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Rivard mn ht_2012_
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Rivard mn ht_2012_

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  • LIST OF ROOTSTOCK WE ’VE WORKED WITH………. GROWER RECOMMENDATIONS……..
  • SEVERAL EXPERIMENTS……… LOOK INSIDE ORGANIC SYSTEM…………. SYSTEMS AND GRAFTING……….NO DISEASE……….OPTIMIZE
  • BEST EXAMPLES OF THIS IDEA LED TO SOME VERY PRODUCTIVE WORK THAT WE WERE ABLE TO DO WITH STEVE GROFF Mid-atlantic …..Guy in the back….>200 acres of mixed vegetables, Leader in no-till vegetables,  Tunnels
  • PRIMARY OBJECTIVE… NOT ORGANIC……. NOT HEIRLOOMS…… LESS MONEY…….. ECONOMICS
  • 8th edition of Plant Propagation.
  • After that, the graft is put into a healing chamber and allowed to reattach its vascular tissue under a pristine operating condition. These are pictures of some of the chambers that we have built on campus. Indoor and Outdoor.
  • Transcript

    • 1. HeirloomsMeBr Alternative ? Organics `High Home GardensTunnelsTomato Grafting for High Tunnel ProductionCary L. Rivard, Ph.D.February 9, 2012MN High Tunnels Conf.Brainerd, MN
    • 2. Tomato Grafting • First reports of vegetable grafting occurred in Asia in the 1920’s. Scion – Fusarium wilt of melon • Popularized in JapanRootstock and Korea – Tunnel and Greenhouse production
    • 3. Vegetable Grafting Worldwide81% of Korean and 54% of Japanesevegetable production uses grafted plants (Lee, 2003) Photos courtesy of M. Peet (NCSU)
    • 4. Benefits of Grafting• Root function – Disease resistance against soilborne pathogens – Water and nutrient uptake – Nutrient assimilation and transport – Interface with soil ecosystem
    • 5. Fusarium Wilt• Fusarium wilt is caused by Fusarium oxysporum. – Unilateral wilting – Yellowing of leaves – Browning of xylem
    • 6. Fusarium Wilt Fusarium Wilt Incidence: 60 Alamance Co. 2006 Non-grafted 50 Self-grafted RobustaFusarium Wilt Incidence (%) 40 Maxifort 30 20 10 0 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 Days After Transplanting
    • 7. Disease Management Corky Fusarium Wilt Verticillium Root-knot Bacterial SouthernRootstocks TMV Root Wilt (r1) Nematode Wilt Blight Race 1 Race 2Beaufort * R R R R R MR S HRMaxifort * R R R R R MR S HR(Unreleased) * R S R R R R HR MRTMZQ702 ** R S R R R R MR MRDai Honmei *** R R R S R R HR MRRST-04-105 **** R R R R R R HR MRBig Power ***** R R R R R R S HRRobusta ****** R R S R R S S ? R=Resistant , HR=Highly Resistant, MR=Moderately Resistant, S=Susceptible * = De ‘Ruiter Seed Co. ** = Sakata Seed Co. *** = Asahi Seed Co. **** = D Palmer Seed Co. ***** =Rijk Zwaan ****** = Bruinsma Seed Co.
    • 8. Benefits of Grafting• Root function – Disease resistance against soilborne pathogens – Water and nutrient uptake – Nutrient assimilation and transport – Interface with soil ecosystem
    • 9. CEFS Research2006 SR-SARE R&E Grant• Compare production dynamics of tunnel vs field production. – Environment – Disease – Productivity – Economics• Optimize cultural practices for high ‘Cherokee Purple’ tunnels. – Nutrient / Fertility – Planting Date• Investigate the role of grafting for open-field and tunnel production. – Beaufort – Maxifort – Nutrient uptake efficiency
    • 10. Total fruit n 300 200 Grafting Effects - 2007 100 0 BEAUFORT MAXIFORTC 180 160 42 % 53 % Total fruit yield (t/ha) 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Nongraft Beaufort Maxifort Nongraft Beaufort Maxifort Open -field High tunnel The main effect of grafting was significant in both years, across systems, and with both data sets (100 DAP vs “systems”). System*grafting = NS
    • 11. Total fruit n 300 200 Grafting Effects - 2008 100 0 BEAUFORT MAXIFORTC 180 160 37 % Total fruit yield (t/ha) 140 35 % 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Nongraft Beaufort Maxifort Nongraft Beaufort Maxifort Open -field High tunnel The main effect of grafting was significant in both years, across systems, and with both data sets (100 DAP vs “systems”). System*grafting = NS
    • 12. 60 Grafting Effects - Yield Total fruit yield (t Maxifort 50 40 30 20 10 0 * Open-field 0 1 High tunnel 2 3 4 5 6 Harvest interval CTotal fruit yield (t/ha) 80 Total fruit yield (t/ha) 80 70 Nongraft 2007 70 Nongraft 2007 Beaufort Beaufort 60 60 Maxifort Maxifort 50 50 40 40 30 30 20 20 10 10 0 0 * 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Harvest interval 80 Nongraft D 2008 80 Nongraft 2008 70 70 Total fruit yield (t/ha)Total fruit yield (t/ha) Beaufort Beaufort 60 60 Maxifort Maxifort 50 50 40 40 30 30 20 20 10 10 0 * 0 * 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Harvest interval Harvest intervalTotal fruit yield (t/ha) 80 70 Nongraft 60 50 • Bi-weekly harvest data was collected into five bins. Beaufort Maxifort 40 – Last bin was the final (terminal) harvest 30 20 – Previous four were equivalent divisions of the harvest season 10 0 • Each interval = 3 weeks in the tunnel or 2 weeks in the open-field * 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
    • 13. Cedar Meadow Farm Steve GroffCedar Meadow Farm – Lancaster County, PA
    • 14. Verticillium Wilt• Verticillium dahliae – Loss of vigor – Wilting and leaf necrosis – Favored by cool wet weather – Race 2 prevalent in WNC (Bender & Shoemaker, 1984) – Reliance on fumigation
    • 15. Cedar Meadow FarmResearch Objectives• Can vigorous rootstock be used to manage verticillium wilt?• How does grafting fit in with fumigation? – Additive or alternative• Can we reduce economic constraints through cultural methods? – Plant spacing (2008) Kaitlin Dye (Summer 2008) – Transplant costs (2009) Photo Courtesy: Steve Groff
    • 16. Cedar Meadow Farm Lancaster County - 2009 80 C 70 CMarketable fruit yield (tons/acre) 60 B 50 A 40 30 20 10 0 Non-Fumigated Fumigated Non-Fumigated Fumigated Non-grafted Maxifort LSD P = 0.05
    • 17. Cedar Meadow Farm Lancaster County - 2008 70 C 60 C BCMarketable yield (tons/acre) B B 50 A 40 30 20 10 0 18" 24" 36" 18" 24" 36" Non-grafted Maxifort LSD based on P=0.05
    • 18. Economics Net returns of grafting ($/acre) : 2008 Non-grafted* Maxifort* (Max-Std) 18" Spacing $44,525 $47,366 $2,841 24" Spacing $47,827 $3,302 36" Spacing $45,533 $1008 Net returns of grafting ($/acre) : 2009 Non-grafted* Maxifort* (Max-Std)Fumigated $47,739 $60,699 $12,960Non-fumigated $57,677 $9,938 * Values = Gross revenue – harvest costs – transplant costs Selling price = $0.66 per lbs
    • 19. Conclusions • Grafting provides a site-specific management tool for soilborne disease. – Disease diagnosis and rootstock selection are critical. • Use of rootstocks may increase yield through added vigor and nutrient uptake. • Cultural management may reduce economic constraints. – Planting density – Pruning/training – Fertility
    • 20. Tube Grafting Suzanne O’Connell (NCSU)
    • 21. Novelties Graft Unions Photo Courtesy: M. Peet (USDA-NIFA)
    • 22. Disclaimer• No Recipe for Success• Principles – Production – Uniformity – Water Stress – Sanitation – Re-acclimation
    • 23. Propagation Costs• Proportion of added costs – e.g. seed costs (%) = (SEEDgraft - SEEDnon) / (TOTALgraft - TOTALnon) $0.46 / plant $0.74 / plant = Added cost (Rivard et al., 2010)
    • 24. Propagation Costs• US Tomato Production Systems are DiverseHydroponic greenhouses Multi-bay tunnels Large acreage High tunnels Small acreage ProcessingProtected Open-fieldCulture
    • 25. Propagation Costs (Rivard et al., 2010)
    • 26. Tube Grafting• The advent of “tube-grafting” or “Japanese top-grafting” has become the most popular for tomato. – Seedlings are grafted at 2-4 leaf stage. – High Throughput • A person can make ~ 1000 grafts/day • Grafting robots can make 700 grafts/hr.
    • 27. Timeline
    • 28. Seeding / Transplant Production • Uniformity is key – Germination period – Substrate – Transplanting / Sowing • Rootstock and scion • Numbers • Healthy Transplants • Healing Chamber
    • 29. Tube Grafting Technique• Size: – 2-4 leaves – 1.5-2.0 mm stem diameter – Sorting• Temperature can be manipulated to compensate for size differences.• Timing is critical.
    • 30. Tube Grafting Technique• Preparing for surgery… – Make sure plants are not water or nutrient stressed. – Have a clean working area. • Disinfect hands, tools, and grafting clips. – Carry out grafting indoors – Be in close proximity to healing chamber.
    • 31. Tube Grafting Technique • Angle of cut • Clip attachment • Scion insertion • Provide good contact between the rootstock and the scion.
    • 32. Life in the Chamber – During the healing process, the plant has to form callus tissue and reconnect vascular bundles within the stem.
    • 33. Life in the Chamber – By altering the plant’s physical environment, we can offset the functional effects that this trauma has incurred, and give the plant time to heal itself…
    • 34. Life in the Chamber• Objectives of the healing chamber – Reducing water stress by slowing the transpirational stream. • Humidity • Light • Temperature – Keep temperature fairly constant and between 75 and 80 degrees F.
    • 35. Life in the Chamber • Regulate humidity – Cool-water vaporizers – Passive humidifiers – No warm-water vaporizers – No misters PLEASE – Overhead watering
    • 36. • Regulate light & humidity in the chamber
    • 37. Healing Chamber
    • 38. Life in the Greenhouse • 7-10 days in the Greenhouse – Hardening off – Overhead Watering – The Clip – Transportation
    • 39. Life on the FarmPlanting Depth Suckering
    • 40. Early Tomato Production
    • 41. Life on the FarmNON-GRAFTED MAXIFORT
    • 42. Life on the Farm Twin leader for Twin leader forEuropean string trellis stake-and-weave
    • 43. Review• Uniformity of seedlings• Timing• Patience• Sanitation• Careful observation• Water management• Cultural Management
    • 44. Come and visit any timeCary Rivard, 35230 W 135th St., Olathe, KS 66061 913-856-2335 ext 120; crivard@ksu.edu

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