Dr. Clos Presentation at Clatham House, London 6 Feb

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Urbanization Challenges of the 21st Century

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Dr. Clos Presentation at Clatham House, London 6 Feb

  1. 1. URBANIZATION CHALLENGESOF THE 21st CENTURYDr. Joan ClosUnited Nations Under-Secretary-Generaland UN-Habitat Executive Directorwww.unhabitat.org
  2. 2. Urbanization challenges of the 21st century1. State of the art2. The prevailing urbanization model: GS203. The African Case4. The way forward
  3. 3. Urbanization: State of the artBillions 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 Developing Regions 2 1 Developed Regions 0 1950 1970 1990 2010 2030 2050 Source: UN 93% of the total growth will happen in developing world
  4. 4. Urbanization: State of the artUrban Population, Regions 100 90 82,13 Africa 80 79,63 72,78 70 70,22 Asia 60 Europe Percent 50 42,17 40 39.98 Latin America 30 and the Caribbean 20 Northern America 10 Oceania 0 Source: UN
  5. 5. Urbanization: State of the art
  6. 6. Urbanization: State of the art Near 800 million people are living in slumsSub-Saharan Africa: East Asia:62% of the urban population 37%South Asia: Latin America and the Caribbean:43% 27%
  7. 7. Urbanization challenges of the 21st century1. State of the art2. The prevailing urbanization model3. The African Case4. The way forward
  8. 8. The prevailing urbanization modelCharacteristics• The super-super block.• High level of zoning.• The Tower in the Park.• Very low density (< 4,000 hab / sq.km.)• The super-way as the backbone of the city.• High use of Green as a decorative and softening tool of the model.• Well supported by all political tendencies. General consensus. Prevailing Technology Glass / Steel / Tarmac
  9. 9. The prevailing urbanization model A model that goes global because it… • Is based on the easy and profitable agreement between the Real Estate, Financial, and institutional sectors. • Applies the successful industrial production of the car industry into the urban issue (a product of the successful car industry). • Represents an evolution and mutation of the modern city model: similar principles, larger scale. … making it today the prevailing urbanization model
  10. 10. The prevailing urbanization model Recreational Residential Slums Business Commercial district Technologic Industrial al Park
  11. 11. Urbanization challenges of the 21st century1. State of the art2. The prevailing urbanization model: GS203. The African Case4. The way forward
  12. 12. The African caseUrban Issues• Lack of urban planning. Slums (60%)• Lack of public space: <10% of the city land• Lack of basic services (clean water, sanitation, energy)• Overcrowding but low density• Traffic congestion
  13. 13. The African caseEconomic Issues• Lack of economies of urbanization and economies of agglomeration• Loss of the city as a multiplying wealth generator• High unemployment rates (+50%), specially the youth• Informal economy: +70%• Weak public sector economy
  14. 14. The African casePolitical and Social Issues• Lack of proper governance (taxing system, entitled institutions, etc.)• Lack of public safety• Social disparities. Incapacity to generate middle class• Gated communities as an additional segregation of the city
  15. 15. Urbanization challenges of the 21st century1. State of the art2. The prevailing urbanization model: GS203. The African Case4. The way forward
  16. 16. The way forward…GOAL: To use the city and the urbanization processas the main engine of national economic growthTOOLS:1. Establishment of a national urban policy.2. Go back to basics in urban planning. Public space as the first priority (+30% of land)3. Increase density and reduce overcrowding. City infills and planned city extensions. Basic services (water & sanitation)
  17. 17. The way forward…1. NATIONAL URBAN POLICY- A more coordinated approach to urban growth isrequired at national level in order to coordinate differentareas of government: road and transportation, economicdevelopment, energy strategy…- A vision of the national urban strategy is required withspecial emphasis on small and intermediate sizeurbanization. Incentives are needed to implement suchstrategy.- Urban growth should be prioritized in natural transportand energy corridors in order to minimize the sprawl andincrease sustainability.
  18. 18. The way forward…2. Urban Planning: BACK TO THE BASICSPlan in advance (30 years)Plan at scale (numbers that make a difference)Plan in phases (of public investment)Plan for social integration (pro-poor policies)Plan for density (incremental)Plan for connectivity (focus on public realm)Plan for energy efficiency and risk prevention
  19. 19. The way forward…3. PLAN CITY INFILLS AND CITY ENLARGEMENTS- In front of the expected growth of urban population,immediate action is required in urban planning.- When ever possible, adequate growth of urbanpopulation should be planned in infill areas in the existingurbanized space.- Good and qualitative density required (12,500hab./km2). Without good design, density becomesunbearable and usually overcrowding.- City extensions should be planned when there is no infillcapacity, also with adequate quality density and attachedto the existing core city and basic services.
  20. 20. The way forward…3. PLAN CITY INFILLS AND CITY ENLARGEMENTS- Plan for mix uses of the urban space, taking into accountthe use for social diversity.- City enlargements should be planned in a proper size andin a long term vision; in order to avoid monopolisticpositions of investors and irrational evolution of urban landprices.- Special attention should be given to those strategiesfocused on the network of metropolitan regions,intermediate cities and market towns.
  21. 21. The way forward……towards a sustainable, equitable and prosperouscity model for Africa• High Quality of Public Space. 30% Street and 20% amenities• Proper and well designed density. 12,500 hab./km2• Mixed Urban Uses. Avoid zoning when possible (10% of the land of the city at the most). Avoid super-way division of neighborhoods• Environmentally sustainable. Efficient Mobility. Emphasis on the walking distances, recovery of the human scale. Reduction of green house gases emissions. Proper building codes.• Mixed social structure. Social Integration, Acceptance of Migrants, Social Diversity, Cosmopolitan values, the challenge of living together• Practical and enforceable norms and rules. Participatory, democratic, respectful
  22. 22. www.unhabitat.org24

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