High Tunnels and Drip Irrigation 2012

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by Jerry Wright. Presented at the 2012 MN Statewide High Tunnel Conference.

by Jerry Wright. Presented at the 2012 MN Statewide High Tunnel Conference.

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  • High Tunnel Workshop February 2012 Jerry Wright, jwright@umn.edu
  • High Tunnel Workshop February 2012 Jerry Wright, jwright@umn.edu
  • High Tunnel Workshop February 2012 Jerry Wright, jwright@umn.edu
  • High Tunnel Workshop February 2012 Jerry Wright, jwright@umn.edu
  • High Tunnel Workshop February 2012 Jerry Wright, jwright@umn.edu
  • High Tunnel Workshop February 2012 Jerry Wright, jwright@umn.edu
  • High Tunnel Workshop February 2012 Jerry Wright, jwright@umn.edu
  • High Tunnel Workshop February 2012 Jerry Wright, jwright@umn.edu
  • High Tunnel Workshop February 2012 Jerry Wright, jwright@umn.edu
  • High Tunnel Workshop February 2012 Jerry Wright, jwright@umn.edu
  • High Tunnel Workshop February 2012 Jerry Wright, jwright@umn.edu
  • High Tunnel Workshop February 2012 Jerry Wright, jwright@umn.edu
  • High Tunnel Workshop February 2012 Jerry Wright, jwright@umn.edu
  • High Tunnel Workshop February 2012 Jerry Wright, jwright@umn.edu
  • High Tunnel Workshop February 2012 Jerry Wright, jwright@umn.edu
  • High Tunnel Workshop February 2012 Jerry Wright, jwright@umn.edu
  • High Tunnel Workshop February 2012 Jerry Wright, jwright@umn.edu
  • High Tunnel Workshop February 2012 Jerry Wright, jwright@umn.edu
  • High Tunnel Workshop February 2012 Jerry Wright, jwright@umn.edu
  • High Tunnel Workshop February 2012 Jerry Wright, jwright@umn.edu
  • High Tunnel Workshop February 2012 Jerry Wright, jwright@umn.edu
  • High Tunnel Workshop February 2012 Jerry Wright, jwright@umn.edu
  • High Tunnel Workshop February 2012 Jerry Wright, jwright@umn.edu
  • High Tunnel Workshop February 2012 Jerry Wright, jwright@umn.edu
  • High Tunnel Workshop February 2012 Jerry Wright, jwright@umn.edu
  • High Tunnel Workshop February 2012 Jerry Wright, jwright@umn.edu
  • High Tunnel Workshop February 2012 Jerry Wright, jwright@umn.edu
  • High Tunnel Workshop February 2012 Jerry Wright, jwright@umn.edu
  • High Tunnel Workshop February 2012 Jerry Wright, jwright@umn.edu
  • High Tunnel Workshop February 2012 Jerry Wright, jwright@umn.edu
  • High Tunnel Workshop February 2012 Jerry Wright, jwright@umn.edu
  • High Tunnel Workshop February 2012 Jerry Wright, jwright@umn.edu
  • High Tunnel Workshop February 2012 Jerry Wright, jwright@umn.edu
  • High Tunnel Workshop February 2012 Jerry Wright, jwright@umn.edu
  • High Tunnel Workshop February 2012 Jerry Wright, jwright@umn.edu
  • High Tunnel Workshop February 2012 Jerry Wright, jwright@umn.edu
  • High Tunnel Workshop February 2012 Jerry Wright, jwright@umn.edu
  • High Tunnel Workshop February 2012 Jerry Wright, jwright@umn.edu
  • High Tunnel Workshop February 2012 Jerry Wright, jwright@umn.edu
  • High Tunnel Workshop February 2012 Jerry Wright, jwright@umn.edu
  • High Tunnel Workshop February 2012 Jerry Wright, jwright@umn.edu
  • High Tunnel Workshop February 2012 Jerry Wright, jwright@umn.edu

Transcript

  • 1. High Tunnels and Drip Irrigation Making a Difference in Minnesota
  • 2. Drip Irrigation Considerations withHigh Tunnel Production Systems Jerry Wright, Retired Extension Engineer Associate Professor Emeritus University of Minnesota Extension Bioproducts & Biosystems Engineering Dept West Central Research & Outreach Center - Morris, Mn High Tunnel Workshop – 2012 jwright@umn.edu or wrightsj@charter.net Making a Difference in Minnesota
  • 3. Reasons for Using Drip/Trickle Irrigation in High Tunnel Production System•Efficiently & Uniformly Applies Crop Water as Needed– to maintain optimum growing conditions – for transplant establishment – for uniform plant/produce development • by enhancing INPUT use efficiency– to protect & enhance yield and quality•Effectively Applies Some Nutrients in Water
  • 4. Irrigation System Needs!!!• Water supply• System performance – Uniform water application – Flexible & crop specific control – Fertigation?? – Frost protection?? – Cooling??• System Options• Operating Labor• Cost????• Consult Local Experts
  • 5. Water Supply!!! 3 to 10 gallons per minute per tunnelDependent on Drip Flow Rate and Tubing Layout
  • 6. Estimated Daily Crop Water Use “ET” Typical Annual Crop 0.30 0.25ET - Inches per day 0.20 0.15 0.10 0.05 0.00 9- 23 14 28 11 25 6- 20 3- 17 Ju Au Se -J -M -J -A -S -M -J ul l un u g ug p ep ay ay n Annual water use = 8 to 18 inches
  • 7. Irrigation Water Applied in 2005 Average Inches per Day High Tunnel Tomatoes at Staples, MN m · may = 5–10 inches more than outside m m YInches of water per day m ª m ü m M m ž m ï m @
  • 8. IRRIGATION WATER USE PERMIT Minnesota Rules www.dnr.state.mn.us/permits/water/index.htmlIN EXCESS OF 10,000 GALLONS PER DAY(= 7 gpm)GREATER THAN ONE MILLION GALLONS / YEARWITHDRAWAL LIMITS ON SURFACE WATER  6 ACRE-INCHES PER ACRE with STREAM FLOW MINIMUMGROUND WATER LIMITS  12-15 ACRE-INCHES PER ACRE  CANNOT CREATE ANY INTERFERENCE WITH DRINKING WELLSWELL CONSTRUCTION FEE $235 (Mn Dept Health)IRRIGATION APPLICATION FEE $150 - $300(after the fact)ANNUAL REPORT ($140 minimum fee) for 50M Gallons
  • 9. Water Quality Concerns??• Iron–Calcium-Sand (groundwater)• Algae – Sand – Silt (surface water)• Water Treatment – Screen/Disc Filters, – Sand filter Tanks – Chemical treatment?????
  • 10. What are the soil characteristics in the proposed site???• Rooting potential – Restrictive layer• Drainage limitations• Soil texture• Water holding capacity• Consult local experts – NRCS & Extension
  • 11. Know Your Soil Rooting Depth andHow Will WaterRe-Distribute!
  • 12. Drip Irrigation System Options!!!
  • 13. Drip Irrigation System Characteristics!!! • Low pressure & small water supply • High water application efficiency • Solid-set management – variety of emitter spacings – Irrigate crops separately • Moderate Labor – easily automated • Works well with mulches – plastic • No frost protection • Emitters’ plug easily • Tube damage
  • 14. Drip Irrigation Wetted Pattern Design!!!
  • 15. Line Source Drip Tape• Tape – Emitters manufactured within the tape wall – Common spacings: 4”, 8", 12", 16", 18", 24’’ – Flow rates (GPH) @ 8 psi: .16, .21, .33, .53 • .45GPM/100feet = 27 GPH/100ft or .67GPM = 40GPH/100ft. – Wall thickness (mil): 6, 8, 10, 15 • One to two year of usage – Maximum operating pressures: • 6 mil @ 10 psi – • 8 mil @ 12 psi • 10 mil @ 14 psi •15 mil @ 25 psi – ?? Pressure compensated drippers for more uniformity of water and fertilizer applications• Surface or sub-surface installations
  • 16. Line Source Drip Tubing• Tubing (in-line emitter devices) – heavy wall thickness: 2-3 times tape – Variable spacings: 9, 12, 18, 24, 48” – multi-seasonal use • 6 to 10 times more costly – pressure compensated dripper options for best uniformity of water and fertilizer applications and self-flushing: dirt and debris during operation• Surface or sub-surface installations
  • 17. Drip Irrigation System Water application rate!!!Table 4: Average Application Rate from Drip Irrigation Systems by Jerry Wright, Extension Engineer, University of Minnesota Email: jwright@umn.edu (April 2005) Drip Tube Flow ********** Wetted Soil Width in Inches ************* GPM GPH 8 12 16 20 24 per 100ft per 100ft Average Application Rate - Inches per Hour 0.200 12 0.29 0.19 0.14 0.12 0.10 0.250 15 0.36 0.24 0.18 0.14 0.12 0.300 18 0.43 0.29 0.22 0.17 0.14 0.350 21 0.51 0.34 0.25 0.20 0.17 0.450 27 0.65 0.43 0.32 0.26 0.22 0.670 40 0.97 0.64 0.48 0.39 0.32 0.850 51 1.23 0.82 0.61 0.49 0.41 1.700 102 2.45 1.64 1.23 0.98 0.82 Appl. Rate inches/hour = 12 in/ft * (GPH/100ft)/(7.48 gal/cuft * 100 * wetted width in feet) file: irrigation gallons per ET version 3e.xls
  • 18. Drip Irrigation System Design ??One or Two Lateral Lines per Row
  • 19. Drip Tube PlacementPlants off-set down the row
  • 20. Drip Tube Placement• Tube should be installed at same time/prior to mulch• Single-row crops:tomatoes,cucumbers, muskmelons – Place tube 4 to 5 inches from the center or in the center• Double-row crops: eggplant, peppers and strawberries – tube should be placed directly on the center of the bed• Placement: keep emitters up and place in a shallow groove or buried (1-2”) to aid in keeping from shifting in the bed or fasten each end of tubing to keep straight•Caution – avoid puncturing tube during planting/staking
  • 21. Drip Installation Prior to Plastic Mulch Hand or Mechanical Installation
  • 22. Drip Installation Prior to Plastic MulchOn a smooth soil surface & slightly buried
  • 23. Header Options
  • 24. Water S upply & Pump Pressure G auges Filter Control Timer Valve Filter B ackf low De vice Chemical Sub-main Air - Flushing Injector Release Valve Pressure Regulator Tee Adapter To Drip Tube Drip Tubes with Shu t of fShut of f Valve Valves High Tunnel House 2004 Jerry Wright, University of Minnesota
  • 25. Drip Irrigation SystemOperation & Maintenance!!! • Easily damaged – Rodents, hoe, • Emitters’ easily plugged – Iron and calcium – Sand, algae – Some fertilizers
  • 26. Drip Irrigation Control Assembly
  • 27. Water S upply & Pump Pressure G auges Filter Control Timer Valve Filter B ackf low De vice Chemical Sub-main Air - Flushing Injector Release Valve Pressure Regulator Tee Adapter To Drip Tube Drip Tubes with Shu t of f Shut of f Valve Valves High Tunnel HouseDrip Irrigation Control Assembly 2004 Jerry Wright, University of Minnesota
  • 28. Drip Irrigation Control AssemblyCost: $300–600 + water supply system
  • 29. Trickle Irrigation System Zone - Design!!!
  • 30. FERTIGATION Nutrient "spoon-feeding"• Check out chemical compatibility with irrigation water• Provide backflow protection – MDA Fertigation permit?
  • 31. CHEMIGATION - Fertigation Nutrient "spoon-feeding"• Calibration to a daily or weekly feeding program• Assess backflow protection between water source – ?MDA Permit?
  • 32. When & How Much Should I Water????
  • 33. Average Irrigation Applied in High Tunnel Tomatoes Gallons per Plant per inDay - Tomatoes Average Irrigation Applied High Tunnel Staples 2005 field observations Gallons per Plant per Day - Staples 2005 use more water indicate cucumbers can 1.00 Plt/dy in 18" spacing Plt/dy in 24" spacing 0.90 Poly. (Plt/dy in 18" spacing) Poly. (Plt/dy in 24" spacing) 0.80 0.70 0.60Gallons per Plant per day 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.10 0.00 3-Jul 5-Jun 2-Oct 9-Oct 10-Jul 17-Jul 24-Jul 31-Jul 12-Jun 19-Jun 26-Jun 4-Sep 7-Aug 15-May 29-May 22-May 18-Sep 11-Sep 25-Sep 14-Aug 21-Aug 28-Aug
  • 34. In-Field Soil Water Assessment
  • 35. Soil Water Monitoring Sensors
  • 36. Sensors Installation Steps• Soak sensors in water 2-3 hours & air dry – repeat cycle 2/3 Xs• Place in soil profile within plant row at 2 to 3 depth locations• Mark sensor depths and site• !!! Read Sensors Frequently !!!!
  • 37. SOIL WATER DEFICITS for Typical Soils & Soil Water Tensions Good Range for High Tunnels - 25 to 40 centibars Soil water tension in centibars, cbs Soil Texture 10 30 50 70 100 200 1500** Soil water deficit – inches per foot of soil Coarse sand 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.7 Fine sand 0 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.7 0.9 1.1 Loamy sand 0 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 1.1 1.4 Sandy loam 0 0.5 0.7 0.9 1.0 1.3 1.7 Loam 0 0.2 0.5 0.8 1.0 1.6 2.4**1500 cbs is approximately the permanent wilting point for most plants and the soil water deficit values equal the soil’s available water holding capacity
  • 38. Soil Water Monitoring Sensors Installation Tips• Soak sensors in water 2-3 hours & air dry – repeat cycle 2/3 Xs• Place in soil profile within plant row at 1 to 2 depth locations• Mark sensor depths and site• !!! Read Sensors Frequently !!!!
  • 39. Soil Water Monitoring Irrometer Co - http://www.irrometer.com/Spectrum Technologies - http://www.specmeters.com
  • 40. Automatic Soil Moisture Monitoring Save 10 to 20 minutes Each Day $500-650Hansen AM400 Soil Moisture Data Logger Watermark Soil Moisture Date Logger
  • 41. Extension Materials Minnesota High Tunnel Production Manualhttp://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/horticulture/M1218.html or http://www.mfvga.org/Handbook –“Trickle Irrigation in the Eastern United States” NRAES #4 http://www.nraes.org High Tunnels for the Central Great Plains - Kansas http://www.hightunnels.org/ High Tunnel Production in Pennsylvania http://plasticulture.cas.psu.edu/H-tunnels.html Plastic Mulches & Drip for Vegetable Production North Carolina State University Extension http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/hil/hil-33.htmlMicro irrigation in Mulched Bed Production Systems: Irrigation Depths Florida Cooperative Extension http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/AE049 Making a Difference in Minnesota
  • 42. *** Time for Questions ***