Basics of High Tunnel Production - 2012          Terrance T. Nennich          Extension Professor  Vegetable and Small Fru...
High Tunnel Research Sites in        Minnesota             Experiment Stations             Grower Cooperators
What are High Tunnels• High tunnels are not a poor persons greenhouse• High tunnels are a separate intense technology whic...
What are High Tunnels?• Structures that resemble some  greenhouses - in appearances only• Use no artificial heat (except f...
What Can be Grown in High    Tunnels in Zones 2 and 3.• Any crop that can normally be grown in the area• Most crops in zon...
Winter Tour
Advantages of High Tunnels• 4-8 weeks earlier production in the spring• 2-5 weeks later possible production in the  fall• ...
Advantages of High Tunnels• Natural disease control• Insect control• Control water• Guarantee a crop• Reduce cull fruit.
Advantages of High Tunnels• Natural disease control• Insect control• Control water• Guarantee a crop• Reduce cull fruit.
Concerns of High Tunnels• Cost involved• Education• Planning• Management• Time
Key Components of high Tunnels• Good well drained raised soil• Roll Up sides• 6 mil UV treated plastic• Can be built from ...
Why High Tunnels Work• Lets review the principles of plant growth     Time     Heat     Light     Stress
Time• All plants need time to advance in growth and    mature•   How much growth that occurs in a given length    of time ...
Heat• Plants are classified by there ideal heat  requirements.• Tomatoes , peppers, 80-90 degrees• Cucumber , melons , 85-...
Growing Degree Units• Normal figure used for warm season crops  is 50 low and 86 high• Growing degree Units =  (high for d...
Growing Degree Days units for                Tomatoes• Early to mid-season tomatoes will require 1400 to 1600 GDD to the f...
Growing degree day samplesLow of 40, high of 60 = 5 GDDLow of 40, high of 50 = 0 GDDLow of 50, high of 70 = 10 GDDLow of 6...
Growing Degree Comparison    Inside and Outside Tunnel      • Inside Tunnel         • Outside Tunnel•   March 281 GDU     ...
Growing Degree Days units for                Tomatoes• Early to mid-season tomatoes will require 1400 to 1600 GDD to the f...
High Tunnel Planting Dates      Northern Minnesota• Onions , radishes, lettuce   Mar 25-Apr 7• Cabbage, broccoli ect      ...
Different Locations in the state              • March 31• Bemidji Minnesota high 45 Low 20• Austin Minnesota high 47   Low...
• January 2006
Production Data• Tomatoes : first harvest in tunnel July 18• First harvest outside Aug.11• Yield 10-25+ per plant• Cucumbe...
Common Mistakes Beginning      Growers Make• Tunnels get to hot >130+• Don’t shut roll up sides early enough in  the eveni...
Tunnel Direction• Narrow end against prevailing high winds• The outside air direction has little to do  with the cooling o...
Yield Potential & Nutrient Needs • Yields in a high tunnel can be 3 to 4 times the   yield obtained in the field • Higher ...
Cucumber Results                         Cucumbers  All the fruit from all 26 cucumber plants were weighed  and evaluated ...
Soil Nutrient Research        Sweet Success Cucumbers           0-6 inch soil depth                 N      P     KBefore S...
Soil Nutrient Research        Sweet Success Cucumbers          6-12 inch soil depth                 N         P       KBef...
Tomato ResultsVariety       First harvest   Total yield   Culls Marketable sq/ft Total sq/ft Cobra        June 28         ...
Soil Nutrient Research              Cobra Tomatoes            6-12 inch soil depth                   N               P    ...
Soil Nutrient Research             Cobra Tomatoes           12-24 inch soil depth                  N          P      KBefo...
Soil Nutrient Research             Cobra Tomatoes            0-6 inch soil depth                  N          P     KBefore...
Berry quality
High Tunnel Roof Vent
• Air leaves the solar panels at about 125-175 degrees depending on the amount of sun• Air leaves the soil at 50 – 75 degr...
Solar Heating of the Soil• Cucumbers – May 15• Tomatoes – June 5
Results to Date• Soil temperatures have been kept at minimum of 52 degrees even though outside temperature have been well ...
Local High Tunnel List Serve• Be sure to sign up for the Minnesota/North Dakota List Serve.• Talk to local producers, be i...
On line at:www.hightunnels.cfans.umn.eduMinnesota Fruit and VegetableGrowers Association – (763) 434-0400
Minnesota High Tunnel WebSite•http://hightunnels.cfans.umn.edu/
Upcoming Research• Plant density studies• Fertility studies• Variety Studies• Irrigation Studies• Raspberries, Perennial c...
Seminars on High Tunnels• Getting Started with High Tunnels• Crops and Yields• Marketing• Soil Fertility/Nutrient Use• Irr...
QUESTIONS???????????
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
High tunnel basic state conference 2012
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

High tunnel basic state conference 2012

1,234 views

Published on

by Terrance T. Nennich. Presented at the 2012 MN Statewide High Tunnel Conference.

Published in: Technology, Self Improvement
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,234
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

High tunnel basic state conference 2012

  1. 1. Basics of High Tunnel Production - 2012 Terrance T. Nennich Extension Professor Vegetable and Small Fruit Production University of Minnesota Extension nenni001@umn.edu
  2. 2. High Tunnel Research Sites in Minnesota Experiment Stations Grower Cooperators
  3. 3. What are High Tunnels• High tunnels are not a poor persons greenhouse• High tunnels are a separate intense technology which allows crops to be grown up to three zones earlier and later and eliminate considerable risk.
  4. 4. What are High Tunnels?• Structures that resemble some greenhouses - in appearances only• Use no artificial heat (except for emergencies)• Use no artificial ventilation such as fans, tubes or forced air• Plants are grown in the ground.• Many shapes and sizes
  5. 5. What Can be Grown in High Tunnels in Zones 2 and 3.• Any crop that can normally be grown in the area• Most crops in zones 4 through 5.• Some in zone 6 and be on.
  6. 6. Winter Tour
  7. 7. Advantages of High Tunnels• 4-8 weeks earlier production in the spring• 2-5 weeks later possible production in the fall• Grow crops not usually grown in the area• Very high yield per plant• Crop mix• Very cost effective• Usually no pesticides needed• Organic production
  8. 8. Advantages of High Tunnels• Natural disease control• Insect control• Control water• Guarantee a crop• Reduce cull fruit.
  9. 9. Advantages of High Tunnels• Natural disease control• Insect control• Control water• Guarantee a crop• Reduce cull fruit.
  10. 10. Concerns of High Tunnels• Cost involved• Education• Planning• Management• Time
  11. 11. Key Components of high Tunnels• Good well drained raised soil• Roll Up sides• 6 mil UV treated plastic• Can be built from many materials
  12. 12. Why High Tunnels Work• Lets review the principles of plant growth Time Heat Light Stress
  13. 13. Time• All plants need time to advance in growth and mature• How much growth that occurs in a given length of time depends on how ideal the environmental growth factors are.• In northern climates heat is the one factor that we need to be concerned about.• Seed catalogs use maximum conditions in deciding growing days.
  14. 14. Heat• Plants are classified by there ideal heat requirements.• Tomatoes , peppers, 80-90 degrees• Cucumber , melons , 85-95 degrees• Heat is measured in growing degree days• Duration of Temperature is Critical
  15. 15. Growing Degree Units• Normal figure used for warm season crops is 50 low and 86 high• Growing degree Units = (high for day+ low for the day) – 50 Divided by 2 (86) (50)
  16. 16. Growing Degree Days units for Tomatoes• Early to mid-season tomatoes will require 1400 to 1600 GDD to the first ripe fruit.• Late season varieties will require 2000 to 2200 GDD
  17. 17. Growing degree day samplesLow of 40, high of 60 = 5 GDDLow of 40, high of 50 = 0 GDDLow of 50, high of 70 = 10 GDDLow of 60, high of 86 = 23 GDD
  18. 18. Growing Degree Comparison Inside and Outside Tunnel • Inside Tunnel • Outside Tunnel• March 281 GDU • March 5 GDU• April 435 GDU • April 99 GDU• May 502 GDU • May 183 GDU• June 570 GDU • June 366 GDU• July 624 GDU • July 505 GDU• Aug 544 GDU • Aug 374 GDU• Sept 570 GDU • Sept 396 GDU• Oct 303 GDU • Oct 101 GDU
  19. 19. Growing Degree Days units for Tomatoes• Early to mid-season tomatoes will require 1400 to 1600 GDD to the first ripe fruit.• Late season varieties will require 2000 to 2200 GDD
  20. 20. High Tunnel Planting Dates Northern Minnesota• Onions , radishes, lettuce Mar 25-Apr 7• Cabbage, broccoli ect Apr 7-15• Tomatoes, peppers April 25 - May 10
  21. 21. Different Locations in the state • March 31• Bemidji Minnesota high 45 Low 20• Austin Minnesota high 47 Low 28
  22. 22. • January 2006
  23. 23. Production Data• Tomatoes : first harvest in tunnel July 18• First harvest outside Aug.11• Yield 10-25+ per plant• Cucumbers: first harvest June 16• Yield per plant 30-35 pounds
  24. 24. Common Mistakes Beginning Growers Make• Tunnels get to hot >130+• Don’t shut roll up sides early enough in the evening-loose growing degree units 5 GDU a day for a month = 5-8 day• Weed Control inside and out• Monitor the water uptake• Punning and trellising
  25. 25. Tunnel Direction• Narrow end against prevailing high winds• The outside air direction has little to do with the cooling of the tunnel• Recommend tunnel construction for 100 MPH winds
  26. 26. Yield Potential & Nutrient Needs • Yields in a high tunnel can be 3 to 4 times the yield obtained in the field • Higher yields will required more nutrients, but knowing how much to apply is a challenge – Lack of nutrients – deficiencies – Excessive nutrients – salt build up – Both situations affect yield and quality
  27. 27. Cucumber Results Cucumbers All the fruit from all 26 cucumber plants were weighed and evaluated for quality. All data is in pounds per plant.Sweet Success First Harvest June 8 Total Yield/Plant 65.12 Culls 8.0 MKT/sq/ft 9,52 Total sq/ft 10.85 Total Yield Acre = 472,628 or 236 tons.
  28. 28. Soil Nutrient Research Sweet Success Cucumbers 0-6 inch soil depth N P KBefore Season 335 330 1050After Harvest 12 175 256
  29. 29. Soil Nutrient Research Sweet Success Cucumbers 6-12 inch soil depth N P KBefore Season 100 150 580After Harvest 7 69 320
  30. 30. Tomato ResultsVariety First harvest Total yield Culls Marketable sq/ft Total sq/ft Cobra June 28 37.0 4.0 3.89 4.63Sunshine June 24 16.5 5.1 1.90 2.75 Mt. Spring July 11 18.5 4.2 2.38 3.08
  31. 31. Soil Nutrient Research Cobra Tomatoes 6-12 inch soil depth N P KBefore Season 100 150 580After Harvest 8 80 320
  32. 32. Soil Nutrient Research Cobra Tomatoes 12-24 inch soil depth N P KBefore Season 18 60 275After Harvest 8 55 260
  33. 33. Soil Nutrient Research Cobra Tomatoes 0-6 inch soil depth N P KBefore Season 335 330 1050After Harvest 11 215 235
  34. 34. Berry quality
  35. 35. High Tunnel Roof Vent
  36. 36. • Air leaves the solar panels at about 125-175 degrees depending on the amount of sun• Air leaves the soil at 50 – 75 degrees to be recirculated through the solar panels (this is a closed system )
  37. 37. Solar Heating of the Soil• Cucumbers – May 15• Tomatoes – June 5
  38. 38. Results to Date• Soil temperatures have been kept at minimum of 52 degrees even though outside temperature have been well below 10 degrees.• At this temperature, cool season crops are doing very well
  39. 39. Local High Tunnel List Serve• Be sure to sign up for the Minnesota/North Dakota List Serve.• Talk to local producers, be informed of upcoming events.
  40. 40. On line at:www.hightunnels.cfans.umn.eduMinnesota Fruit and VegetableGrowers Association – (763) 434-0400
  41. 41. Minnesota High Tunnel WebSite•http://hightunnels.cfans.umn.edu/
  42. 42. Upcoming Research• Plant density studies• Fertility studies• Variety Studies• Irrigation Studies• Raspberries, Perennial crops , Overwintering
  43. 43. Seminars on High Tunnels• Getting Started with High Tunnels• Crops and Yields• Marketing• Soil Fertility/Nutrient Use• Irrigation• High Tunnel design• Organic Production• Fruit Production
  44. 44. QUESTIONS???????????

×