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Organic High Tunnel Fertility Research
 

Organic High Tunnel Fertility Research

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Presented by University of Minnesota Extension professor, Terry Nennich at the 2009 Minnesota Statewide High Tunnel Conference in Alexandria, MN on Dec. 2-3, 2009.

Presented by University of Minnesota Extension professor, Terry Nennich at the 2009 Minnesota Statewide High Tunnel Conference in Alexandria, MN on Dec. 2-3, 2009.

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    Organic High Tunnel Fertility Research Organic High Tunnel Fertility Research Presentation Transcript

    • Organic High Tunnel Fertility Research Terrance T. Nennich Extension Professor Vegetable and Small Fruit Production University of Minnesota Extension nenni001@umn.edu © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • High Tunnel Research Sites in Minnesota Experiment Stations Grower Cooperators © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Why Organic Fertility Research in High Tunnels? The Concept © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Organic soil fertility studies The purpose of this study is to measure the amount of soil nutrients, used buy tomatoes and cucumbers in a very high production system in high tunnels. © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • The Organic System in High Tunnels As in any organic production system, chemicals and other commercial crop inputs are traded for excellent management. © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Crookston Organic Tunnel What we did? What Happened © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Water Testing Consider testing the water for at least nitrates . The Crookston high tunnel was being watered by the city water supply. © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Soil Texture Amending The soil texture at the Crookston site was a very heavy clay. ( Red River Mud) We desired to change to a sandy clay loam. To do this we added about one cubic yard of sand for every 100 square foot. © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Concerns from Previous High Tunnel Experiences 1999-2006 Enough soil fertility between residual and applied application to meet plant growth and yield. What is left at the end of the growing season for future production © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Soil texture The goal was to have a soil organic matter of at least 5% and ideally 6-7%. In order to accomplish this we added about ½ yard of composted horse manure per 100 Square ft. © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Soil Fertility Soil fertility must start out very high with enough organic matter to prevent leaching of nutrients. In this case horse manure was used It is very difficult to add enough soil nutrients organically after plants are established However there are some products that can help. © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Test the Sand Test for Basics - pH - Other nutrients are ok but not as important © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Compost/Manure Use only very well rotted manure Don’t assume that compost is high in nutrients. Do regular soil test plus micros May need to do a dilution test if the nutrients are extremely high (off the chart) © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Test the compost Horse Beef Plant N 2418 1410 321 P 407 310 106 K 2321 1830 482 © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Test Soil Before Planting After all incorporation and soil amending is done test the soil before planting. – In high tunnels test 9-10 inches deep. © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Planting Beds Planting beds were raised 1 inch (from 4 to 5 inches) Width of the beds were increased 4 inches (from 16 to 20 inches) – This increased the soil volume of the beds by approximately 55%, increasing available nutrients and soil moisture to the plants. © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Additional Fertilization A organic fish solution of a 4-1-1 was used that was compatible with the drip tape. The fish solution would be used on a continuous flow basis The rate would start at about 2 oz/100 running ft. of tape and increased to 6 oz as the nutrient needs of the plants increased. © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Plant Spacing Spacing between rows would remain the same at 48 inches. Plant spacing in the row would be increased to allow for more air flow and hopefully more natural disease control. Alternate plant spacing would be used to maximize nutrient availability and increase air flow around the plants. Hopefully the individual plants would compensate with increased yield. © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Plant Spacing In row plant spacing would be increased to : – 24 inches for indeterminate tomatoes such as Coba and Ultra Sweet. – 18 inches for determinant tomatoes such as Sunstart, Sunshine, and Mountain Spring. © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Plant Spacing – Cucumber varieties would be increased to 18 inches. – Peppers would remain the same 2 rows on a bed planted 18 inches in a staggered configuration © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Alternate Spacing © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Plant Pruning Reasonable plant pruning practices would be done to increase earliness, size and allow more airflow for disease control. – Determinate tomatoes would have 2 punning – Indeterminate tomatoes would have moderate continuous pruning – Christmas tree method pruning would be used to control side growth. © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Soil Nutrient Research 2007 Before planting soil was tested at 0-6 inches 6-12 inches 12-24 inches Soil was retested for each crop after season production. All plots were fertilized equally © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Tomato Results 2007 Variety Cobra First harvest June 21 Total Yield 37 Pound/plant Culls 4 Pound/Plant Marketable 3.89 Pound sq/ft Total Yield 4.63 Pound sq/ft Acre Yield 101 ton acre © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Soil Nutrient Research 2007 Cobra Tomatoes 0-6 inch soil depth N P K Before Season 335 330 1050 After Harvest 11 215 235 © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Soil Nutrient Research 2007 Cobra Tomatoes 6-12 inch soil depth N P K Before Season 100 150 580 After Harvest 8 80 320 © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Soil Nutrient Research 2007 Cobra Tomatoes 12-24 inch soil depth N P K Before Season 18 60 275 After Harvest 8 55 260 © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Cucumber Results 2007 Cucumbers All the fruit from all 26 cucumber plants were weighed and evaluated for quality. All data is in pounds per plant. Sweet Success First Harvest June 21 Total Yield/Plant 65.12 Culls 8.0 MKT/sq/ft 9,52 Total sq/ft 10.85 Total Yield Acre = 472,628 or 236 tons. © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Soil Nutrient Research 2007 Sweet Success Cucumbers 0-6 inch soil depth N P K Before Season 335 330 1050 After Harvest 12 175 256 © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Soil Nutrient Research 2007 Sweet Success Cucumbers 6-12 inch soil depth N P K Before Season 100 150 580 After Harvest 7 69 320 © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Soil Nutrient Research 2007 Sweet Success Cucumbers 12-24 inch soil depth N P K Before Season 18 60 275 After Harvest 6 60 235 © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Soil Nutrient Research 2008 The 2008 research question was: If the soil fertility is at high levels before planting will additional yield be obtained by adding a organic approved fertilizer to the irrigation water at a continuous flow rate through the season? © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Soil Nutrient Research 2008 The plots (rows) were divided in two, one half fertilized through drip tape, the other half received no supplemental fertilization Tomatoes from both plots were weighed and evaluated during the growing season. © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • 2008 Soil Amending Enough manure based compost was added to raise the beginning soil nutrient levels to very high. © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Fertilized Plot Added 10 gallons of a 4-1-1 fish solution evenly through drip tape - per acre nutrients added were - N 280 - P 70 - K 70 © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Soil Nutrient Research 2008 Before planting soil was tested at 0-6 inches 6-12 inches 12-24 inches Soil was retested for each crop after season production. © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Tomato Results 2008 Variety Yield fertilized Yield Unfertilized Cobra 49 Pounds/Plant 45Pounds/Plant 269,500 Pounds/Acre 247,500 Pounds/Acre 134 Tons Acre 123 Tons/Acre © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Soil Nutrient Research 2008 Fertilized Plots Cobra Tomatoes 0-6 inch soil depth N P K Before Season 263 252 1349 After Harvest 26 235 173 © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Soil Nutrient Research 2008 Unfertilized Plots Cobra Tomatoes 0-6 inch soil depth N P K Before Season 263 252 1349 After Harvest 24 125 103 © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Soil Nutrient Research 2008 Fertilized plots Cobra Tomatoes 6-12 inch soil depth N P K Before Season 115 160 610 After Harvest 17 140 476 © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Soil Nutrient Research 2008 Unfertilized plots Cobra Tomatoes 6-12 inch soil depth N P K Before Season 115 160 610 After Harvest 13 111 269 © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Soil Nutrient Research 2008 Fertilized Plots Cobra Tomatoes 12-24 inch soil depth N P K Before Season 18 72 375 After Harvest 12 53 326 © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Soil Nutrient Research 2008 Unfertilized Plots Cobra Tomatoes 12-24 inch soil depth N P K Before Season 18 72 375 After Harvest 28 60 299 © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Cucumber Results 2008 Cucumbers Sweet Success Fertilized Unfertilized 18 Pounds/Plant 13 Pounds/Plant 132,000 Pounds/Acre 95,329 Pounds/ Acre 66 Tons/Acre 48 Tons/Acre There was considerably less yield in 2008, plants were removed early. . © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Soil Nutrient Research 2008 Fertilized Plots Sweet Success Cucumbers 0-6 inch soil depth N P K Before Season 263 252 1349 After Harvest 110 320 814 © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Soil Nutrient Research 2008 Unfertilized Plots Sweet Success Cucumbers 0-6 inch soil depth N P K Before Season 263 252 1349 After Harvest 122 185 318 © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Soil Nutrient Research 2008 Fertilized Plots Sweet Success Cucumbers 6-12 inch soil depth N P K Before Season 115 160 610 After Harvest 42 140 505 © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Soil Nutrient Research 2008 Unfertilized Plots Sweet Success Cucumbers 6-12 inch soil depth N P K Before Season 115 160 610 After Harvest 58 120 261 © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Soil Nutrient Research 2008 Fertilized plots Sweet Success Cucumbers 12-24 inch soil depth N P K Before Season 18 72 375 After Harvest 40 45 367 © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Soil Nutrient Research 2008 Unfertilized Plots Sweet Success Cucumbers 12-24 inch soil depth N P K Before Season 18 60 275 After Harvest 6 60 235 © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • 2009 Soil Fertility Results As in 2008 the high tunnel was divided into two areas for fertigated and unfertigated © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Compost Fertility Composition 2009 N 2418 P 407 K 2321 S 120 B 7.0 © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Cucumber Yields 2009 Variety : Sweet Success Fertilized, Yield per plant = 42 pounds Not Fertilized ,Yield per plant = 28 pounds © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Preplant Soil Test. 2009 N P K 0-6 630 198 847 6-12 285 160 250 12-24 60 100 150 © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Cucumbers after harvest fertilized/drip tape N P K 0-6 inch 81 lb/ac 189 230 6-12 inch 44 lb/ac 150 140 12 – 24 inch 32 lb/ac 70 90 © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Cucumbers After harvest not fertilized/drip tape N P K 0-6 36 lb/ac 106 89 6-12 26 lb/ac 64 100 12-24 24 lb /ac 51 81 © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Tomato Yields 2009 Variety: Cobra Fertilized/drip tape : 31 pounds/plant Not fertilized 25 : pounds plant. © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Tomatoes after harvest fertilized/drip tape N P K O-6 inch 47 lb/ac 134 91 6-12 inch 28 lb/ac 108 145 12-24 inch 34 lb/ac 52 217 © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Tomatoes after harvest not fertilized/drip tape N P k 0-6 inch 28 lb/ac 97 72 6-12 inch 30 lb/ac 85 119 12-24 inch 54 lb/ac 95 128 © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Is Organic Production Feasible? The 2007, 2008, and 2009 research and demonstration projects show that organic production in high tunnels works well and can be very profitable if certain production practices are followed and high nutrient levels are maintained and supplied. © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Organic Production Concerns 1. Adequate fertility to supply nutrient needs of high yields in the high tunnel. - Special precautions will be needed the second and subsequent years. 2. Plant spacing may need to be increased 3. Air flow and keeping plants dry © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Organic Concerns/Recommendations 4. Continual feeding of plants even if a small amount of nutrients. 5. Special precaution to take out all old plant debris. 6. Extreme water management. © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Organic Concerns/Recommendations 7. Seed selection 8. Learn early disease identification 8. Have organic approved crop protectants on hand © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
    • Questions ?????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????? © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota