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Bienvenidos a nuestro sitio virtual de la UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER en Slide Share donde podrá encontrar los resultados de importantes trabajos de investigación prácticos producidos por nuestros profesionales. Esperamos que estos Mares Azules que les ponemos a su disposición sirvan de base para otras investigaciones y juntos cooperemos en el Desarrollo Económico y Social de Costa Rica y otras latitudes.

Queremos ser enfáticos en que estos trabajos tienen Propiedad Intelectual por lo que queda totalmente prohibida su reproducción parcial o total, así como ser utilizados por otro autor, a excepción de que los compartan como citas de autor o referencias bibliográficas. Toda esta información también quedará a su disposición desde nuestro sitio web,

Disfruten con nosotros de este magno contenido bibliográfico Magister esperando sus amables comentarios, no sin antes agradecer a nuestro Ing. Jerry González quien está administrando este sitio.

Rectoría, Universidad Magister. – 2014.

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  1. 1.  Costa Rica is a country that it is growing in issues related with tourism, industry, and globalization.  Education authorities are trying to implement the best notion of the English Language, since it is a key to success the best jobs.  SLA students must acknowledge the best of the language to achieve their highest potential in English.  However, it is impossible for somebody to achieve perfection.  Teachers ask for almost a perfect performance. This situation provokes the detriment of communication and confidence.
  2. 2. To propose a change in the way teachers visualize and correct errors, so they become positive elements in the English learning process.
  3. 3.  To identify the most common errors, and the source of them.  To establish strategies to correct errors that will produce effectiveness in the response of the learner.  To take advantage of errors in order to improve the learning process.
  4. 4.  Error correction should not be abandoned, but focused as a positive and indispensable tool.  Students should feel comfortable in an atmosphere of confidence.  Learning gentile. process must be smooth and
  5. 5.  When is the best time of the class to correct an error that a student commits?  Which one should be the correct attitude, a teacher must have, towards error- correction in order to help the students’ knowledge and purpose of learning?  Should teachers correct every single error her or his students commit? Or, the teacher must have a common sense of what corrections must be emphasized and which ones should be ignore?
  6. 6.             Dornyei, Motivation. Richards, Selinker, Interlanguage, Intralinguistcs, Fossilization. Seidner, Silent period, Formulaic Speech. Brown, Pre- systematic,Emergent,Systematic and Post- Systematic. Edge, Errors of Form and Errors of Meaning. Burt and Kiparsky, Global and Local Errors. Walki, External Factors, Community, Home Support, Peer Groups. Chomsky, Internal Factors: Ability. Attitude. Krashen, Motivation, Self Confidence, Anxiety. Affective Filter. Brown, Differentiation on Errors and Mistakes. Corder, Error Analysis. Hagege, Obstruction of Communication.
  7. 7.  Setting: Colegio Canadiense in Lomas de Ayarco,1991. John H. Owens, founder and director. Ninth grade group, beginners, intermediates. Teacher Lorena Barrantes, English teacher. Procedure: Classroom observation. Survey or questionnaire for the students. 
  8. 8.  Through the observations in class, the researcher determined the frequency of use of each error correction and the reaction of the students toward correction. Pre-systematic Stage. Good atmosphere and good relation- ship between the teacher and her students. Error- correction was used spontaneously.  The data from the student survey were analyzed in order to determine the students’ attitudes regarding correction. Students chose their teacher to correct their errors. Students prefer a non-threatening, implicit feedback type. Students do not want to be in the eye of their classmates when an error is committed by them.
  9. 9. Observation: Different Error Correction Techniques Recasts Explicit Correction Clarification Requests Elicitation Repetition Metalinguistic Feedback Total number of corrections Frequency % 25% 20% 17% 15% 13% 10% 100%
  10. 10. Do you like the subject of English? 90% 80% 87% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 13% 10% 0% Yes No
  11. 11. Do you think learning English will be important in your life, both present and future? 90% 80% 70% 83% 60% 50% 40% 30% 17% 20% 10% 0% Yes No
  12. 12. After the teacher corrects you, have you ever felt discouraged? Yes No 37% 63%
  13. 13. When should the teacher correct the sutudent´s mistakes? 10% after the students’ intervention, the teacher gives an open explanation to all the class. 63% the teacher prepares a collection of errors and gives delayed correction or feedback to all students. 10% the teacher does not indicate that an error is made, but makes a sound like mmmm, ehh, to indicate that something is been said incorrectly. 27% the teacher corrects the error giving a more technical explanation, using words such as: Use a verb in the present tense rather than in the past tense. the teacher says: Do not say X. Say Y. (Immediate correction) the teacher repeats what the student says with correction included 7% 57%
  14. 14. Have you ever felt ashamed by your classmates after the teacher corrects you? 60% 50% 40% 57% 30% 43% 20% 10% 0% Yes No
  15. 15. When a teacher corrects the errors a student makes, the student learns more or the learning process stops from the corrections? 23% The learning process stops 77% The student learns more 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80%
  16. 16. When do you think that the teacher should correct her or his students? During an activity 33% After an activity 67%
  17. 17. Do you think your classmates should also correct their classmates´errors? 63% 37% Yes No
  18. 18. Do you auto correct yourself? No 40% Yes 60%
  19. 19. Do you correct your classmates? 63% No 37% Yes 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70%
  20. 20.  There are still, many challenges and complexities involved in providing effective feedback for second language learners.  Language acquisition is more than teaching methologies, and lesson plans, it is a real dependency between the learners and the teacher.  Students need to have confidence that their teacher will instruct them and will be a facilitator to achieve the target language.  This study confirms that correction is a very important issue when learning a second language; students prefer a nonthreatening, implicit feedback type since the different corrections used by the teachers produce different kinds of learner response.
  21. 21. Further study is needed to develop a deep study on error correction and the impact in language acquisition.  A smooth environment is an important factor when acquiring a second language which is a major component of motivation.  Motivational strategies increase the learning selfesteem.  Teachers must integrate the affective filters with the cognitive domains in education. 
  22. 22. God Bless You!