Irrigation in High Tunnels
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Irrigation in High Tunnels

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High Tunnel irrigation overview presented by University of Minnesota retired Extension Engineer, Jerry Wright at the 2009 Minnesota Statewide High Tunnel Conference in Alexandria, MN on Dec. 2-3, ...

High Tunnel irrigation overview presented by University of Minnesota retired Extension Engineer, Jerry Wright at the 2009 Minnesota Statewide High Tunnel Conference in Alexandria, MN on Dec. 2-3, 2009.

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Irrigation in High Tunnels Irrigation in High Tunnels Presentation Transcript

  • Irrigation Concerns within High Tunnel Production Systems Jerry Wright, Retired Extension Engineer University of Minnesota Extension Bioproducts & Biosystems Engineering Dept West Central Research & Outreach Center - Morris, MN High Tunnel Workshop – December 2, 2009 jwright@umn.edu Making a Difference in Minnesota © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
  • Uniformity of Irrigation Water Application • Irrigation Water Quality – Sedimentation, algae – Water chemistry – salinity, calcium, iron, pH • Adequate filters after water source and fertigation system • Water Compatibility with fertilizer Making a Difference in Minnesota Jerry Wright, University of Minneota Extension © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
  • Uniformity of Water Application • Adequate filters after water source and fertigation system • Check Water Compatibility with fertilizer!!!!! - 2009 Crookston Making a Difference in Minnesota Jerry Wright, University of Minneota Extension © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
  • Drip Irrigation Control Assembly Making a Difference in Minnesota Jerry Wright, University of Minneota Extension © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
  • Routine Line & Filter Flushing Making a Difference in Minnesota Jerry Wright, University of Minneota Extension © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
  • Uniformity of Irrigation Water Application • Water Pressure Distribution – Along header & lateral lines • Adequate pipeline diameter to minimize friction losses • Friction loss through filters, controllers and fertigation valves • Pressure Regulator & Gages Making a Difference in Minnesota Jerry Wright, University of Minneota Extension © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
  • When & How Much Should I Water???? Jerry Wright, University of © 2009 Regents of the University of Minneota Extension Minnesota
  • High Tunnel - Soil & Plant Water Management • Irrigation timing and application depth – Over watering leaches nutrients & reduces O2 – Under watering affects fruit growth & quality • Know your systems application rate – Gallons per linear foot per hour – Inches of water depth per hour Making a Difference in Minnesota Jerry Wright, University of Minneota Extension © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
  • Drip Irrigation System Water application rate!!! Table 4: Average Application Rate from Drip Irrigation Systems by Jerry Wright, Extension Engineer, University of Minnesota Email: jwright@umn.edu (April 2005) Drip Tube Flow ********** Wetted Soil Width in Inches ************* GPM GPH 8 12 16 20 24 per 100ft per 100ft Average Application Rate - Inches per Hour 0.200 12 0.29 0.19 0.14 0.12 0.10 0.250 15 0.36 0.24 0.18 0.14 0.12 0.300 18 0.43 0.29 0.22 0.17 0.14 0.350 21 0.51 0.34 0.25 0.20 0.17 0.450 27 0.65 0.43 0.32 0.26 0.22 0.670 40 0.97 0.64 0.48 0.39 0.32 0.850 51 1.23 0.82 0.61 0.49 0.41 1.700 102 2.45 1.64 1.23 0.98 0.82 Appl. Rate inches/hour = 12 in/ft * (GPH/100ft)/(7.48 gal/cuft * 100 * wetted width in feet) file: irrigation gallons per ET version 3e.xls Jerry Wright, University of © 2009 Regents of the University of Minneota Extension Minnesota
  • High Tunnel - Soil & Plant Water Management • Know the soil texture and drip irrigation water movement – wetted soil pattern - width & depth – May need more than one drip line per row/bed • Understand plants water needs: – Increases with Plant density and foliage size • Daily crop ET (.1 to .25 inches per day) – .3 to .7 gallons per plant per day (research very limited) • Different crops may need difference irrigation schedules – Install small control valve on each irrigated row – Plant same crop type and planting date in same row Making a Difference in Minnesota Jerry Wright, University of Minneota Extension © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
  • Average Irrigation Applied in High Tunnel Tomatoes Gallons per Plant per inDay - Tomatoes Average Irrigation Applied High Tunnel Staples 2005 field observations Gallons per Plant per Day - Staples 2005 use more water indicate cucumbers can 1.00 Plt/dy in 18" spacing Plt/dy in 24" spacing 0.90 Poly. (Plt/dy in 18" spacing) Poly. (Plt/dy in 24" spacing) 0.80 0.70 Gallons per Plant per da 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.10 Making a Difference in Minnesota 0.00 3-Jul 10-Jul 17-Jul 24-Jul 31-Jul 5-Jun 12-Jun 19-Jun 26-Jun 2-Oct 9-Oct 15-May 22-May 29-May 4-Sep 11-Sep 18-Sep 25-Sep 7-Aug 14-Aug 21-Aug Jerry Wright, University of Minneota 28-Aug Extension © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
  • In-Field Soil Water Assessment Making a Difference in Minnesota Jerry Wright, University of Minneota Extension © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
  • SOIL WATER DEFICITS for Typical Soils & Soil Water Tensions Good Range for High Tunnels - 25 to 40 centibars Soil water tension in centibars, cbs Soil Texture 10 30 50 70 100 200 1500** Soil water deficit – inches per foot of soil Coarse sand 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.7 Fine sand 0 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.7 0.9 1.1 Loamy sand 0 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 1.1 1.4 Sandy loam 0 0.5 0.7 0.9 1.0 1.3 1.7 Loam 0 0.2 0.5 0.8 1.0 1.6 2.4 **1500 cbs is approximately the permanent wilting point for most plants and the soil water deficit values equal the soil’s available water holding capacity Jerry Wright, University of © 2009 Regents of the University of Minneota Extension Minnesota
  • Soil Water Monitoring Sensors Jerry Wright, University of © 2009 Regents of the University of Minneota Extension Minnesota
  • Soil Water Monitoring Irrometer Co - http://www.irrometer.com/ Jerry Wright, University of Spectrum2009 © Technologies http://www.specmeters.com Regents of the .University of Minnesota Minneota Extension -
  • High Tunnel - Soil & Plant Water Management • Automation of irrigation system – Manual On switch with timer shut-off • Good for small - low flow systems • Too much pressure loss for high flow rates – Full timer 7day – 24 hour control • Can control one valve or multiple valves • Many sizes available & low friction loss Making a Difference in Minnesota Jerry Wright, University of Minneota Extension © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota
  • Automatic Controllers Jerry Wright, University of © 2009 Regents of the University of Minneota Extension Minnesota
  • Failed Irrigation with Automatic Timer Jerry Wright, University of © 2009 Regents of the University of Minneota Extension Minnesota
  • Closing Comments • Know your irrigation system • Learn how water moves in your soil • Do not over irrigate!!!! • Automation & Fertigation requires a watchful eye !!!! Making a Difference in Minnesota Jerry Wright, University of Minneota Extension © 2009 Regents of the University of Minnesota