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High Tunnel Raspberries
 

High Tunnel Raspberries

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Presentation of University of Minnesota High Tunnel Raspberry production research during 2009. Presented by Emily Hoover, Steve Poppe, Emily Tepe and Ron Branch at the 2009 Minnesota Statewide High ...

Presentation of University of Minnesota High Tunnel Raspberry production research during 2009. Presented by Emily Hoover, Steve Poppe, Emily Tepe and Ron Branch at the 2009 Minnesota Statewide High Tunnel Conference in Alexandria, MN on Dec. 2-3, 2009.

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  • What type of tunnel is on slide 8 right side? Will the high peak shed snow better than round or arch types? What is the width size? How well does it with stand wind? Do you use one or two layers of plastic?
    WiIl one layer survive as well as two inflated layers?
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    High Tunnel Raspberries High Tunnel Raspberries Presentation Transcript

    • High Tunnel Raspberry Research Morris, MN Alexandria, MN Grand Rapids, MN 2009 Update http://hightunnels.cfans.umn.edu/ © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • University of Minnesota Organic Research Initiative Multi-disciplinary Focus research efforts Connect with stakeholders Improve funding potential Get Involved! © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • High Tunnel Berries at the University of Minnesota © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • High Tunnel Berries at the University of Minnesota Individual donations © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • The Tunnel © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Irrigation © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Netting © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Planting May 2008 © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • The First Year © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • The First Year © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Trellising © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • “…the raspberries produced from the high tunnel were absolutely phenomenal….” “Some of the biggest I have ever seen.” “…plump, sweet and tart!!!! Nice bright color…not bruised at all.” “We loved the raspberries....” -Joshua O’Brien, Executive Chef University of Minnesota Morris Sodexo Campus Services © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Heat OLD NEW © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • UM Morris Data © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • 4’ 3’ Autumn Britten 8/14/09 Field Caroline 8/14/09 Height © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • 5’ 6’ Autumn Britten 8/14/09 High Tunnel Caroline 8/14/09 Height © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Primocane Height Two Varieties in Field and High Tunnel (inches) 80 73 70 60 60 56 55 Autumn Britten Field 50 47 45 Autumn Britten High Inches 39 39 40 Tunnel Caroline Field 30 24 25 22 22 20 Caroline High Tunnel. 10 0 6/1/2009 7/1/2009 8/1/2009 © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Cumulative Yield Two Varieties in Field and High Tunnel (Pounds/36 linear foot of row) 120 Field, Autumn Britten 106 100 99 Pounds/ 36 linear feet of row High Tunnel 80 Autumn Britten Field Caroline 60 58 High Tunnel 40 Caroline 40 20 0 8/5/2009 8/15/2009 8/25/2009 9/4/2009 9/14/2009 9/24/2009 10/4/2009 10/14/2009 10/24/2009 © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Cumulative Yield Two Varieties in Field and High Tunnel (Pounds/36 linear feet of row) 120 106 99 100 Pounds/36 linear feet of row Field, Autumn Britten 80 High Tunnel Autumn 60 58 Britten Field Caroline 40 40 High Tunnel Caroline 20 0 © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Individual Berry Weight Two Varieties in Field and High Tunnel (ounces) 0.25 High Tunnel Autumn Average berry size in a 6 oz. Britten Driscoll’s clamshell 0.20 Field, Autumn Britten High Tunnel Caroline 0.15 Ounces Field Caroline 0.10 0.05 0.00 8/12/2009 8/26/2009 9/9/2009 9/23/2009 10/7/2009 © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Cost of Construction: 30’ x 48’ High Tunnel FarmTek Growers Supply 30’ x 48’ High Tunnel $2700.00 Hired labor to construct $1778.00 Thermostatically controlled roll-up sides $1600.00 Electrical $1200.00 Wood materials with door $800.00 Drip irrigation $160.00 Total Initial Costs $8238.00 © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Potential Income from 30’ x 48’ High Tunnel in the Second Year (First Full Harvest Year) 106.32 pounds/36 feet of linear row x 3 rows per 30’x 318.96 48’ high tunnel pounds Number of 6oz. containers filled 850 Price per 6 oz. container $4.50 Total per 30’ x 48’ high tunnel in the second year $3825.00 (first full harvest year) © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Potential Return on Investment Planting Year 1/3 of full harvest potential $1275.00 Second Year Full harvest $3825.00 Third Year Full harvest $3825.00 Total income after third year $8925.00 Return on initial investment of $8238.00 after third full year. © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Joan J at Alexandria, MN © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Spider Mites © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Spider Mites © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Primocane Height Joan J at three spacings (inches) 80 70 70 63 62 60 60 61 60 50 JoanJ_12 43 Inches 40 40 38 JoanJ_18 30 JoanJ_24 20 12” spacing 18” spacing 24” spacing 12” spacing 18” spacing 24” spacing 12” spacing 18” spacing 24” spacing 10 0 "6/18/2009" "7/15/2009" "8/14/2009" © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Cumulative Yield Joan J at three spacings (pounds/36 feet of row) 140 121 120 115 100 Pounds/36 feet of row 80 81 12 60 18 24 40 20 0 8/10 8/15 8/20 8/25 8/30 9/4 9/9 9/14 9/19 9/24 9/29 © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Individual Berry Weight Joan J at three spacings (ounces) 0.28 0.26 0.24 0.22 0.20 12 Ounces 0.18 18 0.16 24 0.14 Average berry size in a 6 0.12 oz. Driscoll’s clamshell 0.10 8/10 8/15 8/20 8/25 8/30 9/4 9/9 9/14 9/19 9/24 9/29 © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • High Tunnel Primocane- Fruiting Raspberry Production at Grand Rapids- Year Two Shengrui Yao Department of Horticulture North Central Research and Outreach Center http://hightunnels.cfans.umn.edu/ © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Objectives: • Evaluate five primocane-fruiting raspberry cultivars • Compare their performance in the high tunnel with field planting • Monitor temperature changes in high tunnel and potential winter damage • Monitor pest and disease problems in the high tunnel • Disseminate the information to potential growersthanks to Northeast Minnesota Sustainable Development Special Partnership for their support of this project © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Tunnel management: • Drip irrigation with 2 T-tapes/row • Fertigation for soil fertility management in 2009 • Opening/closing tunnel sides to control tunnel temperature • Many wild bumble bees and honey bees for pollination occurred naturally in the area • Propane heater for frost protection © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Yield data • In 2008, total of 154 lb of berries were harvested from our 21x48 ft high tunnel from August 5 to November 6. • In 2009, total of 379 lb of berries were harvested from our 21x48 ft high tunnel which was equivalent to 16,000 lb/acre from August 5 to November 2. • In 2009, 80 lb of berries were harvested from the field planting from August 12 to October 5. © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Yield (continued): Total Yields of high tunnel and field raspberries in 2008 and 2009 70 HT 08 60 HT 09 Field 09 50 Yield (lb) 40 30 20 10 0 8/5 8/19 9/2 9/16 9/30 10/14 10/28 Date © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Fruit earliness: Raspberry yield of five cultivars in high tunnel in 2009 500 A Bliss A Britten Caroline 400 Joan J Polana 300 Yield (g) 200 100 0 8/5 8/19 9/2 9/16 9/30 10/14 10/28 Date © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Productivity (2009): Cultivar Yield (lb) Yield (g) Autumn Bliss 3.2 b 1464 b Average HT berry weight (g) Autumn Britten 3.9 ab 1790 ab Wt/berry (g) 2008 2009 Caroline 5.0 a 2263 a Autumn Bliss 3.7 3.3 Autumn Britten 5.2x 4.2 Joan J 4.5 ab 2026 ab Caroline 4.1 4.2 Polana 4.8 a 2191 a Joan J 4.9 4.6 Polana 4.1 3.8 Row1 3.0 b 1349 b XAutumn Britten had double fruits in 2008 which made the average berry weight higher. Row2 4.6 a 2108 a Row3 4.9 a 2216 a Row4 4.6 a 2093 a *This yield is the berry weight per plant of the “original planting” in 2008. © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Cultivars: • Autumn Bliss: small fruit, fewer canes, very thorny, mid season. • Autumn Britten: nice fruit, fewer canes, mid season, (double berries) • Caroline: most vigorous, lots of canes and branches, nice flavor and fruits, very productive, moderate thorns, late cultivar • Joan J: nice and big fruit, thornless, mid season cultivar • Polana: very early, short plants, small and glossy fruits, moderate thorns Bare root plants were planted in the high tunnel at May 9, and in the field on May 12, 2008 Hand thinned most of Caroline plots and some Joan J plots in mid May and early July, 2009. © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Air temperature changes in and outside of high tunnel during winter of 2008/2009 Temperature changes in and outside of raspberry high tunnel in winter of 2008/2009 Max out 80 Min out 60 Max in Temperature (F) Min in 40 20 0 -20 -40 12/1/2008 12/21/2008 1/10/2009 1/30/2009 2/19/2009 3/11/2009 Date © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Air temperature changes in and outside of raspberry high tunnel during growing season of 2009 Maximum and minimum temperature changes in and outside of raspberry 110 high tunnel in 2009 Max in Min in Max out 90 Min out Temperature (F) 70 50 30 Heater effect 10 4/1 4/21 5/11 5/31 6/20 7/10Date 7/30 8/19 9/8 9/28 10/18 © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • High tunnel 5-19-09 Dec 15, 2008 Snow cover in winter No snow in winter Field 5-19-09 Growing points (5/15/09) Autumn Bliss 9.5 cd Autumn Britten 8.5 d Caroline 25.7 a Joan J 14.4 bc Polana 17.8 b Snow 17.2 a No snow 13.1 b © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Joan J 9-27-09 Caroline © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota Joan J
    • Joan J Polana Autumn Caroline Britten © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Raspberry Pests and Diseases at Grand Rapids • High tunnel: – Raspberry sawflies for both 2008 and 2009 – Spider mites • Appeared later in the season in 2008 without treatment; • Released parasitic mites and spot treated with insecticidal soap in 2009 – Cane borer (one cane in 2008) – Crown gall (one plant in 2008) – No other disease pressure • Field: only raspberry sawfly in 2008 and 2009 © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • What we learned in 2008 and 2009 • High tunnel primocane-fruiting raspberry is doable in MN even in northern MN • Tissue culture plants are highly recommended • Cane thinning and early pinching may be necessary for some vigorous cultivars • Limit N application if N was high in your high tunnels • Heat equipment is necessary for frost protection in northern Minnesota © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota