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  • 1. Unit 3: Understanding Instructional Processes EDUA 1800 February 18, 2010
  • 2. Unit Question: How can we convert our knowledge about development, diversity, and learning into effective teaching practice?
  • 3. Findings & Implications
    • Intelligence is not a static reality that is fixed at birth. It is a dynamic, ever-growing, changing reality throughout one’s life. Intelligence can be improved, expanded and amplified.
    • Recognize that all students can learn and facilitate the growth of every student in the classroom, not only the most capable.
  • 4. Findings & Implications
    • Students learn in radically different ways, and intelligence is multi-faceted and complex.
    • Design learning experiences to accommodate students with various styles of learning and various forms of intelligence.
  • 5. Findings & Implications
    • Information is stored in a natural hierarchy in the brain, with highly generalized concepts followed by less inclusive concepts, and finally by specific facts and details.
    • Help students develop a conceptual framework by painting the big picture first.
  • 6. Findings & Implications
    • The mind operates through various cognitive patterns which can be improved, amplified, and changed through the explicit teaching of thinking skills and cognitive processes.
    • Teach thinking and learning strategies explicitly to enhance every student’s possibilities for success.
  • 7. Findings & Implications
    • Learning about how we learn and thinking about how we think can accelerate learning and can significantly increase the levels of transfer of learning beyond the teaching/learning situation into life.
    • Help students become experts on their own thinking and learning processes.
  • 8. Findings & Implications
    • Students in cooperative learning classrooms perform better academically and develop stronger scholastic aspirations and more positive social behaviour.
    • Facilitate cooperative learning experiences for students.
  • 9. Findings & Implications
    • Attitudes and perceptions play a fundamental role in the learning process. A student’s perception that he or she is a poor learner overrides natural ability and previous learning.
    • Foster a positive, affirming climate in the classroom and help students develop cognitive self-esteem.
  • 10. Strategic Teaching
    • Making deliberate, informed decisions about the best tools to use for each learning task and to reach each learning outcome of a curriculum, given the particular needs and characteristics of the students.
  • 11.  
  • 12.  
  • 13. Success for All Learners
  • 14.  
  • 15. Comparing, contrasting, classifying, analogies, and metaphors 45%
  • 16. Summarizing and note taking 34% Details or Support Main Ideas Class Topic Date Two Column Notes (6.83)
  • 17. Generating non-linguistic representations Three-Point Approach (6.36) 27% Synonym or Example Diagram Word or Concept Definition
  • 18. Providing questions, cues, and advance organizers
    • Lesson Frame (6.19)
    • Anticipation Guides (6.25)
    • Charting the Patterns (6.41)
    • Paragraph Frame (6.64)
    • Fact-Based and Issue-Based Article Analysis (6.70)
    • SQ3R (6.65)
  • 19.  
  • 20. Using cooperative learning 27%
  • 21. Cooperative Learning
    • When implemented properly, cooperative learning is a powerful instructional approach resulting in a spectrum of positive outcomes.
    • Cooperative learning is not just having students work in groups.
    • What are the features of effective cooperative groups?
    • Which are critical characteristics of cooperative learning?
  • 22. Small, heterogeneous groups
  • 23. Clear goals
  • 24. Positive interdependence
    • Positive correlation of outcomes
      • Are students on the same side?
    • Interdependence
      • Does the task require working together?
    • Ways to achieve:
      • Varied knowledge or skills
      • Resource access
      • Roles
      • Challenging tasks
  • 25. Training and/or structure that facilitates effective interaction skills
  • 26. Teacher as monitor and resource
  • 27. Individual accountability
    • Is individual, public performance required?
      • Individual: performance is done alone without help
      • Public: someone witnesses the performance
      • Required: not optional
  • 28. Rewards for group success
  • 29. Varying duration
  • 30. Self-evaluation
  • 31. Frayer Plus Concept Builder
    • Topic/concept: Cooperative Learning
    • Characteristics
    • Essential (always)
    • Non-essential (sometimes)
    • Non-characteristics (never)
    • Examples and Non-examples
    • Generate a non-linguistic representation
    • Define in own words
  • 32. Next class:
    • Creating and Maintaining a Productive Classroom Environment
    • Prep: Read Chapter 11