READING TO REINFORCE THE ACQUISITION OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN FOURTH GRADE IN THE RICARDO JIMENEZ OREAMUNO SCHOOL

2,675 views
2,422 views

Published on

Estimados usuarios.

Bienvenidos a nuestro sitio virtual de la UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER en Slide Share donde podrá encontrar los resultados de importantes trabajos de investigación prácticos producidos por nuestros profesionales. Esperamos que estos Mares Azules que les ponemos a su disposición sirvan de base para otras investigaciones y juntos cooperemos en el Desarrollo Económico y Social de Costa Rica y otras latitudes.

Queremos ser enfáticos en que estos trabajos tienen Propiedad Intelectual por lo que queda totalmente prohibida su reproducción parcial o total, así como ser utilizados por otro autor, a excepción de que los compartan como citas de autor o referencias bibliográficas. Toda esta información también quedará a su disposición desde nuestro sitio web www.umagister.com,

Disfruten con nosotros de este magno contenido bibliográfico Magister esperando sus amables comentarios, no sin antes agradecer a nuestro Ing. Jerry González quien está administrando este sitio.

Rectoría, Universidad Magister. – 2014.

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
2,675
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
5
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

READING TO REINFORCE THE ACQUISITION OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN FOURTH GRADE IN THE RICARDO JIMENEZ OREAMUNO SCHOOL

  1. 1. UNIVERSITY MAGISTER LICENCIATURA IN ENGLISH TEACHING THESIS SUBMITTED TO OBTAIN THE LICENCIATURA EN ENSEÑANZA DEL INGLÉS LANGUAGE TEACHING READING TO REINFORCE THE ACQUISITION OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN FOURTH GRADE IN THE RICARDO JIMENEZ OREAMUNO SCHOOL IVANNIA TREJOS CAMACHO 2010
  2. 2. EPIGRAPH This is how you should pray: “Our Father in heaven, hallowed be your name, your kingdom come, your will done on earth as it is in heaven. Give us today our daily bread. Forgive us our debts, as we also have forgiven our debtors. And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from the evil one. For if you forgive men when they sin against you, your heavenly Father will also forgive you. But if you do not forgive men their sin, your Father will not forgive your sins. (Mathew 6: 9 – 15)
  3. 3. DICATORY With all my love to my lovely children: Kenneth and Maria Fernanda Chacon Trejos. Now, they are twelve years old. There are the bright on my night and the greatest persons on my life. Adding together, I want to dedicate to my husband, Rafael Chacon, because he was so patient all long days. Many days, he had to take care of the children without my help. He is a wonderful husband. I love him very so much.
  4. 4. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First, I wish to thank God because in those dark times, he showed me the light in many ways of my life. I want to thank my professors that I have during my majoring English career; for being patient and helping me to achieve much knowledge. I would like to thank the principal of my career, Ms. Vivian Gonzalez because she always helped me in every situation. My desire is to thank with all my heart and mind to my tutor, Lawrence; for being how he is and of course for recognizing the value of this document. Thank you for all your help. To my lector Karol Céspedes Chacón is all my gratitude. I admire you so much. Thanks for your entire guide. I wish to thank my father Israel Trejos Trejos and my sister Yorlenny Trejos, because they helped me to identify my vocation as an English teacher. I would like to thank my husband, Rafael Chacon, for his unconditional lends a hand during all the time on my English learning process. Party, it is his nickname; he gives me economic support, and he gives me emotional support in each moment that I felt down. He motivates my learning and always says that I will be a successfully woman and an excellent professional. He helps me with everything in any moment. Thanks a lot. I love you.
  5. 5. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………... 1 1.2 Justification…………………………………………………………………………… 3 1.3 Problem Statement……………………………………………………………………. 5 1.4 Objectives of the Research…………………………………………………………… 6 1.4.1 Objective Definition……………………………………………………………...6 1.4.2 General Objectives………………………………………………………………. 6 1.4.3 Specific Objectives……………………………………………………………… 6 CHAPTER II.THEORICAL FRAMEWORK 2.1 Theorical Framework Definition……………………………………………………... 7 2.2 History of the Educational System in Costa Rica……………………………………. 7 2.3 English Teaching in Costa Rica………………………………………………………. 9 2.4 Costa Rican Education System………………………………………………………. 11 2.5 Culture Definition…………………………………………………………………….. 14 2.6 Approaches in Costa Rica Education………………………………………………… 16 2.6.1 The Purpose of English in Costa Rica………………………………………….. 17 2.7 English Language Development……………………………………………………… 18 2.8 Language Acquisition………………………………………………………………… 20 2.9 Teacher´s Roles………………………………………………………………………. 21 2.10 Students‟ Profiles……………………………………………………………………. 24 2.11 Costa Rican Curriculum…………………………………………………………….. 24 2.11.1 The Education Policy equal Opportunities…………………………………….. 25 2.11.2 Linguistic Objectives…………………………………………………………... 26 2.12 English Areas………………………………………………………………………... 27 2.12.1 Listening ………………………………………………………………………. 28 2.12.2 Speaking………………………………………………………………………... 29 2.12.3 Writing…………………………………………………………………………. 31 2.12.4 Reading………………………………………………………………………… 32 2.13 Methodology Definition…………………………………………………………….. 34 2.13.1 C.E.L.T. Approach……………………………………………………………... 35 2.13.4 The CALLA Approach………………………………………………………… 35 2.14 Theories for Reading………………………………………………………………... 36 2.14.1 Constructivism Theory………………………………………………………….36 2.14.2 Humanist Theory………………………………………………………………. 37 2.14.3 Integrated Theory……………………………………………………………… 37 2.14.4 Multiple Intelligence Theory…………………………………………………... 39 2.15 Strategies to Improve Reading in Class…………………………………………….. 41 2.15.1 Cooperative Learning Approach in Reading…………………………………... 42 2.15.2 Motivational Strategies………………………………………………………… 43 2.16 Inclusion Strategy…………………………………………………………………… 47 2.17 Values through Reading…………………………………………………………….. 49 2.17.1 Cooperation…………………………………………………………………….. 49 2.17.2 Respect…………………………………………………………………………. 50 2.17.3 Order…………………………………………………………………………… 50 2.17.4 Responsibility………………………………………………………………….. 51 2.18 Assessment Definition………………………………………………………………. 52
  6. 6. 2.18.1Assessment of Students‟ Reading Process…………………………………….. 53 CHAPTER III. METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK 3.1 Type of Study………………………………………………………………………… 54 3.1.1 Finality…………………………………………………………………………... 54 3.1.2 Investigation Setting…………………………………………………………….. 55 3.1.3 Temporal Demarcation………………………………………………………….. 55 3.1.4 Condition to do the Job…………………………………………………………. 55 3.1.5 Nature of the Investigation………………………………………………………..56 3.1.6 Investigation Character………………………………………………………….. 56 3.2 Characters and Sources of Information………………………………………………. 57 3.2.1 Characters……………………………………………………………………….. 57 3.2.2 Sources of Information………………………………………………………….. 58 3.3 Techniques and Instruments………………………………………………………….. 58 CHAPTER IV. ANALISYS OF DATA 4.1 Observations………………………………………………………………………….. 60 4.2 2 Information from the Students……………………………………………………… 77 4.2.1 English as Easy Language………………………………………………………. 78 4.2.2 Skill Preferences………………………………………………………………… 79 4.2.3 New Vocabulary by Reading Activities………………………………………… 80 4.2.4 Feelings through Evaluation…………………………………………………….. 81 4.2.5 Brief Explanation before a Reading Activity…………………………………… 82 4.2.6 Pre-Reading Activities………………………………………………………….. 83 4.2.7 Feedback………………………………………………………………………… 84 4.2.8 Motivation through Reading……………………………………………………. 85 4.2.9 Values…………………………………………………………………………… 86 4.2.10 Better Student…………………………………………………………………. 87 4.2.11 Reading a Useful Skill………………………………………………………. 88 4.3 Information from the Teachers………………………………………………………. 89 4.3.1 Years of Working…………………………………………………………………89 4.3.2 Job Experiences…………………………………………………………………. 89 4.3.3 Clear Directions in Reading Activities…………………………………………. 91 4.3.4 Kind of Reading Strategies……………………………………………………… 92 4.3.5 Reading to Improve Knowledge………………………………………………… 93 4.3.6 Students‟ Attitude………………………………………………………………. 95 4.3.7 Inclusion Strategy……………………………………………………………….. 97 CHAPTER V. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 Conclusions…………………………………………………………………………... 99 5.2 Recommendations…………………………………………………………………….106 Bibliography Annexes
  7. 7. INDEX OF TABLES Table # 1………………………………………………………………………………….. 65 Table # 2………………………………………………………………………………….. 72 Table # 3………………………………………………………………………………….. 75 Table # 4………………………………………………………………………………….. 78 Table # 5………………………………………………………………………………….. 79 Table # 6………………………………………………………………………………….. 80 Table # 7………………………………………………………………………………….. 81 Table # 8………………………………………………………………………………….. 82 Table # 9………………………………………………………………………………….. 83 Table # 10……………………………………………………………………………….. 84 Table # 11……………………………………………………………………………….. 85 Table # 12……………………………………………………………………………….. 86 Table # 13……………………………………………………………………………….. 87 Table # 14……………………………………………………………………………….. 88 Table # 15……………………………………………………………………………….. 95
  8. 8. INDEX OF GRAPHS Graph# 1………………………………………………………………………………….. 65 Graph# 2………………………………………………………………………………….. 73 Graph# 3………………………………………………………………………………….. 75 Graph# 4………………………………………………………………………………….. 78 Graph# 5………………………………………………………………………………….. 79 Graph# 6………………………………………………………………………………….. 80 Graph# 7………………………………………………………………………………….. 81 Graph# 8………………………………………………………………………………….. 82 Graph# 9………………………………………………………………………………….. 83 Graph# 10……………………………………………………………………………….. 84 Graph# 11……………………………………………………………………………….. 85 Graph# 12……………………………………………………………………………….. 86 Graph# 13……………………………………………………………………………….. 87 Graph# 14……………………………………………………………………………….. 88 Graph# 15……………………………………………………………………………….. 95
  9. 9. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1. INTRODUCTION The problem that this research paper addresses has to do with the problems that people face when reading. Specifically, how can reading in the English teaching class
  10. 10. strengthen the acquisition of the second language in the fourth grade at Ricardo Jimenez Oreamuno School? Students in primary schools should be prepared to read basic information to get main ideas from written materials and analyze different kinds of readings in order to guess, predict and to strengthen the acquisition of English as a second language and these students from this specific school are not the exception according with the Costa Rican program of public education says very clear “…The purposes of English language learning in our educational system at the elementary levels include the English reading skill. The process of teaching English to children in II cycles it is based on the fact that childhood is the best time to acquire a foreign language…” (MEP, 2007,17) The reality is that in Costa Rica public elementary schools students are not allowed to use their knowledge to create meaning and to extend their understanding of a text. In many cases, students feel impossible to learn anything new without making connections to their prior knowledge in their mother tongue and sometimes teachers help students to feel and believe what they are learning through this new language could be easier through readings. Occasionally, teachers role make a big difference in an English class because some challenges of the students are to understand, explain and analyze some reading aspects, but brief lessons at the point of the students necessities. It should provide meaningful opportunities for reading. If the professor takes into account the active role students play in developing and reefing their own processes and involves them in excellent balance of learning in which reading acquisitions and strategies are interwoven could be a successful inclusion to a new language through reading as well this problem will be different but it is
  11. 11. in the other way around and students are wreaked in the way they are acquired English as a second language. As a conclusion, learners in public elementary schools apply reading and writing skills at the II cycle, just as a secondary support through the use of techniques, activities, and tasks according with the curriculum of Ministry of Education in Costa Rica. On the other hand, the same curriculum says that the mediation of learning in the educational system includes the four skills listening, speaking, reading and writing to acquire English as a second language. Further, learners should be able to develop their full skills and should seek opportunities to participate in the development their country while fulfilling their own needs to interact with other people and cultures to solve problems and produce benefits for the country. Sometimes and in some places, teachers have been misunderstanding how reading in the English teaching class can strengthen the acquisition of the second language on the students‟ knowledge. And do the entire offer to make students to achieve English through reading. Students in fourth grade at Ricardo Jimenez Oreamuno School need to know how reading could help them to develop English as a second language. 1.2 JUSTIFICATION. Reading is not only to describe the reality but also it is a value-addition. Reading works are depictions of the thinking patterns and social norms that prevail in society.
  12. 12. According to Hanson, (1990), reading is a description of the different features of any individual‟s life. When a person is exposed to good reading works, he/she is provided with the excellent educational opportunities. In contrast, when a person has the lack of exposure to reading, he/she is derived from an opportunity to grow as an individual. It is through reading, understanding, and analyzing great texts that one comprehends and appreciates life from different perspectives. Through reading people take a closer look at the diverse aspects of life. In many ways, understanding how reading is important, it can change one‟s point of view towards life itself. In addition, reading helps to develop critical and analytical thinking. Critical thinking skills provide people the ability not only to understand what they have read or been shown but also to build upon that knowledge without assisted supervision. Critical thinking teaches people that knowledge is not static and builds upon itself. It is not simply memorization or the ability to absorb information without questioning it. It behavior and originators (such as literature) encourage people to think for themselves, to question hypotheses, to develop alternative hypotheses, and to assess those hypotheses against known facts. Of course, none of this is to say that memorizing is automatically bad. It means only that when mere memorization does not include relevant aspects such as problem solving, logic, and reason. Moreover, critical thinking encourages creativity. At Ricardo Jimenez Oreamuno school, this research wants to make sure that many students have had lack of times to try to produce a resourceful explanation and solution to the problem involves which it emphasize the students from fourth grade at this school need to know their strength and weakness about how through reading they could acquire English as a second language. Critical thinking plays a fundamental role in
  13. 13. appraising new ideas by choosing the best ones and adjusting them if it is necessary when, what and how learners have to read. Having prior knowledge limit people could not to continue growing as a human bean. Prior knowledge includes not only reader‟s knowledge of the definition of the word but also reader‟s responses to the context of the word. Carefully techniques of reading texts will allow students to use their understanding and application of reading. Learners should create meaning and extend their understanding and identification of details concerning difficulties when they are acquiring English through reading texts. Additionally, reading may have more challenges for public elementary students than from private elementary schools, because straight forwardness is not a requirement in public schools. Moreover, teachers play an important role in students‟ reading acquisition. Teaching the students to be critical is a challenge for some professors that are not using the appropriate strategies to build students backgrounds and provide students many opportunities to participate in reading activities 1.3. PROBLEM STATEMENT. Reading is one of the skills the MEP asks teachers to reinforce in the students. However, at the level of fifth and sixth grade, many students have great difficulties understanding a reading. Some are not even confronted by teachers to long texts, or even
  14. 14. texts at all. This has provoked a kind of fear or even rejection in the students who will consider that reading is extremely difficult. On the other hand, many teachers have not been trained to teach reading, and they do not know some of the strategies used to reinforce this skill in the class. It is well known that this skill cannot be the first the students will know. It is not the most important one, but it reinforces the knowledge the students will have about the language, and it helps them get fluency and vocabulary. Reading opens a door of opportunities and it encourages students and teachers to talk about the new culture. However, the MEP has not prepared yet texts that may be appropriate for the students to read. They do not train teachers and this skill has been set apart in the educational system. It is obvious that teachers need to reincorporate this skill, use it in the most correct way and encourage their students to use it in the class through a series of activities. In this way students will reinforce their knowledge. This is the reason why the investigator has established the following question to this project: How can reading in the English teaching class strengthen the acquisition of the second language in the fourth grade at Ricardo Jimenez Oreamuno School? 1.3. OBJECTIVE OF THE RESEARCH. 1.3.1 Objective Definition. “…An objective is a mission, a purpose, or a standard that can be reasonably achieved within the expected timeframe and with the available resources. In general, an objective is broader in scope than a goal, and may comprise of several different goals...” (Business Dictionary 2010.)
  15. 15. 1.3.2 General Objectives. 1) To analyze the way reading is used in the English teaching classes in the section 4-1 at Ricardo Jimenez Oreamuno Primary School. 2) To promote solutions in terms of reading to strengthen the acquisition of the second language. 1.3.3 Specific Objectives. 1) To check the current methodology to teach reading in the English teaching class. 2) To examine the acquisition of English through reading. 3) To describe the students mood toward reading. 4) To identify the elements that interfere in the English learning process in a reading based class. 5) To promote reading strategies to learn English as a second language
  16. 16. CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
  17. 17. 2.1 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK DEFINITION. The theoretical framework provides a theoretical support to the research; it explains the relationship between the variables, the objectives, the problem and the solution. During the elaboration of this theoretical framework, it is necessary to keep the research problem in mind, so that the reading and its analysis is centered on pertinent issues avoiding dispersion. It orients the author of the thesis in the description of the observations, establishing relationships in the elements to develop the basis of the analysis, in which the author of this research wishes to point out a problem. This problem is how reading in the English teaching class can strengthen the acquisition of the second language in the fourth grade at Ricardo Jimenez Oreamuno School. 2.2 HISTORY OF EDUCATION SYSTEM IN COSTA RICA. Many of Costa Rica's leaders have been educators as well, and have placed great importance in the expansion of primary and secondary education, even in the most remote areas of the country. Thanks to these and to ongoing reforms, Costa Rica has a 93% literacy level. Primary education lasts six years, while high school education might be five or six years, the first being totally academic and the latter being totally and absolutely technical or professional. All high schools have a group of compulsory subjects and offer some electives. AFS students can expect to take math, science, foreign studies, and Spanish. Introduce the citation by saying who says this language, social
  18. 18. “…I know the secret... of making the best persons; it is to grow them in the open air, and to eat and sleep... with the Earth…" Walt Whitman This phrase could describe the Education in Costa Rica. Costa Rica boasts about having more teachers than policemen. This affirmation is a source of great pride, since Costa Rican people feel that our high education level sets our country apart from many less fortunate countries in the world. President José María Castro Madriz, the first president who was a teacher, improved the reforms of the educational system and the next presidents continued working on it. In 1869 Costa Rica became the first country in the world where education became free and obligatory. Further, Costa Rica is considered to have one of the best educational systems in Latin America, with even the smallest of towns having their own Secondary school. Students who attend school in Costa Rica concentrate on achieving well academically. Elementary and High Schools are to be found in every community. Primary School has 6 year levels; whereas Secondary School has 5 year levels. Each is divided in two cycles, and upon completion of each cycle, students are required to pass tests on all subjects studied during those years. The most notorious of these tests are the Bachillerato Tests, which are required to get the high school certification needed for admission to Universities. 2.3 ENGLISH TEACHING IN COSTA RICA. The English language Education dates back to 1824, when foreign languages were first registered as a requirement among the subjects to be taught in the secondary curriculum. Costa Rica has undergone stages experienced by other nations where English is recognized as an international language.
  19. 19. According to this article, the modern founder of English language education in Costa Rica is the Professor Elsa Orozco. She established the first English language degree program at the University of Costa Rica in 1960. Having concluded studies at the University of Michigan, she brought audio-lingualist to the faculty of the University of Costa Rica (U.C.R.), who in turn applied the method to prepare students to teach in the public secondary schools. During 1991, the Program of Education introduced English as a part of the curriculum of the Ministry of Education Program. At the Secondary School level, foreign language instruction had been mandatory for many years, and while 10 percent of students chose French, the remaining 90 percent opted for English. As international tourism began to expand at unexpected rates, and exports expanded beyond the traditional coffee and bananas, English language materials and methodologies lagged seriously behind national needs. The British government provided technical and financial support through Overseas Development Administration (ODA) collaboration with the Ministry of Public Education, known as Project LEARN. National English advisor Leonor Cabrera teamed with Michael Vaughan of Overseas Development Administration (ODA) to work on a team of materials writers and teacher trainers so as to upgrade English language instruction in the nation. The five-year LEARN project has resulted in numerous publications by Costa Rican educators like Learning English (a two-book series) and Have Fun (a three book series) are currently used by public and private schools. The material is very current, and reflects the realities today‟s Costa Rica and its bilingual population. The material contains units on ecological tourism, sustainable development, technology, careers, personal health, public health, democracy, and cultural diversity related to González, (1978).
  20. 20. “…Globalization has always been on the minds of our people. Last century, we became global by being one of the first nations to install electric lights…We will continue to be global into the next millennium by putting computers in every classroom, and teaching English to our younger generations, to equip them with the knowledge and skills necessary to become citizens of the world. ..”( Doryan, 1997) According Eduardo Doryan, Minister of Public Education in 1997, to be part of global world include technology and English as parts of education subjects from the youngest learners giving them tools to be successful in the entire world. During his administration, they started with modeling schools that were selected if they were located within economically depressed areas of the country. During the three years of this pilot project, technical support was provided by the World Teach organization of Boston, Massachusetts, who placed more than 200 teachers from the United States into primary schools of the Ministry of Public Education in Costa Rica. Moreover, there are other numerous developments and improvements in English language instructions in Costa Rica. The Center for Research in Teaching and Education of the National University (U.N.A) in 1996 launched its Master of Arts in Education with a concentration in English Language Instruction. As an example of improving English in Costa Rica was how many professors saw their big opportunity to write materials that were useful to local requirements. One of them was Roberto Benavides, of the University of Costa Rica (U.C.R), who published a work entitled “Getting Foreign Language Students to Write”, a book that blends traditional writing activities, such as controlled composition and business letters, with more recent techniques such as free writing and the process approach. On the quite positive side, high levels of education and bilingualism have contributed to the national economy by way of international companies opting to expand in
  21. 21. Costa Rica. Intel, for example, searched extensively for a place to establish operations within Latin America. Public or private, education in Costa Rica is rigorous, practical, and world-class. It is a country that claims to have an “army of teachers.” Having no military, the army is, in fact, the docents preparing Costa Ricans „students for the battles of the business, technical, and scientific arenas of the world. 2.4 COSTA RICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM. According to the Programa from the Ministry of Public Education, (2005) the Educational Policy presents the learner as a human being full of potential with the possibility to develop him/herself in harmony with the three dimensions of human development: cognitive, socio-affective and psycho-motive. Education has to provide this global development in a given context. The Policy establishes an educational process, which provides similar opportunities for everybody: the achievement of high standards of education as well as opportunities that take into consideration the participants needs, problems, and expectations. Another feature of the Policy is the way it emphasizes the need to provide positive learning conditions. The position of the Policy of Education is to provide education to learners in order to acquire the education by participation n individual and groups‟ activities. The Policy position is that learners could acquire education and at the same time they could be able to participate as individuals in their own development and in the society to which they are part of; for that reason, they have to be acquainted with the knowledge that humanity has been accumulating and Costa Rica contributes to the social, economical, and technological development of the world. It also allows the learner to apply techniques to understand and produce appropriate oral and written messages. This is clearly explained in the program of English for primary schools in Costa Rica:
  22. 22. “…Cross-curricular themes are inserted in the curricula with the purpose of preparing students to be able to transform and to create new knowledge through the investigation and processing of information, the capacity to solve problems in a reflexive and systematic way, with a critical attitude and self-criticism being committed especially to problems of daily life…‟‟( Programa II ciclo, 2005: 9). The previous information gives knowledge to prepare the students to face many challenges throughout the correct design of the curricula. Teachers should be concerned about using ways in which students could be autonomous and could be prepared in any case or any time to work alone or with other person in a very good way. It is essential to mention that the teacher is a helper in the class; he or she gives students tools to work but not work for them. In the Programa del MEP (2005) mentions about the solidarity and freedom to work. So that teachers just support the students‟ job. According to the general orientation to the learning process of foreign language in I and II cycle in English, it is important to develop the communication through foreign languages in this way. First it all, the listening and speaking skills in I cycle and in the II cycle students include reading and writing skills. Learners could acquire the four skills through these two cycles. Now, they are receiving English in kinder garden; so that, they start the learning process very young. Fundamental Policy of education gives the learners the opportunity to express their care for their country, their democratic environment, cultural diversity and deep respect for law, nature and peace. At the same time, the policy encourages Costa Rican people to become positive leaders and critical thinkers through activities promoting a democratic environment, resulting in the reinforcement of values such as self-identity and authentic growth as independent and interdependent learners. The citizens should be able to develop as persons through seeking for opportunities of self-fulfillment and happiness while
  23. 23. contributing to the development of their country. Education should promote the broadening of understanding throughout challenges in the teaching classroom situations and opportunities that become self-growth and learn how to learn. Education should contribute to narrow down social –economic gaps by providing the individuals with the proper opportunities. Also, the education should help learners to integrate every day problem solving situations. Achieving sustainability in production and the economy in general represents a challenge for education. The country needs much better qualified people in order to increase productivity and improve the spirit of competitiveness. Furthermore, there is a need to integrate the country more effectively into the global economy. The information or the content at the learners handle should be updated and should be relevant to global development in the 21st century. (MEP, 2007) 2.5 CULTURE DEFINITION. The culture is essential to each country, society and of course in each education system. People should include in their learning process the culture as a contextual part of the education. As it is mentioned in the program itself: “…Environmental education is considered a suitable instrument for the construction of an environmental culture of people and societies, to reach sustainable human development, by means of a process that allows them to understand their interdependence with the environment, starting from critical and reflexive knowledge of the immediate reality-biophysical, social, economic, political and cultural…”(Programa II ciclo, 2005; 13) The previous information takes into account how the Costa Rican education is a device for the attainment of an environmental culture; it involves the bracing of basic values for sustainable growth and critical knowledge throughout love, harmony, equity and responsibility in the reality of economic, political, social and cultural style of life. The
  24. 24. learners achieve a culture which involves an essential outlook of realism. This is in order to make the most appropriate decisions that allow maintaining and improving the quality of individual and collective life that pursues the systematic satisfaction of physical and intellectual needs, as well as those of moral, spiritual, cultural and social nature in harmony with socio- cultural and natural environments. Teachers should know some fundamental general contents of this culture like the conservation of energy, the air, the water resources and of course the soil. Teachers should include the understanding of the socio-cultural context of the English speaking. Knowing the target culture facilitates the understanding of the target language itself. Values, attitudes, and beliefs should be taken into consideration. Cultural aspects should always accompany the learning of a language. Special attention in the I and II cycles should be placed to achieve all the skills to obtain an effective communication. On the other hand, there are many languages around the world. Sometimes, children have to learn not just one language for many reasons and circumstances. In Costa Rica, the English language for I II cycles is part of our Educational System as it is also mentioned in the program policies: “…English Language for I and II Cycles in the Educational System is conceived as a linguistic and cultural tool for communication, which complements education as a whole. Knowledge of English helps children become sensitive to new linguistic codes, and value Costa Rican culture and its interaction with other countries. Ongoing exposure and use of English will allow the learner to develop communicative competence in the oral and aural linguistic skills, the main focus of the curriculum…” (MEP book, 2007:16). According to the previous information English language for I and II cycles in Costa Rican education system objective is to increase students‟ knowledge in linguistic and cultural ways to achieve an effective communication in this second language; English. Moreover, there are the formal, functional, and cultural components which are very
  25. 25. important to include. The formal component deals with the lexicon and morphology, so that students should reach successfully oral communication. The other component is the functional. It purpose is to help students to use the English language in the daily day expressions such as greetings, introductions or leave takings in the more natural way. Students will practice the functional components with a really natural focus, besides students most of the time are performing tasks including situations that they are living or around their families or in their communities. The last component is the cultural. As it is mentioned before, understanding the culture of countries where the English is spoken could be an easy way to learn the new language in this case English. Sometimes, teachers translate each word, or students try to understand idiomatic expressions, sentences, texts and songs by translating each word to Spanish. What teachers and learners should do is to acquire the social-cultures are influencing the most in our life. Moreover, the suitable uses of the components which are formal, functional and cultural mostly assure the improvement of communicative skills. Learners could get that knowledge through the acquisition of the four skills such as listening, speaking, reading and writing. 2.6 APPROACHES IN COSTA RICAN EDUCATION. The Costa Rican syllabus includes approaches as part of the curriculum because they provide the basis of the methodology to achieve in the English classes. Some of them are the communicative approach, the Total Physical Response (TPR), the naturalistic approach, and others. The communicative approach goal of language teaching is to develop what Hymes, (1992) referred to as communicative competence. His theory of communicative
  26. 26. competence was a definition of what speakers need to know in order to be communicatively competent in a speech. The objective of this approach is to be applicable to any teaching situation in the communicative approach (Piepho, 1981), there are unlimited types of activities that teachers could apply with this approach. According to Littlewoods, (1981) it is important to distinguish the differences between functional communication activities and social interaction activities in the communicative approach. The former includes comparing sets of any kind of material in which he finds similarities and differences, working out sequences of events, discovering missing features, following direction and many more activities. The physical response or comprehension approach can be considered both as an approach or a technique. James Asher, (1977), a professor of psychology, developed this methodology. He develops his theory of learning upon three influential learning hypotheses. First hypothesis is the bio- program in which Asher theory takes into account the second language teaching and learning which reflects the naturalistic processes of first language learning. He sees three central processes such as children develop listening and then children develop the ability to speak. Thanks to parents‟ commands, children acquire listening comprehension and finally, when children achieve the foundation in listening comprehension, the speech evolves naturally. (MEP, 2007) Another approach is the natural approach develops by Tracy Terrell and Stephen Krashen. This approach believed to conform to the naturalistic principles found in successful second language acquisition and because the communication is the first function of language. So, it is viewed as a vehicle for communicating meanings and messages. This approach tries to minimize stress and that way learners are not required to say anything
  27. 27. until they are ready. Materials come from the world of realia rather than from textbooks. This approach promotes comprehension and communication according to the MEP, ( 2007). 2.6.1. THE PURPOSES OF ENGLISH IN COSTA RICA. The large number of individuals who speak English either as their first or as a second or foreign language justifies the fact that English is considered a universal language. Likewise, within the scientific, technological, and humanistic spheres, English is a fundamental linguistic tool. Consequently, teaching English in our school system responds to basic needs: •To offer students a second language this can enable them to communicate. •To give students a tool to directly access scientific, technological, and humanistic information and, in this way expand their knowledge of the world. According to the MEP, ( 2010) . 2.7 ENGLISH LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT. One fundamental connection in English language development has always been at the heart of great readings and the empathetic link that enables a reader to participate fully in another´s experience that the learners could find through reading. Achieving student‟s knowledge should work among the four skills such as listening, speaking, reading and writing in a way that students could understand the intricate relationship that shapes the acquisition of reading and it is growing in the student‟s life. A second indirect mean of promoting English as a second language development is the development of reading through the first language. It is extremely efficient to develop literacy first in child´s first language.
  28. 28. Consider these arguments, by Smith, (1994) and Goodman, (1982) we learn to read by reading. Therefore, if learning to read by reading by making sense of what is on the page, it will be easier to learn to read a language that it is already understand. Once people can read, this ability transfers dramatically across languages, even if the writing systems are different. There is another sense in which reading transfers across language and it is the ability to use language to solve problems. This includes discovering new ideas as the writer moves from draft to draft, and also it includes the ability to select relevant information. Students with a limited English proficiency will have these characteristics: Comprehensible input in English, in the form of English as a second language (ESL) and sheltered classes based on comprehensible input. Then, according to Lagaretta (1979) when a translation is available, the children do not attend to the input in the second language, and teachers do not have to try to make this input comprehensible. This indirect information provides background elements that help make children read and hear English in a more comprehensible way. Finally, reading development in the first language is transferred to the second language. Lazaretto mentioned that evidence confirming the validity of these principles comes from studies showing that children who participate in English class with these three characteristics do very well. Moreover, Dr. Stephen Krashen, he referred to this expression the ¨East plan¨ it means that at the beginning all children have limited English to the listening and speaking skills. This makes sense when students receive high input- based on English as a second language, ESL classes. Then, children that understand enough English could begin to learn some new content through English. Teachers could begin with some subjects do not demand a great deal of abstract like math and science. The advance level, teachers could
  29. 29. include sub‟ subject from all of them in order to students carried out ESL (English as a second language) components in many ways. Teachers should encourage children to read from the first level, and build reading as source of knowledge. (Element of Literature, 1997) 2.8 LANGUAGE ACQUISITION. One of the most important aspects at the moment of learning a second Language is acquisition. Many authors talk about it, and they give their own positions. All of them include what people have to follow in order to get the target language in the best way. People must learn a second language in the same way as they have learned the first one, and they have to practice daily to get it perfectly. “…Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive, produce and use words to understand and communicate. This capacity involves the picking up of diverse capacities including syntax, phonetics, and an extensive vocabulary. This language might be vocal as with speech or manual as in sign. The capacity to acquire and use language is a key aspect that distinguishes humans from other organisms…” ( Tomasello, 2008 ) Helping students with limited English proficiency makes transition from reading in their first language to reading English easier in a second language could be an exciting yet challenging opportunity for teachers. Many students may feel some apprehension about transferring their reading skills to a second language. There are many general language skills that are readily transferred from student‟s first language to his or her second language. Once these skills have been learned in the first language, they become a part of the student´s cognitive base, and may be expressed in whatever subsequent language the students learn. Students could develop comprehension skills such as recognizing a word, sentence, idea, main idea, sequencing ideas, seeing cause and effect relationships and others
  30. 30. that in primary public curriculum take into account. The language acquisition could be possible if English teachers realize about the importance to strengthen and develop reading in their lessons. “...While many forms of animal communication exist, they have a limited range of no syntactically structured vocabulary tokens that lack cross cultural variation between groups. The language acquisition usually refers to first language acquisition, which studies infants' acquisition of their native language, rather than second language acquisition that deals with acquisition in both children and adults of additional languages…”(Tomasello,2008) It is very important to know about language acquisition not only to learn the mother tongue but also the second language. In this case, the mother tongue is Spanish and the second language is English. People differ from other species because they have the ability to think and learn many languages. So that, people can be bilingual or multilingual; there are people that speak more than two languages. According to Dr. Stephen Krashen of the Southern California University, the problem of helping the older limited English – proficient students in a school without special program on each lesson plan and the teachers‟ burden can be reduced by monitoring the input hypothesis, and the acquisition- learning language development through using the first language background. (Element of literature, 1997) According to Platoon children learn on average ten to fifteen new word meanings each day. Through reading teachers could apply strategies to help students to pick up that bunch of words. 2.9 TEACHERS’ ROLES. Teacher‟s role is very important because we as teachers must have to include all children in the learning process. In fact, those students with disabilities in the reading skills could be better if they have quality and timely reading forms to integrate classrooms in a
  31. 31. great environment to make students enjoy their reading inclusion in a natural way and the same time to develop the students‟ reading thoughts. Teachers should find techniques such as providing extra information or specific content to help those students how to learn as well as what to learn. Nevertheless, perhaps more than any other reason why it is so important to acquire reading as well and choose strategies that helps students to build meaning, and comprehension for the entire text. As teachers, we must help students to gain control over spelling while we support them as emerging writers. Teachers must select texts or books which draw students´ attention and the pupils should not be bored or confused because the selected texts are interesting and comprehensible. There are some tips that we can use to teach reading. First of all, to encourage students to maintain and use personal word lists; for example words that they routinely use ,but that they have difficulty spelling , and at the same time to analyze their mistakes. Another tip is to have different strategies for different learners. For example, at the primary level, phonic is a valuable tool for spelling and it helps students to be interested in reading in an easy way. The main roles are given to teachers as generators, managers, and directors of the input and the intake in the students. It improves their acquisition of English through reading different topics. Another role is to be a facilitator. Some examples of teachers‟ roles as facilitators are developed in highly structured and well organized environments in the English classroom. Teachers should assign groups and roles to set goals to each lesson. And finally, as facilitator teachers should give the students selected materials according with each purpose. Teachers should make possible the communication process among all the learners in the classes, and also between the students, including many kinds of activities and texts.
  32. 32. According to the Programa del MEP or ministry of education program, (2005) the elementary English teacher of the Costa Rican Educational System must have communicative skills. Teachers‟ abilities will help students to give confidence and display oral communication in the target language. Teachers have plenty knowledge of secondlanguage learning and second-language acquisition. Moreover, teachers should support proper use of the target language, including encouraging non-verbal communication and mastering innovating strategies and communication techniques. In the English class, teachers must promote positive human relationships and self-confidence to each student. Sometimes, teachers did not have sufficient knowledge of children development. Teachers should be sensitive toward children‟s characteristics, needs, and strengths or weaknesses when planning and developing activities. However, not less important, teachers should promote team work and good communication along with positive leadership. Teachers, which communicate and interact with families as well it is possible, they will observe children‟s reactions and behavior growing in pretty positive way, when teachers take all of these in account. Teachers do not have self observation or teachers do not ask to the co-workers about what changes they must make in order to improve the necessary changes in their teaching learning practices. Teachers should promote meaningful and creative experiences for those with they interact to develop their professionalism. The schools should give opportunities to English teachers to promote discussion groups by reflective teaching with workmates and other professionals in many fields to improve teaching practices.
  33. 33. 2.10 STUDENTS’ PROFILES. According to the Programa of the Ministry of Public Education in Costa Rica, at the end of the II Cycle the learners should share relevant aspects of Costa Rican culture in order to promote a better understanding of Costa Rican‟s identity; each student should apply principles of cultural consciousness to help cultural understanding and respect for citizens of other countries. If learners continue expressing creativity and enjoyment in the process of learning the foreign language, they demonstrate improvement of communicative abilities in the oral and aural skills. The oral skill is the main focus of the curriculum. Learners should achieve reading and writing skills as a secondary support, through the use of sub-skills, techniques, activities, tasks etc, such as substitution, skimming, looking for details and production of short pieces of writing. 2.11 COSTA RICAN CURRICULUM. According to Program del MEP (2005), Costa Rican primary curriculum must supply the learner with the opportunity to develop awareness of the urgent need for the balanced development of our environment, our human resources, and also the sociopolitical and the economy and means of production. This balance is essential to ensure the success of the new era of sustainable development. The English language syllabus provides the necessary situations to support each one of the areas mentioned above. As far as environment is concerned, it emphasizes the analysis of the cause and effect of the use and misuse of natural resources and the possible solutions as well as the value of our existing resources and the ecological diversity. It also reinforces the harmonious development of human beings and nature.
  34. 34. The syllabus of the program gives special attention to those topics related to the basic needs of highly qualified people considering their successful realization in time, society and in the national and international surroundings. An example of this is provided by the topics which conduct research into an exchange information on health; the symptoms and prevention of common and more recent diseases. Likewise, drug abuse is another topic for discussion in the English class. Costa Rican curriculum takes into account other relevant areas of a well-rounded education, such as the job market and careers, in terms of active participation in the evolution of society. Other aspects like the socio-political development of citizens is dealt with explicitly, leading to personal, and collective improvement through themes relating to values such as: gender equality, political liberties, and respect for ethnic and cultural diversity, as well as active involvement in community activities. In the field of the economy and production, the syllabus provides for the promotion of a productive culture in harmony with the environment, coupled with the efficient use of energy and resources. In all cases, English can be the mean for exposure and acquisition of valuable and permanent behavior patterns. These patterns will fulfill their own needs, and those ones of the country. 2.11.1 THE EDUCATION POLICY EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES. The Educational Policy provides similar opportunities to everybody. Achieving high standards of education as well as opportunities that take into consideration the rights needs problems and expectations. First, the listening skill should have been developed in early stages of language learning. Students will understand and respond in appropriate way by the listening skill. Some ways to apply the listening skill is by distinguishing sounds,
  35. 35. stress, and intonations. Although, teachers should encourage the purpose of listening to a conversation, directions, discussions, drama films, songs, reports and any other form. Second, it is the speaking skill which teacher should provide many opportunities for the learners to express in this language. Some examples are through oral speech, discussions of topics, conversations, and any other way to make students to participate orally during the class. Third, the reading skill; it is a passive skill because the students should apply reading comprehension by doing exercises. Students have to be able to read the language by reading short pieces of a lecture in II cycle. The last one, the writing skill emphasizes the formal expressions of thoughts through written language of graphic symbols. Whenever, the teacher should introduce an activity in order to follow to help students think about what they already know by listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills to link new information and share experiences through those skills (MEP, 2007). 2.11.2 LINGUISTIC OBJECTIVES. The Costa Rican syllabuses included the linguistic objectives in which indicate what kind of skills are involved in the English learning process. In the second cycle, learners should integrate reading and writing skills little by little in order to help students to be communicative in English as a second language. “…The objectives used in this syllabus are stated in terms of linguistic skills. The term skill is used as a micro – concept, to be distinguished from the macro-concept of the customary division of language skills, that is, into listening, speaking, reading and writing. In the II cycle, the purpose is to integrate and interrelate these skills as understanding, performing and following relationships in the communication process...” (MEP, 2007) According to the last information the linguistic objectives of the II cycle work throughout the incorporation and interrelation of listening, speaking, reading and writing skills. Learners should recognize and apply English knowledge through achieving all the
  36. 36. skills into the communication in English. Teachers should have active techniques including games. Those games are activities with rules, a goal and an element of fun. The inclusion of linguistic strategies as an integral part of any language syllabus provides an opportunity for intensive language practice, offers a context in which language is used meaningfully and as a mean to an end, and acts as a diagnostic tool for the teacher, highlighting areas of difficulty. 2.12 ENGLISH AREAS. According to the Programa of Education in Costa Rica (2007) in I cycle, learners of English obtain communicative aptitude and learn to be competitive through the mixing of oral and aural skills listening and speaking only. They demonstrate improvement of communicative abilities in the oral and aural skills by performing real meaningful language situations in which students could use different activities to acquire the best knowledge in this second language, English. In the II cycle, reading and writing skills are introduced slowly but surely to match listening and speaking skills in great harmony by encouraging sub-skills, techniques, activities and tasks, such as substitution, skimming, looking for details and production of short pieces of writing, in order to improve communicative competence. The subsequent information explains a little bit more about the four skills such as listening, speaking, writing and reading skills and their developed in English class to II cycle students. 2.12.1 LISTENING. The receptive level uses of language can be applied to listening respectively. Those skills are cognitive and affective comprehension to the new language in this case English as
  37. 37. a second language. Listening is seen as the active use of language to access other people‟s meanings. Listening skills are incorporate during all the learning process. ¨…Listening is not a one- way street. It is not the process of a unidirectional receiving of audible symbols. One face the first step of listening comprehension is the psychomotor process of receiving sound waves through the ear and transmitting nerve impulses to the brain. But that just is the beginning of what is number of different cognitive and affective a mechanism in which listening is an interactive model of listening comprehension…” (English as a foreign language…¨ (MEP, 2009, 249) According to the information above listening should be a clear and interactive. First step of the listening process is the reception of sounds. Human beings perform the listening in a natural but interactive way. Students could develop short memory, interpreted what kind the information they have perceived from the message, determine the feeling or the speaker attitude through listening. Sometimes, teachers do not help students to develop the listening comprehension in the way students need. And the students just hear without paying attention for specific details from a conversation, speech from a video or a record material. Besides, according to James Asher, listening could work as a major component in language learning and teaching first hit the attention in the total physical response or TPR, in which learners could listen before they were encouraged to respond orally or any other skill. Subsequent pedagogical research on listening comprehension made major improvement in the process of listening. Sometimes teachers do not want to use the TPR like part of their lesson because they think that students‟ behavior is not good enough and this kind the approach is more for I cycle. According to Stephen Krashen and Terrell, when students are learning any kind of language there is a silent period dedicated to acquire comprehensible effort. It is during this stage when listening is highly reinforced to assure a better understanding of the
  38. 38. language. Students should be prepared to understand basic speech in different environments such as background noise, distance, and unclear sound; also learners should understand speakers with different accents in English. On the other hand, teachers should expose their students to a considerable amount of meaningful language input by listening to conversations, descriptions, directions, songs, sports activities, videos and any other form of authentic spoken material. 2.12.2 SPEAKING. Communication could be gotten in different ways. However, speaking is one of the ways people use to have an effective communication. Children start speaking from the ages of one or two, and day by day they produce new words through the acquisition and improvement of the speaking skill. “…The emerging of the productive skill, speaking, appears little by little in a process that includes the repetition of certain sounds and/or a combination of them in context at the very beginning stage. Isolated words appear in a meaningful context, where the child pronounces the word and the adult utters it in a context as many times as necessary. The child‟s speech improves according to the quality of the input provided by the teacher, along with his or her support and patience to higher levels of language…” (Programa II ciclo, 2007: 20) According to the previous information above about the speaking skill, students should use it in a process that goes slowly including repetition of sounds and mixing of those sounds in a situation. Teachers should pronounce the phrases and words as many times as the learners need them, in order to help students to improve the quality of the learners‟ speaking skill. The Costa Rican syllabus is centered in the oral communication, which promotes oral communication as the centered goal of this syllabus. Costa Rican curriculum promotes the speaking skills as a vital attainment to obtain a competence in English as a foreign language
  39. 39. to students in II cycle. Listening and speaking are related strongly by practicing those skills students could get intonation, pitch, rhythm and model native speakers and non native speakers, too. Students have better possibility to learn to speak English as well as it is possible through the listening and speaking skills in order to be under stable and be successful in different situations that the learner could face when they speak a new language in this case, English. Teachers could use different activities such as descriptions, dialogues, role plays, information gap, games, dramas, and story tales, and others. As it had been mentioned previously, the listening and speaking skills are closely. The oral communication skills in pedagogical researches provide some perspectives to acquire English. Richards (1990, 67) noted the conversation class is something of an enigma in language teaching. There are many techniques teachers could apply for teaching English through conversation, pronunciation, fluency, affective factors, and interaction effects. There are some characteristics of spoken English that could make learners learn speaking easily as well as in some cases it may become difficult. Clustering means making a speech not word by word, but make it in a fluency speech. Another one is redundancy; it means that the person who is speaking has the opportunity to make meaning in a clear way throughout redundancy of language. Then, performance variable is another characteristic of speaking difficulty because it is when someone has been speaking the new language. For example, native speakers usually take to think time, they include word sounds like ˝ up, umm you know, I mean etc, in order to have a thinking process. Students need to learn to include those performance variables in their speech in order to take advantage of the language. Another is the colloquial language. Students should learn idioms, phrases, colloquies language to have a clear communication with a native speaker. Not less
  40. 40. important are the stress, rhythm, intonation, and interaction of English pronunciation which make difficult to many students speak in the new language. 2.12.3 WRITING. According to the program of the Ministry of Public Education, the writing skill should be introduced increasingly in the II Cycle. Writing emphasizes the expression of thoughts, feelings and ideas. It should included little by little or in a progressively way. Based on the psycholinguist Eric Lenneberg; “Human behavior”, those human beings universally learn to walk, and to talk. Eric compares the swimming skills with the writing skills are culturally specific, learned behaviors. He says that usually just one person teaches us to swim; it is exactly the same, when someone needs to learn how to write just one teacher teaches us. There are some important points to take in account when teachers should teach students techniques such as any written practice should be related to the topic being studied, follow the linguistic objectives, including authentic writing materials such as texts, notes and letters, integrating the other skills before, while or after the writing task is performed it motivates students to express themselves creatively. Teachers could use different activities to improve the writing skills in their students such as shopping lists, messages, letters, postcards, invitations, and finally extensive papers. 2.12.4 READING. For the purposes of the Syllabus from the ministry of Public Education, reading is introduced gradually in the II Cycle. It has to be understood as a secondary skill, used to reinforce the oral skills. It is an active skill, which involves different tasks such as guessing, predicting and answering questions. Reading has been present in the life of humanity since its beginning. Ever since the oral tradition of the hunters and gatherers, through reading
  41. 41. has represented a major way of reflect one‟s perspective towards life. Students could make connections between different kinds of reading and life, understanding writing and language. All those connections are essential to live and learn. Through reading could find depiction of the thinking patterns and social norms that prevail in society, and including it a depiction of the different features of any individual‟s life. Moreover, students through reading could learn to work nurture thoughts and endorse imagination and creativity. When a child is exposed to good kinds of readings works, he/she is provided with appropriate educational opportunities because through great kinds of reading a person learns how to describe anything by using more technical, descriptive, imaginative, and others. In contrast, when a person has the lack of exposure of reading he/she is derived from an opportunity to grow as an individual. For this reason, it is through reading works, that a student comprehends and appreciates life from different perspectives. The texts should represent reflections of the world‟s culture on the nature of human experience. This resource pretends to take into account classrooms as the places for students to learn to read and have a vision of human possibilities offered them by the great literature and students could have the possibility to begin to tell their own. Reading in the English class to reinforce the acquisition of the language helps not only students but also all the people to take a closer look 0f the diverse aspects of life. In m any ways, understanding literature can change one‟s point of view towards life itself. On the other hand, teacher should encourage children to build literacy by reading, having a dialogue or producing their own piece of writing. Likewise, a good technique could help students to develop their skills like critical and analytical thinking. Critical thinking skills provide people the ability not only understand what they have read or been shown but also to build upon that knowledge without assistance through works.
  42. 42. Further, reading is the best tool to use in each subject in order to have better comprehension of the humanity. Students learn to enjoy any kind of reading thanks to the methodologies of the classroom. In other words through reading students can learn, be intellectual, emotional and social for the rest of their lives. By teaching reading skills, students have to integrate it as one with the rest of the skills to obtain the main goal because reading should put together as a unique set of past experiences, emotional and mental process according with their level of cognitive development and the level of the topic. According to an article the first language reading research had been flourishing for a couple of decades by the seventies, and after Kenneth Goodman´s began to tackle the unique issues and questions facing second language reading pedagogy (CAA Centre, 1999). Nowadays, three decades of research reveal the highlights of approaches to teach reading skills. First of able, in bottom up processing readers must recognize a multiplicity of linguistic signals such as letters, Syllables, words, phrases, grammatical cues and they select the signals that make some sense. In the top down or conceptually driven, readers draw on their own intelligence and experience to understand a text. (Christine Nuttall, 1996: 16-17) Second one is the schema theory and background knowledge which mean how readers construct meanings and how readers decide what to hold onto, once having those decisions, it comes another one that is how the readers, infer a writer´s message. In other words, readers bring information, knowledge, emotion, experience and culture to the printer words of a text. The third one is the role of affect and culture, according with Dole, Brown and Trathen, (1996) the acquisition of affective factors play major roles in ultimate success. Just as language ego,
  43. 43. self esteem, empathy, and motivation in reading subjects make readers love what they are reading. ¨…Meaning lies in that shared ground where the reader and the text meet. It is not resident within the text, to be extracted like a nut from its shell…¨ (Probst, 1997) . In order to become familiar with basic principles and practices, readers might carefully consult the materials to read. Robert Probst gave us a well think and how important is defined and analyzed the reading that our learners will read. 2.13 METHODOLOGIES DEFINITION. The methodologies are used in order to find reading tools to the learners of English as a second language in public primary schools. Thanks to the reading skill in which there is the teaching reading approach students should have to integrate as one with the rest of the skills to obtain the main goal, in which the approach affects the readers as a unique set of past experiences, emotional and mental processes, level of cognitive development and the level of the topic base on the CAA Centre. (1999) 2.13.1 C.E.L.T APPROACH. The Creative English Language approach, (C.E.L.T) approach joined to the creative as a way to improve the level of English in all the skills. The CELT approach describes motivational like the way learners obtain joy and pleasure. Moreover, how the students develop less frustrations in regards to the goal of learning English as a second language. (Affirmation, 2010) The main objective to the investigator is to stimulate the students to be active in the learning process in which they could enjoy the class time, also the learners should expect to obtain higher levels in English, and finally they could experience desirable attitudes to have
  44. 44. success in English. In other words, the teacher should apply activities to provide similar opportunities for everybody to communicate in English. Furthermore, the emphasis in a dynamic class is on the learners and the information exchanged between them as well as between them and the teacher. 2.13.2 THE CALLA APPROACH. Since their first proposal of this approach in 1986, Chamot and O‟Malley have continuously been working on the model, and refining it. It is an instructional model in which it was developed to meet the academic needs of the students learning of English as a second language in American schools. The handbook falls into three major parts. The components of CALLA are including academic content, learning strategies, and academic language skills. A two-year study was conducted to determine the long-term effects of a comprehensive cooperative learning approach to elementary reading and language arts instruction on students' achievement, attitudes, and met cognitive awareness. In the Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) program, students in second through sixth grade worked in heterogeneous learning teams on reading and writing activities related to stories they were reading. Teachers provided students with explicit instruction on comprehension strategies and used a writing process approach to teach writing and language arts. The study also mainstreamed academically handicapped students in regular classes, and these students were active participants in the cooperative learning team activities. 2.14 THEORIES FOR READING.
  45. 45. 2.14.1 CONSTRUCTIVISM THEORY. “…Constructivism concentrates to the significant of learning through individual constructivism cuts a nice path between the main ideas that have influenced how reading has been taught: the concept of math as facts to be transmitted to the student, and the view that some people have it and some people don't, where the educator's task is to figure out how "smart" students are and choose the right tasks for them to perform...” (Constructivism, 2009) According to the last information, constructivism focuses its attention on how people learn. It suggests that knowledge results from people forming models in response to the questions and challenges that come from actively engaging math problems and environments - not from simply taking information, nor as merely the blossoming of an innate gift. The challenge in teaching is to create experiences that engage the student and support his or her own explanation, evaluation, communication, and application of the models needed to make sense of these experiences. Through these experiences students could build great and extraordinary things that sometimes the students do not know that they could do it. Given this view, there are many strategies to improve reading teaching: look for different ways to fit into place individual students, develop rich environments for exploration, prepare coherent problem sets and challenges that focus the model building effort, elicit and communicate student perceptions and interpretations, and so on. 2.14.2 HUMANISTIC THEORY. This is the psychological perspective popularized by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow (hierarchy of needs) that emphasizes the human capacity for choice and growth. The overriding assumption is that humans have free will and is not simply fated to behave in specific ways or are zombies blindly reacting to their environments. It is a result that the Humanists stated that the subject matter or psychology is the human subjective experience
  46. 46. of the world how humans experience things, why they experience things, etc. (aplacenet, 2010) The humanism approach would concentrate upon the development of the learner‟s self-concept. If the students feel good about themselves could be an involving understanding of one‟s strengths and weaknesses. Besides that, it is one‟s ability to improve the process of learning. According to Maslow, everybody has a self-actualization in which learning is not an end in itself; it means the progress towards the pinnacle of selfdevelopment. The growth of each human being could be poor if at least these considerations of humanism are not included. Every human being is a wonderful creature; the humanity is a super organism. The human relationships and cooperation are necessary for the best human development and well being. 2.14. 3 INTEGRATED THEORY. The integrated approach is an art that focuses on the complementary nature of the reading process which includes listening, speaking, reading and writing rather than the teaching of each in isolation from the others. The integrated approach is very much aware of the strong connections between reading and writing. Initial encounters with a wide range of quality texts often provide the starting points for integrated classroom experiences. According to Dr. Karen Kutiper the integrated approach could help the students by supporting with suitable directions the linguistic process, which it can create greater competence in all areas. For example, the youngest could have the opportunity to respond to texts in writing to share, to defend, and to treat those responses in dialogues with classmates or with the teacher. Students develop richer understanding of what they have to read. In addition, the integrated approach gives the students the chance to respond both
  47. 47. informally and formally to their own reading and writing, and to reading and writing of the others. Consequently, learners should increase their ability to communicative fluently and flexibly in any setting. The integrated approach has a key to have a successful integrated classroom, obviously, a variety of quality and timely of reading are the foundation of the integrated classroom. This approach implements the reading on the lessons from the teacher selection and self-selected materials. The integrated approach put the teacher as the heart of the classroom. The teacher is who understands that quality instruction builds on students‟ backgrounds, providing appropriate strategies and offering equal opportunity to each learner to participate in reading activities. (Elements of literature, 1997) On the other hand, the first language can help enormously in making English input more comprehensible. This means that a second English language indirectly promote English development of reading through the first language. It is extremely efficient to build up literacy first in the children‟s first language, in order to help the students to solve reading problems and to achieve reading skills such scanning, scamming, etc in a second language. At the beginning level, students would participate in comprehensible – input – based method such as natural approach, teaching physical response (TPR) and English as a second language (ESL), these approaches try to fill the classroom time with active and interesting activities. Research shows that at the intermediate level of English as a second language, students could acquire a great deal of the second language and learn impressive amounts of subject matter at the same time. Learners work as well is possible because they provide a great deal of compressible input and at the same time they could achieve free voluntary
  48. 48. reading (Krashen, 1991). Then, students get confidence to read in their first language as well as in English as their second language. 2.14.4 MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES THEORY. The theory of multiple intelligences was discovered in 1983 by Dr. Howard Gardner, professor of education at Harvard University. This theory suggests that the traditional notion of intelligence, based on I. Q. testing, is far too limited. Instead, Dr. Gardner proposes eight different intelligences to account for a broader range of human prospective in children and adults, too. Each of the multiple intelligence displays a distinguished set of psychological process, very different from person to person. This theory has several implications for language learning and language teaching. The most significant is that each learner is unique and this student has the potential to express and develop his or her abilities in different ways. These intelligences are linguistic intelligence or word smart, logical- mathematical intelligence or number and reasonable smart, spatial intelligence or picture smart, bodily – kinesthetic intelligence or body smart, musical intelligence or music smart, interpersonal intelligence or people smart, intrapersonal intelligence or self smart, and finally the naturalist intelligence or nature smart. According with Dr. Gardner the schools and cultures focus most of their attention on linguistic and logical mathematical intelligence. The good news are that the theory of multiple intelligences has grabbed the attention of many educators around the world and hundreds of educational systems including the Costa Rican Educational system are currently using this philosophy to redesign the way it educates children. If teachers are having difficulty reaching a student in the more traditional linguistic or logical ways of instruction, this theory suggests several other ways
  49. 49. in which the material might be presented to facilitate effectively and successfully learning process. (Armstrong,1994) Moreover, there is the Emotional Intelligence Theory, introduced by Daniel Goldman in 1995, developing learners competences will have greatest caring classes because it should be a place where students feel respected, and cared about bonded to classmates. Dr. Goldman defines emotional intelligences as ability of knowing what one‟s feelings are and using the knowledge to make good decisions. In addition, emotional intelligences are empathy of the feeling among others. It is the results of experience and interaction with other people. People with high level of emotional intelligence tend to keep a positive outlook in life and overcome difficulties according to the MEP, ( 2007). 2.15 STRATEGIES TO IMPROVE READING IN ENGLISH CLASSES. A half century ago, reading specialists might have argued that the best way to teach reading is through bottom up methodology, teaching symbols, grapheme- phoneme correspondences, syllables, and lexical recognition first. Then, comprehension would be derived from the sum of the parts. Recent researches on teaching reading have shown that a combination of top- down and bottom-up processing, or what has come to be called interactive reading, is almost always a primary ingredient in successful teaching methodology because both processes are important In fact, Nuttall said: “…In practice, a reader continually shifts from one focus to another, now adopting a top down approach to predict probable meaning, then moving to the bottom – up approach to check whether that is really what the writer says…”(CAA Centre, 1999)
  50. 50. Moreover, becoming a strategic reader could be a dream for many people. Whatever, according with Dr. Judith Irvin, reading learners should have better interaction of what is in readers‟ minds with what is on the page within a particular context that helps student comprehension in what they read, if students should come to learning with previous information about particular topics, with definite attitudes about reading and with varying motivations for reading and learning. For example, it is better for readers, to learn anything new without making connections to their schemata or prior knowledge. For teachers, it is very important to have on mind that readers encountering new ideas most often be shown how the material fits into their existing filling system. Teachers should choose the right text because the content, format, and organization of a text are factors that make a text easy or pretty hard for some students to understand. A teacher should be prepared to exercise flexibility and sensitivity in presenting the text so as to encourage learners to use their schemata to enhance their reading experience. Learners should know the reading approaches texts are differently and the reading vary according to each purpose. It could be for pleasure than if the purpose is for class topic. Good readers are strategic and being strategic involves the met cognitive abilities to think, plan and evaluate their own understanding of texts. 2.15.1 COOPERATIVE LEARNING APPROACH IN READING. According to the research conducted by Robert J. Stevens and Robert E. Slavin at the University of Chicago Press, there are effects on student‟s achievement of reading by using a cooperative learning approach makes learners have better attitude in English reading class. During two years they were researching to find out the effects of a
  51. 51. comprehensive cooperative learning approach to elementary reading learners. They determine that students from second to sixth grade most of the time work in teams on reading activities related to the topic of the story. This approach helps students to be sociable and to acquire much better the reading vocabulary. According to Oxford (2010), the cooperative learning, collaborative learning and interaction are three kinds of communicative strands in the language classrooms. The collaborative learning has a social constructivism philosophical base. Interaction is broadest of the three terms and refers to personal communication. The last approach is the cooperative which refers to a particular classroom activities and techniques that encourage learners interdependent as a route of social and cognitive progress. This article wants to emphasize how important it is to have clear and understand the three strands. 2.15.2 MOTIVATIONAL STRATEGIES. According to Barnett and Williams, (1989) researches they are defined the term strategy as conscious deliberate behavior while skills operate at the subconscious level. It has been distinguished in the reading research from the term skill based on consciousness. Based on the Anderson‟s research, teachers should make students grow interest in met cognition in reading where teaching comprehension, according to his view, it requires students to discuss the type of strategies the students should use to comprehend a text and it improves their knowledge. On the other hand, students should be encouraged to transfer the reading sub-skills that they have already acquired in their native language such as follow the linguistic objectives, including authentic writing materials; for example, texts, notes and letters,
  52. 52. integrate the other skills such as before, while or after the writing task is performed; motivate students to express themselves creatively. Pre-reading, while reading and post-reading is used to direct students to dynamically join in the reading process, through goals of guide reading is for students to become fluent readers and solve strategies to read alone, in group or silently. Before reading prepares students for learning by activating their pre knowledge about the topic featured in the text. There are strategies to help teachers in the pre Reading process such as to invite the students to predict what the text or story is about by doing quick writing on the title by using notes or short statements. Another one could be the word plash in which students should take out fifteen words from the text and the students do sentences according to the title of the text. Another technique could be tea party. This strategy student has to predict what will happen by seeing pictures related to the topic. While- reading strategies teach comprehension by making connections, creating questions by guiding students to use different strategies to obtain the text objective. Some examples of strategies are webbed chart; teachers should follow the levels of questions to the students making them think about the reading that they are doing by some questions related to the reading. The post-reading strategy idea is to connect the old and new knowledge successfully. This part of the reading process technique helps students to frame it in some way in the students´ life. Some great ideas are that teachers could use a reflection activity in which students think about the importance of choosing what they are reading or that students must read frequently in order to have knowledge in different topics. Also students could answer questions related to the text in an oral or written way. Another activity is to find short
  53. 53. readings related to the last reading and compare different situations, characters, conflict and events according to the students‟ level. Depending of the text, students could use a story map by comparing, looking for cause and effect, finding events and others maps to connect all the text in a summary plot. Students could performance what they read by making dialogues, conversations in a pretty active way. (When kids can‟t read what teacher can do (Beers; 2010) Moreover, teachers should use a variety of texts, techniques, activities and materials in order to promote the development of reading. Students should be encouraged to communicate their ideas and ideas from another person meaningfully. Likewise, within the scientific, technological, and humanistic spheres, English is a fundamental linguistic tool. Consequently, using English as the instrument to acquire reading skills is a very universal and postmodern strategy in the education of primary school students. When taking into account English as the instrument to study instead of the object of study, to motivate students in this process becomes relevant within the curriculum, emphasizes the basic linguistic skills like listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Since the educational proposal in Costa Rica instructs on the communicative approach, it becomes significant to motivate students to participate in class. Therefore, based on Michael Sturgeon theory, students‟ attitude and motivation have to be together. These two values cope with reading and its troublesome areas of analysis. In the foreign language learning context, learner‟s motivation and attitude have an influence on the student‟s success in learning a language and analyzing pieces of texts. Motivation in language learning and texts analysis becomes relevant in order to accomplish the best possible results.
  54. 54. Students should be encouraged to transfer the reading sub-skills they have already acquired in his or her native language such as following the linguistic objectives, including authentic writing materials such as texts, notes and letters, integrate the other skills such as before, while or after the writing task is performed; motivate students to express themselves creatively. The goal of guiding reading is for students to become fluent readers and solve strategies to read alone and silently. According to Chaves (2005) the following information could help teachers to plan activities to the steps of reading such as pre-reading, while-reading and post-reading strategies, in order to achieve much better the motivation and knowledge into each learner. There are some extra- activities to take in account into the reading process such as prereading, while reading, and post reading. Pre reading Questions and answers related to topic Matching sentences with pictures Picture description Illustration with visual aids Vocabulary charts Story telling While reading Answer questions Complete sentences Matching pictures with words. Drawing. True or false statements.
  55. 55. Multiple choice to choose the correct answer. Organizing ideas in chronological order. Complete charts. Solving a puzzle. Following instructions. Post reading Role-playing Dramatizations Creating a story Writing on a similar topic. Solving a puzzle Problem solving. Following instructions. Jigsaw reading 2.16 INCLUSION STRATEGY. Inclusion of strategies changes the attitude of learners‟ point of view about reading. According with Dr. Donna Kearns, the inclusion provides six basic principles that are important to the educational rights for all the students. Those principles include zero rejection, natural proportions, regular special education, and collaboration of parents. The term zero reject means to the fact that no students with disabilities are rejected from the regular education classrooms and schools in which they would participate if they did not have disabilities. But, teacher should find techniques to assist these students to experience success in the classroom in which every other child of their age is placed. The natural
  56. 56. proportion means it should ensure teachers that their classrooms will continue to be a mixture of students. Most of the time, teachers have mixed ability class in which there is a difference and very clear that students have levels on their abilities in the receptive and productive skills, difference in the students learning styles, differences in their background knowledge, and finally differences in their levels of motivation. There are some techniques for teachers to use as they collaborate to provide services to students and successful opportunities to each learner. The inclusion is very important because it represents progress toward meeting the diverse needs of students in our changing population of the school. Teachers can promote this learning by assisting students in exploring how they learn while they are reading. Some tips to teachers to choose the right readings could be an amazing way to have a successful English class as a second language. Teachers need help to keep in touch with reading according with the topic that is been taught. Sometimes, we as teachers do not have ideas to motivate and to encourage our students to learn through readings. Make your own observation and identify what could be some factors that make your lesson poor. Remember that it is important to define the specific purposes of each reading having into account designed to meet specific needs of the learners. Make sure the texts are appropriate lexical level for your students. Use the glossary tool to create vocabulary support. To use a blended plan, this means you have to include pre-reading, while-reading and post reading dynamic activities in which students could improve their skills. English class should be active and very motivating to catch the students‟ attention and to create a great environment in each English lesson. Playing games in which students should use the new vocabulary. Use choral reading of passages and poems helps the students with their self esteem and their desire to read.
  57. 57. Provide simple books and materials to encourage students to retell the stories in English to the rest of the group. As teachers we can help students to improve their ability to speak, to listen, to read and to write in English, working on these strategies students should be encouraged to develop their writing skills and reading skills successfully. (Kearns, 1997) 2.17 VALUES THROUGH READING. Teacher can teach values through reading with the learners. Illustrated picture, texts and why not, books are a good way to start this process. Teacher could tell stories that a young child can understand and through the stories, students could learn values which are represented. Young children ask many questions and a character that thinks about situations and asks questions of a wiser character is someone your child can relate to. He can put himself in the place of the young character. It is a good way for him or her to learn about values like wisdom, right, and wrong. There some values such as respect and cooperation, in which teachers could include on their plans to rich students knowledge more and more. This could happen thanks to the readings that teachers use, and students could internalize and use for all their life in many different situations that they will face. 2.17.1 COOPERATION. The first value is cooperative value, this value makes easier the class because students learn to work as teams and they learn to be less self centered. “…To work or act together for a common purpose or benefit…” (Webster, 2006)
  58. 58. Based on the last information teachers should use the cooperation value throughout reading to motivate students to work in groups in different topics in which they have to present to the rest of the class or just to do a practice related to the unit they have studied. Learners could apply this value into the classes and other places, such as places they go to play out the school and of course in their homes. The cooperation value is a tool that learners could use in different situations. By using this value they could help to obtain benefits from many people including students themselves. 2.17.2 RESPECT. This value is an important tool that teachers could use. Students should respect the rest of the class members‟ opinions. During the reading process like pre- reading, whilereading, and post- reading teachers should foment this value through different activities. “…Permit the opinion and expressions. Respect the privacy to each person…” (Webster, 2006) According to the last information students should participate telling their own opinions about any topic and the classmates should respect each other opinions. Sometimes, students do not want to participate in oral tasks in role-plays and etc, because their classmates could be pretty cruel. 2.17.3 ORDER. Some teachers misunderstand to have a military class and organize or order class. Some professors avoid role- plays or other kinds of activity because they do not how to organize or worse teachers never teach the order value to students.

×