challenge. 15
  • 16. Thank you for your attention. M. Sadok Elamri Program Specialist Environment, Energy and Sustainable Development UNDP Tunisia Tel : (216) 71 903 586 Sadok.el-amri@undp.orgPhoto from manifestations for Tunisian revolution. 16