UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER
CARRERA ENSEÑANZA DEL INGLÉS
TESIS PARA OPTAR POR EL GRADO DE LICENCIATURA
EN LA ENSEÑANZA DEL INGLÉS...
TRIBUNAL EXAMINADOR

Esta Tesis es aprobada por el Tribunal Examinador de la Carrera de Licenciatura
en la Enseñanza del I...
COMITÉ ASESOR

El Trabajo Final de Graduación es aprobado por el Comité Asesor de la Carrera de
Enseñanza del Inglés, como...
DECLARACIÓN JURADA

Yo Magda Abad Valverde, estudiante de la Universidad Magíster, declaro bajo fe
del juramento y conscie...
A MI MADRE

iv
AGRADECIMIENTO

Deseo manifestar mi mayor agradecimiento a mis directores de Tesis, MBA. Vivian
González Trejos y M.L. Law...
vi
vii
CONTENT
Page
Tribunal Examinador

i

Comité Asesor

ii

Declaración Jurada

iii

Dedicatoria

iv

Agradecimiento

v

Carta...
Chapter III Methodological Framework

74

3.1 Research Type

75

3.2 Information Sources

75

3.3 Population

76

3.4 Samp...
CHARTS INDEX
Page
CHART 1: COGNATES

11

CHART 2: ETHNOLOGUE REPORT FOR COSTA RICA

12

CHART 3: MASLOW’S PYRAMID

57

CHA...
GRAPHS INDEX
Page
GRAPH 1: FAMILY STATUS

81

GRAPH 2: FAMILY EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

82

GRAPH 3: BROTHERS/SISTERS OCCUPA...
MAPS INDEX

Page
MAP 1: COSTA RICAN INDIAN LANGUAGES

13

MAP 2: COSTA RICAN ETHNIC GROUPS TERRITORIES

20

xii
PREFACE

This work is intended to persuade teachers to use the Communicative Language
Teaching to favor second and third l...
Chapter V has to do with conclusions, for example, In regard to the question ―do
you like English ?,‖ it can be concluded ...
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
2
1.1 INTRODUCTORY ASPECTS
In Latin America, native populations are located in difficult access sites, where
there are not...
3
Costarricenses para la Dirección Regional Educativa de Limón del Ministerio de
Educación Pública (2009) that:
“La educac...
4
government of Costa Rica declared the necessity of breaking social barriers by
teaching English to children since first ...
5
1.2 JUSTIFICATION
In Costa Rica, thousands of students go to the university to learn English, many of
them have decided ...
6
they live in far away places with difficult access, where no modern conveniences
reach them, people in charge of teachin...
7
1.4 GENERAL OBJECTIVE
To propose an implementation in the use of the Communicative Approach to Costa
Rican indigenous st...
8
1.7 DELIMITATIONS
Most of the observations and the questionnaire were applied to Cabecar
students from La Suiza Technica...
CHAPTER II
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
10
2.1 INTRODUCTION
In this chapter there is a set of topics that are necessary to take into account
because they are basi...
11
According to the linguist Victor Ml. Arroyo (1972,) from several aboriginal groups
that used to inhabit the Costa Rican...
12
CHART 2: Ethnologue Report for Costa Rica

LANGUAGE

DIALECTS

Boruca

ALTERNATE
NAMES

SPEAKERS

ETHNIC
POPULATION

LO...
13
MAP 1: Costa Rican Indian Languages

Source: Ethnologue. 2009

2.3 ETHNIC GROUPS
In short, there are eight different in...
14
“En la Vertiente Atlántica los cabécares se encuentran en las siguientes reservas
indígenas(1) Reserva Indígena Cabécar...
15
knowledge transmission between generations, also by the building of traditional
houses and by different production acti...
16
2.2.3 GUAYMI (Ngäbe )
According to Wikipedia article Guaymí is the traditional term for the Ngäbe, and
their language i...
17
staions in Margarita and Tonjibe. Malekus invaded

Mariley farm next to the

reserve; 250 hectares of it were distribut...
18
influenced by Spanish culture and modern conveniences than Teribes. For
example, while Teribe people made a natural cre...
19
and drinks, they have kept some words from the Huetar language, legends and
believes. They also preserve the environmen...
20
MAP 2: Costa Rican Ethnic Groups Territories

Source: Margery. Abecedario Ilustrado Cabécar. 2005.

2.4 SECOND LANGUAGE...
21
2.4.1 THEORIES AND METHODS
According to Jack Richards and Theodore Rodgers, in their book Approaches and
Methods in Lan...
22
content in terms of notions, topics, grammar and vocabulary. The term syllabus is
not usually used in process-based met...
23
divided into five stages that go from a total dependency on the teacher (stage 1), to
a total independence in stage 5.
...
24
1. Materials will focus on the communicative abilities of interpretation,
expression, and negociation.
2. Materials wil...
25
dialogue. Sixth, learners discover the generalizations or rules underlying the
functional expression of structure. Seve...
26
Richards and Rodgers also quote Littlewood, who distinguishes between two kinds
of activities: ―functional communicatio...
27
sampling of written homework, if assign. Finally, for the 11 th step, there is oral
evaluation: ―How would you ask your...
28
recognized but not emphasized, the sequence of units is determined by principles
of linguistic complexity, errors must ...
29
different teaching methods known under a variety of names, including notionalfunctional,

teaching

for

proficiency,

...
30
1. Who was talking?
2. About how old were they?
3. Where were they when you eavesdropped?
4. What were they talking abo...
31
giving picture lessons, by saying and doing exercises, by arranging oral
composition, by developing the ideas on the to...
32
The article mentions that the communicative approach focuses on language as a
medium of communication. It recognizes th...
33
Finally, it mentions that in the communicative approach teachers can employ
authentic resources, such as authentic text...
34
“Repetition :
Where the student repeats an utterance as
soon as he hears it
Inflection :
Where one word in a sentence a...
35
The article mentions some hints for using Audio-lingual drills in second language
teaching:
1. The teacher must be care...
36
2.4.4 TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE

Another approach that can be used with indigenous people is the total physical
response ...
37
According to the founder and its proponents, TPR has several advantages; the
students will enjoy activity, such as, get...
38
earlier Direct Method, except that the students are allowed to use their native
language as part of the language learni...
39
language learning is viewed, as audiolingualists do: as mastery of structures by
stages. The input hypothesis states th...
40
The Natural Approach is said to be for beginners (p.184) and is designed to help
them become intermediates. Richards an...
41
From these, they affirm that the Natural Approach is primarily designed to develop
both basic communication skills: ora...
42
to pictures. In the ―early-production stage,‖ students can respond to either-or
questions, use single words and short p...
43
involving varied group sizes, different content, and contexts. The teacher is seen
as responsible for collecting materi...
44
1. Start with TPR [Total Physical Response] commands. At first the
commands are quite simple: "Stand up. Turn around. R...
45
appears to be a father, the other a daughter. What are they doingCooking.
They are cooking a hamburger." Picture 2. "Th...
46
through the senses; a multisensory view of language seems to be important,
because the senses provide the context for t...
47
space, time, and resources within the classroom. Teachers are supposed to better
the second language abilities of their...
48
language the best way, so that the teaching/ learning experience would be a 100%
successful. Moreover, it is necessary ...
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
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APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011

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APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011

  1. 1. UNIVERSIDAD MAGISTER CARRERA ENSEÑANZA DEL INGLÉS TESIS PARA OPTAR POR EL GRADO DE LICENCIATURA EN LA ENSEÑANZA DEL INGLÉS APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF COSTA RICAN INDIGENOUS PEOPLE MAGDA ABAD VALVERDE 2011
  2. 2. TRIBUNAL EXAMINADOR Esta Tesis es aprobada por el Tribunal Examinador de la Carrera de Licenciatura en la Enseñanza del Inglés, como requisito para optar al grado de Licenciatura con Énfasis en la Enseñanza del Inglés. San José, a los 04 días del mes de abril del 2011. ________________________________________ Máster Vivian González Trejos. Tutora ________________________________________ Máster Lawrence Vega Miranda. Lector Interno i
  3. 3. COMITÉ ASESOR El Trabajo Final de Graduación es aprobado por el Comité Asesor de la Carrera de Enseñanza del Inglés, como requisito para optar al Grado de Licenciatura en la Enseñanza del Inglés. San José, a los 04 días del mes de abril del dos mil once. __________________________________________ Máster. Vivian González Trejos, Lectora __________________________________________ Máster Lawrence Vega Miranda, Tutor ii
  4. 4. DECLARACIÓN JURADA Yo Magda Abad Valverde, estudiante de la Universidad Magíster, declaro bajo fe del juramento y consciente de la responsabilidad penal de éste, que soy la autora intelectual del Trabajo Final de Graduación intitulado: Application of the Communicative Approach to the teaching of Costa Rican Indigenous Students; por lo que libero a la Universidad de cualquier responsabilidad. San José, a los 04 días del mes de abril del 2011 ________________________________________ Magda Abad Valverde Cédula 03-0275-0532 iii
  5. 5. A MI MADRE iv
  6. 6. AGRADECIMIENTO Deseo manifestar mi mayor agradecimiento a mis directores de Tesis, MBA. Vivian González Trejos y M.L. Lawrence Vega Miranda, quienes muy amablemente siempre y oportunamente estuvieron anuentes a brindarme sus importantes recomendaciones. Así mismo, deseo extender mi agradecimiento a la bibliotecaria del C.T.P. La Suiza, Lcda. Yamileth Rodríguez Cerdas y a todas aquellas personas que me apoyaron para que este trabajo pudiera ser una realidad. v
  7. 7. vi
  8. 8. vii
  9. 9. CONTENT Page Tribunal Examinador i Comité Asesor ii Declaración Jurada iii Dedicatoria iv Agradecimiento v Carta Autorización (Colegio) vi Carta Autorización Uso de Trabajo de Investigación vii Content viii Charts Index x Graphs Index xi Maps Index xii Preface xiii Chapter I Introduction 01 1.1 Introductory Aspects 02 1.2 Justification 05 1.3 Problem Statement 06 1.4 General Objective 07 1.5 Specific Objectives 07 1.6 Limitations 07 1.7 Delimitations 08 Chapter II Theoretical Framework 09 2.1 Introduction 10 2.2 Indigenous Languages 10 2.3 Ethnic Groups 13 2.4 Second Language Acquisition 20 2.5 MEP’s General Objective 65 2.6 UNICEF’s Report 72 viii
  10. 10. Chapter III Methodological Framework 74 3.1 Research Type 75 3.2 Information Sources 75 3.3 Population 76 3.4 Sample 76 3.5 Technical Instruments 76 3.6 Variables Definition 76 3.7 Gathering of Information 78 3.8 Data Analysis 79 3.9 Information Processing 79 Chapter IV Analysis and Interpretation of Results 80 4.1 Questionnaire 81 4.2 Telephone Interviews 98 Chapter V Conclusions and Recommendations 107 5.1 Conclusions 108 5.2 Recommendations 113 Chapter VI Proposal 114 6.1 Introduction 115 6.2 General Objective 116 6.3 Specific Objectives 116 6.4 Proposed Communicative Activities 116 Bibliography 125 Web References 128 Appendix 131 Encuesta sobre educación bilingüe en comunidades indígenas de Costa.Rica .(2009/2010) 132 Entrevista sobre educación bilingüe en comunidades indígenas de Costa.Rica (2011) 137 ix
  11. 11. CHARTS INDEX Page CHART 1: COGNATES 11 CHART 2: ETHNOLOGUE REPORT FOR COSTA RICA 12 CHART 3: MASLOW’S PYRAMID 57 CHART 4: FAMILY STATUS 81 CHART 5: FAMILY EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND 82 CHART 6: BROTHERS/SISTERS OCCUPATION 83 CHART 7: SCHOOL ATTENDANCE 84 CHART 8: HIGH SCHOOL LEVEL 85 CHART 9: WAY TO GO TO SCHOOL 86 CHART 10: SCHOOLS NEARBY 87 CHART 11: SPOKEN CABECAR 88 CHART 12: ENGLISH MOTIVATION 89 CHART 13: STUDENTS’ UNDERSTANDING 90 CHART 14: ENGLISH DIFFICULTY 91 CHART 15: SCHOOL DIFFICULTY 92 CHART 16: STUDENTS’ PARTICIPATION 93 CHART 17: STUDY MOTIVATION 94 CHART 18: MOTIVATION FOR OTHER LANGUAGES 95 CHART 19: UNIVERSITY MOTIVATION 96 CHART 20: ADULTS SCHOOL ATTENDANCE 98 CHART 21: EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM LEVELS 99 CHART 22: SCHOOLS 100 CHART 23: SPOKEN INDIGENOUS LANGUAGE 101 CHART 24: ENGLISH EXPERIENCE 102 CHART 25: ADULTS ENGLISH MOTIVATION 103 CHART 26: ADULTS SCHOOL MOTIVATION 104 x
  12. 12. GRAPHS INDEX Page GRAPH 1: FAMILY STATUS 81 GRAPH 2: FAMILY EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND 82 GRAPH 3: BROTHERS/SISTERS OCCUPATION 83 GRAPH 4: SCHOOL ATTENDANCE 84 GRAPH 5: HIGH SCHOOL LEVEL 85 GRAPH 6: WAY TO GO TO SCHOOL 86 GRAPH 7: SCHOOLS NEARBY 87 GRAPH 8: SPOKEN CABECAR 88 GRAPH 9: ENGLISH MOTIVATION 89 GRAPH 10: STUDENTS’ UNDERSTANDING 90 GRAPH 11: ENGLISH DIFFICULTY 91 GRAPH 12: SCHOOL DIFFICULTY 92 GRAPH 13: STUDENTS’ PARTICIPATION 93 GRAPH 14: STUDY MOTIVATION 94 GRAPH 15: MOTIVATION FOR OTHER LANGUAGES 95 GRAPH 16: UNIVERSITY MOTIVATION 96 GRAPH 17: ADULTS SCHOOL ATTENDANCE 99 GRAPH 18: EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM LEVELS 100 GRAPH 19: SCHOOLS 101 GRAPH 20: SPOKEN INDIGENOUS LANGUAGE 102 GRAPH 21: ENGLISH EXPERIENCE 103 GRAPH 22: ADULTS ENGLISH MOTIVATION 104 GRAPH 23: ADULTS SCHOOL MOTIVATION 105 xi
  13. 13. MAPS INDEX Page MAP 1: COSTA RICAN INDIAN LANGUAGES 13 MAP 2: COSTA RICAN ETHNIC GROUPS TERRITORIES 20 xii
  14. 14. PREFACE This work is intended to persuade teachers to use the Communicative Language Teaching to favor second and third language learning in classrooms where there are indigenous students who may have some kind of difficulties when studying English. It is divided into six chapters: Chapter I has to do with introductory aspects that express ideas regarding the problem, the justification, and the objectives for this work. Chapter II deals with our Costa Rican ethnic groups, who they are, where they are located, and what languages they speak. It also refers to some questions and answers some of our indigenous people were involved in order to know more about their culture, their behavior, their motivation to study, their difficulties in learning and their opinions or comments. There are also some important language theories and approaches mentioned like the Audio Lingual Method, the Natural Approach, the Total Physical Response, and the Communicative Approach, to be considered as a base for the main aim of this work that is, to provide and recommend different communicative learning activities for our aborigens to be more successful in school. Chapter III refers to the methods and procedures used to develop this research. So, it has to do with the gathering of information, the technical instruments used, the sample that was considered and represented teenager students and adults from different indigenous groups like Bribri, Cabecar, Guaymi, Huetar, Chorotega, Boruca, and Maleku. Chapter IV deals with the analysis of the information gather through a questionnaire and interviews. It has questions like How do you go to school,? Do you like English,? Do you understand your teachers’ explanations,? How would you like English to be taught .? xiii
  15. 15. Chapter V has to do with conclusions, for example, In regard to the question ―do you like English ?,‖ it can be concluded that most indigenous students are motivated to learn English, because almost all the students said they enjoyed English. Chapter VI refers to the proposal. These are the specific objectives: to provide some practical ideas and exercises that will help indigenous students to be more successful and more motivated in school, to persuade teachers to expand their ways and techniques of teaching by including more communicative activities in their lessons, and to motivate teachers to use curricular adjustments with indigenous students, so that they may be given more attention and more time to develop the practices or exercises. xiv
  16. 16. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
  17. 17. 2 1.1 INTRODUCTORY ASPECTS In Latin America, native populations are located in difficult access sites, where there are not public services. They have chosen those places to protect themselves from foreign invasions. Unfortunately, that has prevented most of them to participate actively in the society they belong to. They have remained almost isolated, and their living conditions are based on their closest natural environment and their little cultural demands. However, non natives have managed the way to get to these far away places in order to buy their production and take advantage of their naïve condition or lack of knowledge in terms of trading, for example. In Costa Rica, as well as in other American countries, the Indian population is scattered throughout the country, especially in far away places where nature is their basic context, with no electricity, technology or any other modern conveniences and influences, (see map 2.) For this reason, our indigenous people should be given the opportunity to learn how to deal with non natives, with a different language, in order to sell their products at reasonable prices, as well as to leave their secure home to get other goods they might want or need for bettering their conditions or ways of living. Native Indian languages in America are in danger of extinction due to other dominant languages like Spanish, English and Portuguese. In Costa Rica, our indigenous population must study and learn Spanish and English as part of their survival goals in our society; so that they can participate actively in everything that helps them improve their living conditions. Moreover, the Constitution of Costa Rica establishes that all citizens should be given the free opportunity to study, at least up to the third cycle of basic education. Education as a universal right, is Intended to improve the living conditions of human beings. In this respect, Programa de Ricardo Chaves mentions in Diseño de Capacitación Docente en Materia de Idiomas un Indígenas
  18. 18. 3 Costarricenses para la Dirección Regional Educativa de Limón del Ministerio de Educación Pública (2009) that: “La educación está considerada como uno de los pilares en la construcción del progreso y bienestar de la humanidad, representa un derecho fundamental que tienen todas las personas, sin consideración de edad, condición económica, social, étnica, política, ética, religiosa y otra cualquiera. Una educación de calidad debe contribuir al éxito personal y colectivo de quienes aprenden a adaptarse al contexto socio-cultural, lo que permite a los individuos actuar con mayor seguridad y eficacia en un mundo de cambios acelerados y profundos.” (Chaves, 2009) Chaves states that Costa Rican education should get to all social groups, especially the indigenous population, that must develop individual capabilities for developing an integral human being, with all the necessary tools provided for modern societies: “La educación costarricense debe integrar todas las instancias sociales a fin de organizar y brindar el rendimiento óptimo en la formación integral de los individuos y en el caso particular debe tomar como imprescindible la incorporación de la cultura indígena como elemento curricular importante. Como resultado de esta integración la sociedad se forma un ideal del hombre, tanto desde el punto de vista intelectual, físico y moral; así como resultado de una sociedad de tradición milenaria, que este ideal es, hasta cierto punto el mismo para todos los ciudadanos.” (Chaves, 2009) Now, in a world where competencies and abilities are part of an individual’s success, to learn more than one language is totally necessary. There are still groups that speak their native language, and this has put them aside from progress. Therefore, it is necessary for a person to handle two or more languages. In Costa Rica, for these native people to learn Spanish has become a need to be part of a demanding society, but the interconnection with other societies makes it necessary to speak English as well. According to the Ministry of Education, it is mandatory for all students to take English in high school, and in many elementary schools. Therefore, all Costa Rican citizens have the right to learn about the world that surrounds them and to possess the basic tools to confront the requirements of society. Nearby 1995, the
  19. 19. 4 government of Costa Rica declared the necessity of breaking social barriers by teaching English to children since first grade, so that they would have the same opportunities that students in private schools had. The idea has been to enlarge the capacity of the population to confront a world where English is a basic tool. Since then, many schools include in their curriculum English as a mandatory subject, in which children are taught the basic skills of listening, speaking, writing and reading. Teachers have been trained to include in their classes methodologies that improve communication. The intention has been to expand these programs all over Costa Rica. Consequently, the indigenous population has also the right to be included in this program. But how can teachers approach a population that barely speaks Spanish or confront a situation in which there is no electricity or any technological means. There are methods in which the teacher can use only the materials provided by nature, or in which the class becomes active due to the integral situations of life that the students may learn. Hence, it is the researcher’s intention to provide a set of techniques and activities for learning English as a foreign language to be used everywhere in the country, especially, where there is no electricity to use modern technological methods. The teaching provided to American indigenous people in the United States, has been criticized by both, ―Indians and not Indians,‖ said Jon Reyhner. He stated that ―The problem with the all-English immersion teaching methods used in Indian schools were not the methods per se, but the fact that they were used to replace the children's Native languages rather than to give children an additional language.‖ That is to say, the methods and the topics to be developed for teaching native people must expand what the students already know. He suggests, for instance, ESL teaching using realia to help comprehensible input, using students experiences encouraging language practice through talking and writing in wellknown situations. Now, the same situation may as well be practiced in Costa Rica. The intention is not to replace the native population’s language, or to make them act or think differently, but to expand their horizon and possibilities, in such a way that they can defend themselves in a competitive world where English is a requirement.
  20. 20. 5 1.2 JUSTIFICATION In Costa Rica, thousands of students go to the university to learn English, many of them have decided to become English teachers. They learn the methodologies and approaches necessary to motivate students to learn English. They themselves are interested in learning and acquiring this language, as well. They know that they need it to survive in a competitive world. In fact, a person who speaks English will have the opportunity to find a better job, to travel abroad or to enlarge his/her education by taking courses in another country. English teachers learn how to use realia, how to induce their students to obtain data from a text, or how to write long academic essays that can be used later on in broader academic environments or in special companies. However, few teachers worry about the methodologies that can be used for special groups that do not have the opportunity to be integrated in the same society in which they are teaching. Few English professors worry about the methodologies used to teach people who live in very isolated places. Most of these teachers think that all Costa Ricans speak Spanish, that most Costa Ricans live in the Central Valley, or that all Costa Ricans live in well organized towns with electricity and water services. But there is another Costa Rica, one that very few imagine, as well. It is a Costa Rica in which people live in small villages, or completely isolated. A Costa Rica in which there are no basic services like water or electricity supply. This is a Costa Rica in which its citizens do not speak Spanish, or even do not know that San José, the capital exists. Nevertheless, it is a Costa Rica whose citizens deserve the same treatment and consideration as those who live in the Central Valley, and who also need an education, in the best possible way, so that they will obtain a new perspective of life and culture without changing their own. It has not been a government priority to spend the budget in developing indigenous programs that will help them improve their status and participation as active citizens. In Costa Rica, indigenous people need our support in helping them develop their abilities to actively participate in the social, economical and cultural spheres. The best way to accomplish this, would be through education. And since
  21. 21. 6 they live in far away places with difficult access, where no modern conveniences reach them, people in charge of teaching them, must provide everything that is needed for such a teaching-learning experience. According to González and Hammond, ―second language teaching must be integrated with the social, cultural, and political context of language use‖. Thus, indigenous people should be immersed in an integral type of education that considers not only the content to be taught, but also their culture, their interests or objectives for learning, and their environment. 1.3 PROBLEM STATEMENT The indigenous people setting represents a challenge for anybody who can be interested in helping them bettering and opening their opportunities for improving their ways of living. In Costa Rica, as well as in other Latin American countries, geographical barriers allow the establishment of different native cultures. And the Ministry of Education has not launched any particular syllabus to cover our indigenous people needs and interests. Therefore, we should provide education trying not to substitute but to compliment their culture. As González and Hammond stated, ―schools and teacher education programs often focus on pushing students to work rapidly and realistically to acquire fluent English without attention to continued first language development. This approach minimizes the connections between first and second language development and reduces the potential for advancement in both languages‖. Therefore, it raises the question: Why is it necessary to propose the Communicative Approach with the Costa Rican indigenous people ?
  22. 22. 7 1.4 GENERAL OBJECTIVE To propose an implementation in the use of the Communicative Approach to Costa Rican indigenous students. Then, it would be pertinent to consider several important questions to be answered: What should be taught ?, What should a teacher do to help them learn with a purpose for themselves? Finally, How can they be taught ? 1.5 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES 1. To establish the necessary changes in the application of the Communicative Approach to aborigins. 2. To propose English learning activities to be used with different ethnic groups. 3. To identify indigenous students language difficulties in learning English to overcome them. 1.6 LIMITATIONS 1.6.1 Geographical Location: due to the fact that most indigenous students live in the mountains, far away from the cities, it is very difficult to get to them in their communities. 1.6.2 Time: during vacation time it is impossible to work with students in the high schools. 1.6.3 Lack of material sources: there are no records of indigenous students in schools and most of them do not have telephone. 1.6.4 Students culture and behavior: indigenous people are mostly shy, so it is sometimes hard to get access or communicate to them. Girls seem to be less open with strangers, so it is sometimes more difficult to interview them.
  23. 23. 8 1.7 DELIMITATIONS Most of the observations and the questionnaire were applied to Cabecar students from La Suiza Technical High School, and other Cabecar students from other communities and schools, including Chirripo, Grano de Oro, Tayutic, and Roca Quemada. For the telephone interviews, seven adults participated from the following indigenous groups: Chorotega, Maleku, Huetar, Guaymi, Bribri, and Boruca.
  24. 24. CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
  25. 25. 10 2.1 INTRODUCTION In this chapter there is a set of topics that are necessary to take into account because they are basic for this research. It refers to the different indigenous Costa Ricans, and the languages some of them keep as their first language. It also deals with outstanding theories and methods related to the teaching/learning process, especially the Communicative Language Teaching. In addition, it refers to some considerations in regard to the way a person acquires another language, and what the Costa Rican Ministry of Education proposes as its goals and procedures in terms of methodology and evaluation. It has to do with this year UNICEF’S report about education enrollment of children in Latin America. 2.2 INDIGENOUS LANGUAGES Different linguistic studies, have demonstrated that all languages are born, evolve and die. The linguist., Enrique Margery, concluded that in a hundred years 530 Indigenous languages will die in America due to the importance and influence of different European languages spoken in Latin America. “El prestigio que alcanzan las lenguas oficiales en las comunidades indígenas, con el consecuente bilingüismo que tal situación impone, implica, en la mayor parte de los casos un elemento que presiona negativamente el aprendizaje de las lenguas indígenas en el núcleo familiar. Esta interrupción del aprendizaje, unido por lo común a la valoración negativa de ellas, significa el inicio del proceso de muerte de tales lenguas.” (Abad 2005) This means that our indigenous population is facing cultural problems in which the official language of the country is replacing in certain ways their native tongue; that is why it will be fundamental to incorporate their native culture and language as a mandatory objective when teaching English or any other foreign language to them.
  26. 26. 11 According to the linguist Victor Ml. Arroyo (1972,) from several aboriginal groups that used to inhabit the Costa Rican territory in previous centuries, during 1972, there were only 5 ethnic groups: Guatusos to the north of the country, Bribris, Cabecares, Terrabas, and Bruncas in mountains and valleys. Today, the languages represented by the remaining groups have basic roots common to all of them, which suggests a common origin, too. Thus, as shown in this example given by Arroyo, we can find cognates in all of them; for instance, to say the word ―water‖, they use the following terms: CHART 1: Cognates BRIBRI CABECAR TERRABA BRUNCA GUATUSO Di digle di di Ti Source: Arroyo. Lenguas Indígenas Costarricenses.1972, p.14. As he says, there aren’t monolingual speakers in Brunca or Guatuso, and the other groups are bilingual; moreover, some of them prefer to use their second language—Spanish for everyday situations. Therefore, it is necessary to get a data ―corpus‖ of basic vocabulary to be taught, the same that is taken into consideration for glotocronological purposes, to have a better and easier understanding of their language in relation to English. For Costa Rica, Ethnologue (2009,) reported that there are 26,782 native indigenous speakers scattered in different regions throughout shown in the following chart and map. the country, as
  27. 27. 12 CHART 2: Ethnologue Report for Costa Rica LANGUAGE DIALECTS Boruca ALTERNATE NAMES SPEAKERS ETHNIC POPULATION LOCATION Borunca, Brunca, Brunka, Burunca 5 (1986 SIL). 30 to 35 nonfluent speakers 1,000 (1991). South coast between Playa Bonita and Golfito Talamanca 11,000 (2002) 12,172 (2000) South, Limón Province, Canton of Talamanca, along Lari, Telire, Uren rivers; Puntarenas Province, Canton of Buenos Aires Cabécar Chirripó, Telire, Estrella, 9,308 (2000). 8,840 (2000). 7,072 monolinguals (80%) Turrialba region Guatuso Maléku Jaíka 1,074 (2000) 750 (2000) Guaymí Ngäbere 5,360 (2000) 5,090 in Costa Rica (2000) Teribe Terraba 35 to 300 in Costa Rica (1991 SIL) 5 in Costa Rica(1991 SIL) Bribri SalitreCabagra, Amubre-Katsi, Coroma Source: Ethnologue. 2009 Southeast, north coast
  28. 28. 13 MAP 1: Costa Rican Indian Languages Source: Ethnologue. 2009 2.3 ETHNIC GROUPS In short, there are eight different indigenous groups widespread throughout the country: Cabecar, Bribri, Guaymi, Terraba, Boruca, Guatuso / Maleku, Chorotega, and Huetar. 2.2.1 CABECAR According to Ethnologue (2009), Cabecar population is of 9,308, and 80% of them speak Cabecar language as their only language. In the posted UNESCO article (2011), Cabecar people are settled in many different places and occupy most of their territory:
  29. 29. 14 “En la Vertiente Atlántica los cabécares se encuentran en las siguientes reservas indígenas(1) Reserva Indígena Cabécar de Telire, de 16.260 hectáreas, en la cuenca del río Pacuare, con 536 habitantes, 85% bosque y 100% posesión indígena; (2) Reserva Indígena Alto Chirripó, de 77.973 hectáreas, en la cuenca del río Pacuare, con 4.619 habitantes, 65% bosque, y 60% posesión indígena, con los asentamientos de Alto Chirripó, Alto Pacuare, Vereh, Quetzal de Moravia, Sipirí, Chiquiarí, Ñari, Paso Marcos, Boyei, Cabeza de Buey, Santubal, y Nimari; (3) Reserva Indígena Cabécar Nairí Awari, de 5.038 hectáreas en la cuenca del río Pacuare, con 346 habitantes, 70% bosque, y 85% posesión indígena; (4) Reserva Indígena Cabécar de Bajo Chirripó, de 18.783 hectáreas en la cuenca del río Pacuare, con 363 habitantes, 70% bosque, y 75% posesión indígena, con los asentamientos Río Zent, Bajo Chirripó, Río Peje, Puerto Rico y Barbilla-Dantas; (5) Reserva Indígena Cabécar de Tayni, de 16.216 hectáreas en la cuenca del río La Estrella, con 1.807 habitantes, 85% bosque y 100% posesión indígena, con los asentamientos Calveri, Cuen, Moi, Abuy, Cariei y Suruy; (6) Reserva de Talamanca Cabécar, de 23.329 hectáreas en la cuenca del río Sixaola, con 1.335 habitantes, 65% bosque y 85% posesión indígena, con los asentamientos Gavilán Canta, Siboju, San Miguel, Dos Bocas, Dury, Quebrada Guitarra, Mirador, San José Cabécar, Urochico y San Vicente de Río Moi (Tenorio 1988: 22,48; CONAI 2001). Fuera de las reservas en la Vertiente Atlántica, se encuentran en el asentamiento de Tuis (Bozolli 1969: 11). En la Vertiente Pacífica, están: (1) Reserva Indígena Cabécar China Kichá, de 1.100 hectáreas en la cuenca del río Grande de Térraba, con 150 habitantes, 97% bosque, y 3% posesión indígena, con los asentamientos Santa Cruz, Santa María, Guanacaste, Ceibo, y El Carmen (Tenorio 1988: 22; CONAI 2001). “ (UNESCO 2011). Their traditional settlement was said to be design for an extensive use of the natural resources. They had large areas for hunting, fishing and for agriculture. Their territories were separated by trees like Cedar, and other plants like ―Caña India‖. Their houses were defined by any water stream nearby. But, they say that in the last decades, the settlement pattern has changed because of the opening of more access ways, electricity, health, work and educational centers nearby. And with an increase in the population growth, the indigenous population that inhabited the mountains, started to migrate to urban centers, along the roads and ways to better access the communities. In the Pacific, they settled in deforested plains or mountains, in ―ranchos‖ or houses, and water is obtained by means of pipes (―cañería‖). In some cases there are environmental problems due to pollution and the destruction of the traditional patterns for the ecosystems management. According to the Wikipedia article (2011,) these indigenous communities keep several traditions and customs through cultural festivals, Cabecar language and
  30. 30. 15 knowledge transmission between generations, also by the building of traditional houses and by different production activities related to agriculture and crafts. They make bags and hammocks with natural fibers and decorated with natural colors or tints. With respect to their religion, some follow the Catholicism and some the Shamanism. Cabecars are related to the Bribris, too. 2.2.2 BRIBRI Bribri represents one of the largest Costa Rican indigenous groups that speak Bribri. According to the article posted by Wikipedia, today, there are about 10,000 people scattered in the reserves of Salitre and Cabagra, in Buenos Aires Canton (Puntarenas) and in the Talamanca reserve, in the Talamanca Canton. They mostly work in agriculture with cocoa, plantain,corn, beans and some tubers. They raise pigs and chicken, and hunt and fish, too. They make baskets and musical instruments with different natural elements. Their religion is said to be ―animist‖, based on a Shaman. They worship ―Sibú‖, their God. Their society is structured in clans. Bribri people like independence, so they build wooden houses with roofs made of leaves, very separate from one another, some of the houses are as far as an hour from each other. According to an article posted by UNESCO (2011,) during the last decades their settlements pattern has changed due to new roads, electricity, health, work and educational centers. And with an increase in the population growth, the indigenous population that inhabited the mountains, started to migrate to urban centers, along roads to better access the communities. The climate of Talamanca is tropical and rainy, and the annual temperature is about 26.6 grades C. In this region there is 90% of Costa Rican flora. In Talamanca valley there are several rivers that represent the main means of transport: Lari, Uren, Coén, Yorkín y Telire river.
  31. 31. 16 2.2.3 GUAYMI (Ngäbe ) According to Wikipedia article Guaymí is the traditional term for the Ngäbe, and their language is Ngäbere (Guaymi). There are approximately 200,000-250,000 speakers of Ngäbere (Guaymi) today. A few Guaymi have solar electricity through an electrification project, as well as cell phone service. Most live at or below the poverty level. But, many Guaymies reject to live secluded lives away from modern societies. According to ―Museos de Costa Rica‖ (2011,) the Guaymi group is numerous. They migrated from Panama about 50 years ago. There are Guaymi people in Abrojos, the Corredores Canton, in Conteburica,Golfito, Coto Brus, and Puntarenas. They keep their customs, traditions and dress, especially women. The typical dresses are very colorful. They grow cocoa, rice, beans, heart palm, and plantains. They combine the agriculture with hunting and fishing. They also have pigs and chicken. They make hand crafts with natural fibers using natural vegetable tints, especially black. They also make ―petates‖, hats and ―chácaras‖. 2.2.4 MALEKU According to Wikipedia (2011,) ―The Maleku is an indigenous tribe in Costa Rica located in the Guatuso Indigenous Reserve near the town of Guatuso (San Rafael de Guatuso). Around 600 aboriginal people live on the reserve‖ In relation to the posted UNESCO article (2011,) in the Maleku’s territory, there are swampy plains, tropical forests full of insects, wild animals and diseases; in addition, geographical factors as the mountain range of Guanacaste and Tilaran to the south give its difficult conditions and access. Also, the climate is hot, rainy, and humid. Malekus then, remained isolated, so their cultural patterns were protected against foreigners. In the 70’s, invations to Maleku’s lands were alarming, so in 1976 the Maleku reserve was created with 2,994 hectares, but a great deal of the territory is in no indigenous hands that raise cattle there. By that time with municipal help, roads, bridges, landing strips, schools, aqueducts, and police
  32. 32. 17 staions in Margarita and Tonjibe. Malekus invaded Mariley farm next to the reserve; 250 hectares of it were distributed among 30 families. But only 20% of the reserve land is own by the indigenous people. Also that land is distributed unfairly: 50% is in the hands of 15 families, while the other 50% is distributed among 40 families; moreover, there are 35 families without a piece of land. In the farm cattle, rice, corn, beans and some tubers are produced. 2.2.5 BORUCA In relation to an article edited by UNESCO (2011 ) Boruca people now are inhabitants of the Pacific, the Terraba river. Boruca reserve includes the settlements of Boruca, Maíz, Dobon-cragua, Hato Viejo, San Joaquín, Mano de Tigre, Kamankawa, Shamba, Kuivin, Bella Vista, Cajón, and Chánguina. But only 39 % of the territory is theirs. The Curre Brunka reserve is constituded by the settlements of Curré, Rey Curré, Bijagual, Lagarto, Puerto Nuevo, Palmital, Cañablancal, y Buenos Aires. And only 16% of the territory is theirs. Boruca settlements have from 300 to 1,000 speakers, but this kind of system allows them to be crowded and the transmission of diseases, too. There are also environmental problems due to pollution and bad ecosystems management. Boruca territory can be classified as tropical humid and very humid premountainous forest. According to Miguel A. Quesada and Carmen Rojas, (1999, p.11) Boruca children, in Buenos Aires are getting regular Boruca classes in their communities. . Few of them are monolingual Boruca speakers, the others are bilingual Boruca-Spanish, or monolingual Spanish. 2.2.6 TERIBE / TERRABA According to the book by J. Diego Quesada (2001, p. 120), Terrabas and Teribes were different groups, Teribes came from Bocas del Toro, in Panama, and Terrabas were located in the province of Puntarenas. Terrabas were more
  33. 33. 18 influenced by Spanish culture and modern conveniences than Teribes. For example, while Teribe people made a natural cream or drink out of ―pifagua‖ in the morning, Terraba people prefered to drink ―agua dulce‖. Also the Teribe people were accustomed to row in the river, but Terraba people are more used to take a bus to go anywhere. According to the article posted by UNESCO (2011,) Terraba settlements are located in the Pacific, the Terraba river, in Puntarenas province, Buenos Aires canton. The main Terraba settlements are San Antonio de Térraba, Volcancito, Paso Real, Murciélago, Bajos de San Andrés, Camancragua and Tigre. There are approximately 1,425 people according to the 2000 census, though not all of them live in the reserve. Terraba reserve is 9,350 hectares, but not all of the territory belong to the indigenous people. It is located in a partly deforested tropical humid premountainous area. 2.2.7 HUETAR Huetar people do not speak the Huetar language and do not know much about their ancestors. According to Marjorie Moreno Salas (2008, pp.27-38,) Quitirrisi Reserve is the closest community to the Central Valley, in the Mora Canton, bordering Guayabo and Tabarcia. Most of the inhabitants work in the services area, and many of them travel to the capital daily. She says that population in 2004 was of 751 people. The reserve extension is of 2660,03 hectares. She says that Huetars are a bicultural group because they have elements from both cultures: the indigenous and the hybrid white. They celebrate Catholic funeral services, the fifteen year old birthday to girls, they use house structures, electrical appliances such as television and washing machine, and cleaning products. Most of them were said to be Catholic or Christian. About their indigenous cultural practices, they keep crafts with textiles, they make home utensils, traditional foods
  34. 34. 19 and drinks, they have kept some words from the Huetar language, legends and believes. They also preserve the environment. 2.2.8 CHOROTEGA In relation to the article posted by Museos de Costa Rica (2011,) the Chorotega is a very small group, in the Matambu Indigenous Reserve, that is located in Hojancha Canton, in Guanacaste. Some of them also live in San Vicente, Guaytil, Santa Bárbara, and other places of Guanacaste. They have lost the Chorotega language, so they only speak Spanish. Some of them keep their physical features. They keep their ethnic identity and protect their traditions and customs, especially the handcrafts made of clay. (2011) According to the article posted by UNESCO (2011,) the Chorotega people produce and sell decorated pottery. They also grow corn, beans, rice, some tubers, and raise cattle and chicken. Their territory is located in the driest region of the country. The following map was taken from the dictionary for Cabecar students, by Enrique Margery (2005) to exemplify the location of our different ethnic groups.
  35. 35. 20 MAP 2: Costa Rican Ethnic Groups Territories Source: Margery. Abecedario Ilustrado Cabécar. 2005. 2.4 SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION With regard to second language acquisition, we are going to consider different methods and approaches that would best develop the objectives we have established for teaching the indigenous community the second / third language, in such a way that they could learn the basics of the English language, without compromising or hiding their cultural background and own language. Therefore, the communicative approach, for example, would fit well to accomplish our goal.
  36. 36. 21 2.4.1 THEORIES AND METHODS According to Jack Richards and Theodore Rodgers, in their book Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching (2001,) they consider that an approach will lead to a method if a design is developed for the instructional system. In this way, the design would be the level of method analysis which should consider what the objectives of the method are, how language content is selected and organized within the method (syllabus), what kinds of learning tasks/activities the method advocates, what role the learners and teachers perform, and what role the teaching materials has. They say that different theories of language learning influence or determine the focus of a method. Methods differ in what they see as the relevant language and subject matter around which language teaching should be organized, and the principles considered in sequencing the course content. Thus, some methods focus on oral skills, some others deal with communication skills, others have to do with grammar and pronunciation, some are concerned with vocabulary and grammar, and others may define their objectives in terms of learning behaviors, or processes in which the learner is expected to get an ability. In addition, all methods involve the selection of the target language items such as words, sentence patternoness, tenses, functions and topics. Therefore, ESP courses focus on subject matter, structurally ones like Situational Language Teaching and Audiolingual Method are necessarily linguistically focused. The syllabus defines linguistic content in terms of language elements, such as structures, topics, notions, and functions; learning tasks, and the goals for learning in terms of speaking, listening, reading, and writing skills. The term syllabus, as they say, has been used to refer to the form in which linguistic content is specified in a course or method. Mostly, it has been more associated with methods that are product-centered rather than with the ones that are process-centered. The syllabus for Situational and Audiolingual methods consist of a list of grammatical items and constructions together with a list of vocabulary items. The Notional-functional syllabus specify the communicative
  37. 37. 22 content in terms of notions, topics, grammar and vocabulary. The term syllabus is not usually used in process-based methods in which language content is secondary. 2.3.1.1 SELECTION OF THE TYPES OF LEARNING/TEACHING ACTIVITIES In relation to the selection of the types of learning/teaching activities, there are also differences among the different methods. In this way, activities that focus on grammar would be very different from those that focus on communicative skills, as well to those that focus on the development of psycholinguistic processes in language acquisition. Audiolingualism, for example, as Richards and Rodgers (2001) report, uses dialogues and pattern practices, the Silent Way deals with problem solving activities with charts and color rods, and the Communicative is involved with tasks that deal with an information gap and information transfer; the learners have the same task but each has different information necessary to complete the task. With respect to the learners’ roles, they say that the method will reflect responses to questions concerning the learners’ contribution to the learning process: the types of activities the learners carry out, the degree of control they have over the content of learning, the patterns of learner groupings adopted, the degree to which they influence the learning of the others, and the view of the learner as processor, performer, initiator, or problem solver. In the words of Johnson and Paulston, as they were quoted in their book Richards and Rodgers, p.28, the learners’ roles can be refer as: 1. The learners plan their own learning program and are responsible for 2. 3. 4. 5. what they do in the classroom. They monitor and evaluate their own progress. They belong to a group and learn by interacting with others. Learners tutor other learners. Learners learn from teachers, other students, and other teaching sources. Also, as they mention Curran (p.28), he says that in a counseling-learning view, the learners have roles that change developmentally. This developmental process is
  38. 38. 23 divided into five stages that go from a total dependency on the teacher (stage 1), to a total independence in stage 5. About the teacher’s role, there are methods that depend totally on the teacher as a source of knowledge and direction, but there are others in which the teacher is a consultant, a guide, and a model for learning. According to Richards and Rodgers p.28, the teacher’s roles and methods are related to: 1. The types of functions the teachers are expected to fulfilled: director, counselor, or model. 2. The degree of control the teacher has about how learning takes place. 3. The degree to which the teacher is responsible for determining the content of what is taught. 4. The interactional patterns that develop between teachers and learners. It is said that methods typically depend on teachers’ roles and their realizations. In addition, in the Audiolingual method, the teacher is considered the primary source of language and language learning. The role relationships of the learner and the teacher are many and varied. 2.3.1.2 THE ROLE OF THE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS In regard to the role of the instructional materials, they state that instructional materials define or imply the learning objectives that make up the goals of the syllabus. But materials designed for learning processes in which the learning is initiated and monitored by the teacher must meet different requirements from those designed for student self-instruction, or for peer tutoring. Some methods require the use of existing materials and realia, others include teacher-proof materials for teaching even with a poor command of the target language. But some materials require specially trained teachers (near-native competence). And others are intended to replace teachers, so that learning is accomplished independently. There are also some materials that promote or inhibit classroom interaction. The role of instructional materials within the communicative methodology are specified by Richards and Rodgers (P.30):
  39. 39. 24 1. Materials will focus on the communicative abilities of interpretation, expression, and negociation. 2. Materials will focus on understandable, relevant, and interesting exchanges of information, rather than on the presentation of grammatical form. 3. Materials will involve different kinds of texts and different media, which the learners can use to develop their competence through a variety of different activities and tasks. On the other hand, they (P.30) compare the instructional materials that are part of an individualized system of instruction: 1. Materials will alow learners to progress at their own rates of learning. 2. Materials will allow for different styles of learning. 3. Materials will provide opportunities for independent study and use. Materials will provide opportunities for self-evaluation and progress in learning.” For the Counseling-Learning Method, (Richards and Rodgers, p.31,) suggests the use of teaching machines and programmed materials to free the teacher to function as a learning counselor. About the procedure, the authors define it as ―the last level of conceptualization and organization within a method‖. It refers to the techniques, practices, and behaviors that are involved in the teaching of a language following a particular method. Also, it refers to how the tasks or activities are integrated and used as the basis for teaching and learning, in a lesson. They recognize three dimensions of a method concerning the procedure: the use of teaching activities, such as drills, dialogues, and information gap activities. The ways in which particular teaching activities are used in practices, and finally, the techniques and procedures used in providing feedback to learners. To refer to the Notional-functional Approach, the same authors mentioned Finocchiaro and Brumfit (p.32), to exemplify 8 phases of instruction: in the Notional-functional Approach; first there is a presentation of a brief dialogue or several very short ones; second, there is an oral practice of the utterances of the dialogue. Third and fourth refer to questions and answers about the topic and situation developed in the dialogue, and then, about the student’s personal experience based on the theme of the dialogue. Fifth, the learners study the basic communicative expressions or structures related to the function used in the
  40. 40. 25 dialogue. Sixth, learners discover the generalizations or rules underlying the functional expression of structure. Seventh, there is oral recognition or interpretative procedures. Finally, there are oral production activities that go from guided to freer communication. 2.4.2 THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH According to Richards and Rodgers, (2001, pp.151-174) the emergence of communicative methodologies took place in the 1980’s. Since Cooperative Language Learning is compatible with many of the assumptions of the Communicative Language Teaching, it has been a popular and uncontroversial approach in many parts of the world. Tasked-Based Teaching is a recent version of a communicative methodology; it develops from some of the principles of the Communicative Language Teaching, especially the ones related to the role of meaning in language learning. They say that British and American proponents see this approach to aim at making communicative competence as the goal of language teaching, and to develop procedures for the teaching of the oral and written skills. In this way there is an interdependence between language and communication. They quote Howatt, who recognizes two kinds of Communicative Language Teaching: a weak version and a strong one. The weak version is said to be standard practice in the last ten years, emphasizes on giving learners the opportunity to use their English for communicative purposes; on the other hand, the strong version, language is acquired through communication; it stimulates the development of the language system, itself. The weak version is better describe as ―learning to use English‖ and the strong version as ―using English to learn it.‖ They state that the Communicative Approach in language teaching has as a goal the communicative competence. The kinds of exercises and communicative activities are unlimited. The classroom activities mainly focus on completing tasks that may involve negotiation of meaning and interaction.
  41. 41. 26 Richards and Rodgers also quote Littlewood, who distinguishes between two kinds of activities: ―functional communication activities and social interaction activities;‖ the first ones refer to tasks like “learners comparing sets of pictures and noting similarities and differences, working out a likely sequence of events in a set of pictures; discovering missing features in a map or picture, one learner communicating behind a screen to another learner and giving instructions on how to draw a picture or shape, or how to complete a map, following directions, and solving problems from shared clues. Social interaction activities include conversation and discussion sessions, dialogues and role plays, simulations, skits, improvisations, and debates.”(2001, p.166) Since the focus of Communicative Language Teaching is on fluency and comprehensibility and since it requires less teacher- centered classroom management skills, they say that teachers may feel anxiety because they have been accustomed, for example, to error correction as one of their instructional responsibilities. Richards and Rodgers also mention Finocchiaro and Brumfit (P.170) to offer a model outline lesson plan, as a Communicative Language Teaching procedure. In their plan, the first step is the presentation of a dialogue preceded by a motivation related to the dialogue situation: learners’ experiences, roles, setting, language, etc. The second step refers to the oral practice of each utterance of the dialogue: whole class repetition, half class, small groups, and individuals. The third and fourth steps deal with questions about the dialogue topic or situation and about students’ experiences in relation to the dialogue. The 5 th step has to do with structures related to the expressions of the dialogue; several examples of the utterances are used with familiar vocabulary. For step 6th, the learner is supposed to discover generalizations of rules about the functional expressions or structure: ―How about + verb + ing?.‖ In relation to the 7th step, for oral recognition there are somel interpretative activities, depending on the learning level and knowledge. For the 8th step, there are oral production activities—from guided ones to freer ones. The 9th step deals with copying the dialogue if it isn’t in the text. For the 10th step,
  42. 42. 27 sampling of written homework, if assign. Finally, for the 11 th step, there is oral evaluation: ―How would you ask your friend to _______?.‖ In short, Richards and Rodgers refer to the Communicative Language Teaching as an approach that refers to a diverse set of principles that are related to a communicative view of language and language learning that can be useful to support a variety of class procedures. This set of principles are: a) learners learn a language by using it to communicate, b) Authentic meaningful communication is intended as the goal of the class activities, c) for communication, fluency is an important dimension, d) the different language skills are integrated in communication, and e) learning is considered a process of creative construction that involves trial and error. The Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) and the Audio-lingual Method (ALM) can be contrasted in many different aspects. (Douglas Brown, 2001, p.45). In the CLT meaning is very important, but the ALM deals more with form and structure. The ALM demands more memorization of dialogues, language items may not be contextualized, language learning means learning sounds, words and structures, over learning and native-speaker pronunciation are sought, drilling constitutes one basic technique, grammatical explanations are avoided, communicative activities follow long processes of rigid drills and exercises, the use of students’ native language is not allowed, and translation in the early levels is forbidden. On the other hand, in the CLT, dialogues center around communicative functions, contextualization is basic, language learning means learning to communicate, so effective communication and comprehensible pronunciation are sought, drilling may be used peripherally, any device that helps the learner is accepted, communication is encouraged from the beginning, the native English language use is accepted where it is possible, and translation may be used if students benefit from it. In the ALM speech should be mastered to continue with reading and writing, the target linguistic system is learned through the teaching of the patterns of the system, the desired goal is the linguistic competence, the varieties of language are
  43. 43. 28 recognized but not emphasized, the sequence of units is determined by principles of linguistic complexity, errors must be prevented, and accuracy in terms of formal correctness is its main goal. In contrast, in the CLT reading and writing may be used since the beginning, the linguistic system is learned through the process of communication, the desired goal is communicative competence, linguistic variation is central in materials and methods, sequencing is determined by content function and meaning that keeps interest, language is often created by the student through trial and error, and fluency or acceptable language is the main goal; accuracy is judged in context. In the ALM, teachers control learners and prevent them from doing wrong about theory, the teacher specifies the language that the students must use, the students interact with language system by means of machines or controlled materials, and intrinsic motivation will develop from an interest in the structure of the language. But in the CLT teachers help the students in any way that motivates them to work with the language, teachers not necessarily know what language the students will use, and the students are expected to interact with other people, face to face, through pair or group work, or in their writing; intrinsic motivation develops from students interest in what is communicated by the language. According to Ann Galloway (1993), the origins of the communicative approach are many, and may be said to be the product of educators and linguists who had grown dissatisfied with the audiolingual and grammar-translation methods of foreign language instruction. They felt that students were not learning enough realistic, whole language. They did not know how to communicate using appropriate social language, gestures, or expressions; in brief, they were at a loss to communicate in the culture of the language studied. Interest on communicative-style teaching developed in the 1970s; authentic language use and classroom exchanges where students engaged in real communication with one another became very popular. The communicative approach has been adapted to the elementary, middle, secondary, and post-secondary levels, and the underlying philosophy has spawned
  44. 44. 29 different teaching methods known under a variety of names, including notionalfunctional, teaching for proficiency, proficiency-based instruction, and communicative language teaching. Communicative language teaching makes use of real-life situations that need communication. The teacher sets up a situation that students are likely to encounter in real life. Unlike the audiolingual method of language teaching, which relies on repetition and drills, the communicative approach can leave students in suspense as to the outcome of a class exercise, which will vary according to their reactions and responses. The real-life simulations change from day to day. Students' motivation to learning comes from their desire to communicate in meaningful ways about meaningful topics. She mentions some examples of communicative exercises, in a communicative classroom for beginners, the teacher, for instance, might begin by passing out cards, each with a different name printed on it. The teacher then proceeds to model an exchange of introductions in the target language. Using a combination of the target language and gestures, the teacher conveys the task at hand, and gets the students to introduce themselves and ask their classmates for information. Later during the class, as a reinforcement listening exercise, the students might hear a recorded exchange between two freshmen meeting each other for the first time at the gymnasium doors. Then the teacher might explain the differences among greetings in various social situations. Finally, the teacher will explain some of the grammar points and structures used. Another exercise she reports from a workshop on communicative foreign language teaching, given for Delaware language teachers by Karen Willetts and Lynn Thompson from the Center for Applied Linguistics. This exercise, specially for advanced students is called "Eavesdropping". In this, some instructions are given to the students: ―Listen to a conversation somewhere in a public place and be prepared to answer, in the target language, some general questions about what was said.
  45. 45. 30 1. Who was talking? 2. About how old were they? 3. Where were they when you eavesdropped? 4. What were they talking about? 5. What did they say? 6. Did they become aware that you were listening to them? “ (Galloway, 1993) This exercise puts students in a real-world listening situation where they must report information overheard. Most likely they have an opinion of the topic, and a class discussion could follow, in the target language, about their experiences and viewpoints. She says that communicative exercises such as those motivate the students by treating topics of their choice, at an appropriately challenging level. The roles of the teacher and student change in communicative language teaching, as she says, the teachers in the communicative classrooms will find themselves talking less and listening more, they become active facilitators of their students. The teacher sets up the exercise, but because the students' performance is the goal, the teacher must step back and observe, sometimes acting as referee or monitor. The students do most of the speaking, and frequently the scene of a classroom during a communicative exercise is active, with students leaving their seats to complete a task. According to S. Chaugule (Sep 18, 2009 ), the communicative approach is relatively new, as most of the teachers and prescribed texts separate the instruction of listening and speaking. Usually when listening and speaking are separated, specific skills are identified in each area and a sequence of these skills is established. No particular attention is given to the situation, or context, in which a specific skill is to be used, as the focus is on teaching listening and speaking and not on communication. Listening skills can be developed by conducting the entire lesson in that language only. Audio-Visual aids may be used and students may listen to radio lessons to develop the skill. The listening skill may also be developed by ear-training exercises, by articulation exercises, by mimicry exercises or by exercises in fluency. The speaking skill may be developed by
  46. 46. 31 giving picture lessons, by saying and doing exercises, by arranging oral composition, by developing the ideas on the topic, by reproducing telling or completing a story, by dramatization, by arranging talks and discussions, by asking questions. But special attention is not given to the situation or context, in which a specific skill, listening or speaking, is to be used. When specific attention is given on a situation or a context and develop these skills we follow the communicative approach. In relation to the article Fundamentos Teóricos de los Enfoques Comunicativos (2011), Michael Canale and Merril Swain say that there are five principles to develop a communicative approach in the design of a general program for the teaching of languages. First, the communicative competence is constituted, at least by grammatical competence, sociolinguistic competence and strategic competence. The first objective should be to facilitate the integration of these three types of knowledge. Second, the communicative approach must develop from the learner’s communication needs and the response to them. Those needs must be specified in terms of the three mentioned competences: the levels of grammatical corrections in oral and written communication; needs referred to the situation, the topic, and the communicative functions; and finally, compensation strategies whenever there is a failure with any of the competences. Third, the student of a second language should have different opportunities for interacting with native speakers, in real situations. Fourth, during the first learning stages of the second language there should be an optimal use of the aspects of the communicative competence that the student had acquired through the appropriation and use of his or her native tongue and that coincide with the communicative skills necessary to manage the second language. Fifth, the main objective of a second language communicative program will be to provide the student with the information, the practice and the necessary experience to face his/her communication needs in the language.
  47. 47. 32 The article mentions that the communicative approach focuses on language as a medium of communication. It recognizes that all communication has a social purpose, the learner who has something to say or find out. Classroom activities should maximize opportunities for learners to use the target language in a communicative way for meaningful activities. Emphasis is on meaning (messages they are creating or tasks they are completing) rather than form (correctness of language and language structure), as in the first language acquisition. The classroom should provide opportunities for rehearsal of real-life situations and provide opportunities for real communication. Emphasis relies on creative roleplays, simulations, surveys, and projects that produce improvisation, not just repetition and drills. The errors are a natural part of learning the language. Learners trying their best to use the language creatively and spontaneously are bound to make errors. Constant correction is unnecessary. Correction should be discreet, noted by teacher, and the students should be let to talk and express themselves; the form of language becomes secondary. The Communicative approach deals with the four skills. Reading and writing skills need to be developed to promote students' confidence in all skill areas. By using elements encountered in a variety of ways like reading, summarizing, translating, discussion, and debates makes language more fluid and students' manipulation of language more fluent. The grammar can be taught, but less systematically than in traditional ways. It recognizes that communication depends on grammar. The Communicative approach seeks to personalize and localize language and adapt it to the interests of students. Meaningful language is always more easily retained by learners. It should deal with the uses of idiomatic everyday language, even slang words. This kind of language is used in communication between people, it is not a medium, or grammar exam-orientated formal language.
  48. 48. 33 Finally, it mentions that in the communicative approach teachers can employ authentic resources, such as authentic texts, which serve as partial substitutes for native speakers production. Newspapers and magazine articles, poems, manuals, recipes, telephone directories, videos, news bulletins, discussion programmers, all can be exploited in a variety of ways. It is important not to be restricted to textbooks; it is only a starting-point which with a little inspiration and imagination, can be manipulated and can lead to more communicative goals. 2.4.3 AUDIO-LINGUAL METHOD According to an article posted by Wikipedia (2011,) the audio-lingual method also called Army Method, or New Key, is a teaching style used with foreign languages. It is based on the behaviorist theory, in which certain traits of living things, and in this case humans, could be trained through a system of reinforcement, the correct use of a trait would receive positive feedback while incorrect use of that trait would receive negative feedback. It says that this approach to language learning was similar to an earlier method called the Direct Method. Like this method, in the audio-lingual method, students should be taught a language directly, without using the students' native language to explain new words or grammar in the target language. But, unlike the direct method, the audio-lingual method didn’t focus on teaching vocabulary but in the use of grammar. The instructor would present the correct model of a sentence and the students would have to repeat it. Then, the teacher continues by presenting new words for the students to sample in the same structure. On the other hand, in audio-lingualism, there is no explicit grammar instruction and everything is simply memorized in form. The idea is for the students to practice the particular construct until they can use it spontaneously. So, the lessons deal with static drills in which the students have little or no control on their own output, and the teacher is expecting a particular response without considering that a student is receiving negative feedback. Thus, drills and pattern practice are typical of the Audiolingual method. Richards, J.C. et-al. 1986 is quoted for giving these examples:
  49. 49. 34 “Repetition : Where the student repeats an utterance as soon as he hears it Inflection : Where one word in a sentence appears in another form when repeated; for example, Teacher : I ate the sandwich. Student : I ate the sandwiches. Replacement : Where one word is replaced by another; for example: Teacher : He bought the car for half-price.Student : He bought it for half-price. Restatement : The student re-phrases an utterance; for instance, Teacher : Tell me not to shave so often. Student : Don't shave so often! “ (Wikipedia, 2011) These other example illustrates how more than one sort of drill can be incorporated into one practice session : Teacher: There's a cup on the table ... repeat Students: There's a cup on the table Teacher: Spoon Students: There's a spoon on the table Teacher: Book Students: There's a book on the table Teacher: On the chair Students: There's a book on the chair.” (Wikipedia, 2011) So, the lessons in the classroom focus on the correct imitation of the teacher by the students. Not only are the students expected to produce the correct output, but attention is also given to correct pronunciation. It says that although correct grammar is expected in usage, no explicit grammatical instruction is given. In addition, the target language is the only language to be used in the classroom, but modern implementations are more lax on this last requirement. It says that, despite the fact that this method was discredited as an effective teaching methodology in 1970, audio-lingualism continues to be used today, in individual lessons. As it continues to be used, it also continues to gain criticism. Jeremy Harmer is quoted to affirm that because these kinds of lessons are very teacher centered, Audio-lingual methodology seems to banish all forms of language processing that help students sort out new language information in their own minds. This methodology is popular for both teachers and students, because the input and output are restricted and both parties know what to expect.
  50. 50. 35 The article mentions some hints for using Audio-lingual drills in second language teaching: 1. The teacher must be careful to insure that all of the utterances which students will make are actually within the practiced pattern. For example, the use of the AUX verb “ have “ should not suddenly switch to have it as a main verb. 2. Drills should be conducted as rapidly as possibly so as to insure automaticity and to establish a system. 3. Ignore all but gross errors of pronunciation when drilling for grammar practice. 4. Use of shortcuts to keep the pace o drills at a maximum. Use hand motions, signal cards, notes, etc. to cue response. You are a choir director. 5. Use normal English stress, intonation, and juncture patterns conscientiously 6. Drill material should always be meaningful. If the content words are not known, teach their meanings. 7. Intersperse short periods of drill (about 10 minutes) with very brief alternative activities to avoid fatigue and boredom. 8. Introduce the drill in this way: a. Focus (by writing on the board, for example) b. Exemplify (by speaking model sentences) c. Explain (if a simple grammatical explanation is needed) d. Drill 9. Don’t stand in one place; move about the room standing next to as many different students as possible to spot check their production. Thus you will know who to give more practice to during individual drilling. 10. Use the "backward buildup" technique for long and/or difficult patterns. a. b. c. d. --tomorrow --in the cafeteria tomorrow --will be eating in the cafeteria tomorrow --Those boys will be eating in the cafeteria tomorrow. 11. Arrange to present drills in the order of increasing complexity of student response. The question is: How much internal organization or decision making must the student do in order to make a response in this drill. Thus: imitation first, single-slot substitution next, then free response last.” (Wikipedia, 2011)
  51. 51. 36 2.4.4 TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE Another approach that can be used with indigenous people is the total physical response (TPR). According to a Wikipedia article (2011,) it is a set of methods for learning a second language, developed by James J. Asher, a professor of psychology at San José State University. As it is mentioned, the method relies on the assumption that when learning an additional language, it is internalized through a process of code breaking similar to that of the first language development, and this process allows for a long period of listening and developing comprehension prior to production. Students respond to commands that require physical movement. TPR is mainly intended for ESL/EFL teachers, although the method can also be used in teaching other languages. This method became popular in the 1970's and attracted some teachers, though it has not received generalized support from all. According to this article, the TPR is based on the premise that the human brain has a biological program for acquiring any natural language, including the sign language of the deaf. The process is visible when we observe how infants internalize their first language. It looks similar to the way that children learn their native language. It says that communication between parents and their children combines both verbal and physical aspects, and the child responds physically to the speech of their parents. The responses of the child are in turn positively reinforced by the speech of the parents. For many months the child absorbs the language without being able to speak. It is during this period that the internalization and code breaking occurs. After this stage the child is able to reproduce the language spontaneously. With TPR the language teacher tries to develop this process in class, so that the teacher and students take on roles similar to that of the parents and child respectively. In this way, the students must respond physically to the words of the teacher. The activity may be a simple game such as ―Simon Says” or may be grammatically more complex with more detailed scenarios.
  52. 52. 37 According to the founder and its proponents, TPR has several advantages; the students will enjoy activity, such as, getting up out of their chairs and moving around. Simple TPR activities do not require much preparation from the teachers. TPR is also aptitude-free, so that it works well with a mixed ability class, and with students having various disabilities. It is good for kinæsthetic learners who need to be active in the class. Class size needs is not a problem, and it is effective either with children and adults; though it can be most useful for beginners. It can be used at higher levels where preparation is demanded from the teacher. But it may have some negative aspects for it does not give students the opportunity to express their own thoughts in a creative way. In addition, it is easy to overuse TPR, and any novelty, if carried on too long, will trigger adaptation. It may have a heavy emphasis on the use of the imperative mood: "sit down" and "stand up". These can be of limited utility to the learner, and can lead to a learner appearing rude when attempting to use his new language. Of course, as a TPR class progresses, group activities and descriptions can be used which can extend the basic concepts of TPR into full communication situations. 2.4.5 THE NATURAL APPROACH In relation to an article posted by English Raven’s ELT (2011,) Stephen Krashen and Tracy Terrell developed the Natural Approach in the early eighties, based on theories about second language acquisition. This approach has a lot in common with Asher's Total Physical Response method: the need for a silent phase, the waiting for spoken production, and the emphasis on the need to make learners as relaxed as possible during the learning process. They mentioned some underlying principles: there should be a lot of language acquisition as opposed to language processing, and there must be a considerable amount of comprehensible input from the teacher; meaning is considered as the essence of language and vocabulary, but not grammar is the heart of language. According to them, in this approach, students listen to the teacher using the target language communicatively from the beginning. It has some similarities with the
  53. 53. 38 earlier Direct Method, except that the students are allowed to use their native language as part of the language learning process. In addition, in early stages, students are not corrected during their oral production; the teacher focuses on meaning rather than form, unless the error is so drastic that may affect meaning. And about activities, the communicative ones prevail throughout a language course employing the Natural Approach. This approach focuses on a wide range of activities including games, role plays, dialogs, group work and discussions. There are three generic stages mentioned as part of this approach: first, the Preproduction stage, in which listening skills develop, second, the Early Production stage, where students struggle with the language and make many errors that are corrected based on content and not structure, the third stage, the Extending Production, in which fluency is promoted through a variety of other challenging activities. According to Richardson and Rodgers (2001, pp.179-190,) the term ―natural,” used to refer to the Direct Method, emphasizes that the principles underlying the method were believed to conform to the principles of naturalistic language learning in young children. The Natural Approach defined by Krashen and Terrell, is also believed to conform to the naturalistic principles found in second language acquisition. But unlike the Direct Method, it places less emphasis on teacher monologues, direct repetition, and formal questions and answers; and it less focuses on accurate production of target language sentences. In the Natural Approach the emphasis is on exposure, or input, not on practice; it optimizes emotional preparedness for learning. There is a long period of attention to what the language learners hear before they try to produce language; and their willingness to use written materials as a source of comprehensible input. It is mentioned that the emphasis on the role of comprehension in the Natural Approach is similar to other comprehension-based approaches in language teaching. They say that language is considered as a vehicle for communicating meanings and messages. They quote Krashen and Terrell (p.180) to state that acquisition only takes place when people understand messages in the target language. And
  54. 54. 39 language learning is viewed, as audiolingualists do: as mastery of structures by stages. The input hypothesis states that acquirers need to understand input language that includes a structure that is part of the next stage in order to progress to the next stage in the acquisition of the target language. Then, language consists of lexical items, structures, and messages. What is important to recognize is that messages are considered of primary importance in the Natural Approach, and the lexicon for perception and production is considered critical in the construction and interpretation of messages. Lexical items in messages are necessarily grammatically structured; more complex messages deal with more complex grammatical structures. But ―grammatical structure does not require explicit analysis or attention by the language teacher, by the language learner, or in language teaching materials.‖ (P.180) The Acquisition / Learning Hypothesis mentioned in this approach (p.181) refers to two distinctive ways of developing competence in a second or foreign language. Acquisition is supposed to be the natural way, as in first language development in children. Acquisition is related to an unconscious process that involves the naturalistic development of language proficiency through understanding language and using it for meaningful communication. Learning, on the other hand, refers to a process in which conscious rules about a language are developed. It results in explicit knowledge about the forms of a language and the ability to convey this knowledge. Formal teaching is necessary for learning to take place; error correction helps with the development of learned rules. Learning, does not lead to acquisition. Another hypothesis that is mentioned is the Natural Order Hypothesis (p.182,) in which the acquisition of grammatical structures progresses in a predictable order. They affirm that certain grammatical structures or morphemes are acquired before others in first language acquisition of English, and that there is a similar natural order found in the second language acquisition. Errors are signs of naturalistic developmental processes during acquisition, but not during learning, and similar developmental errors occur in learners no matter what their mother tongue is.
  55. 55. 40 The Natural Approach is said to be for beginners (p.184) and is designed to help them become intermediates. Richards and Rodgers quote Krashen to say that it is expected that students will be able to function adequately in the target situation, they will understand the speaker of the target language, and will be able to convey their requests and ideas. They do not need to know every word in a particular semantic domain, nor is it necessary that the syntax and vocabulary be flawless; however, their production must be understood. They should be able to make the meaning clear but not necessarily be accurate in all details of grammar. (p.184) As the Natural Approach consists on a general set of principles applicable to varied situations, in Communicative Language Teaching, the specific objectives depend upon the learner needs and the skills: reading, writing, listening, or speaking as well as the level that is taught. They mentioned Krashen and Terrell to indicate that it is important to communicate to learners what they can expect of a course and what they should not expect, too. They say that after 100-150 hours of Natural Approach in Spanish, the learner will be able to communicate with a monolingual Spanish native speaker without difficulty, read ordinary texts in Spanish with some use of a dictionary, and know enough Spanish to continue to improving. According to Krashen and Terrell, as they are quoted by Rchards and Rodgers, (2001) the syllabus can be organized from two points of view. In one, they list typical goals for language courses and suggest which of them are the ones at which the Natural Approach aims. Richards and Rodgers report a list of such goals under four areas: 1. “Basic personal communication announcements in public places) skills: oral 2. Basic personal communication skills: written (e.g., reading and writing personal letters) 3. Academic learning skills: oral (e.g., listening to a lecture) 4. Academic learning skills: written (e.g., taking notes in class).” (2001, pp. 183-184) (e.g., listening to
  56. 56. 41 From these, they affirm that the Natural Approach is primarily designed to develop both basic communication skills: oral and written. Also, they mentioned that communication goals can be expressed in terms of situations, functions and topics that are likely to be most useful to beginning students. The functions are supposed to derive naturally from the topics and situations. The second point of view has to do with the purpose of a language course which can vary according to the needs of the students and their particular interests. According to them, the goals of a Natural Approach class are then based on student needs. The situations in which they will use the target language and the sorts of topics they will have to communicate information about must be determined. When setting communication goals, the students are not expected at the end of a particular course to have acquired a certain group of structures or forms. What is expected, though, will be students with a particular set of topics in a given situation. And the activities of the class are not organized about a grammatical syllabus. In relation to learner roles (pp.186-187,) they say that there is a basic assumption in the Natural Approach that learners should not try to learn a language in the usual sense. The extent to which they can lose themselves in activities involving meaningful communication will determine the amount and kind of acquisition they will experience and the fluency they will demonstrate. The language acquirer is seen as a processor of comprehensible input. The acquirer is thus challenged by input that is slightly beyond his or her level of competence and is able to assign meaning to this input through the active use of context and extra linguistic information. So, learners' roles change according to their stage of linguistic development. Learner decisions on when to speak, what to speak about, and what linguistic expressions to use in speaking are essential to those changing roles. They say (p.187) that in the ―pre-production stage‖ students participate in the activities without having to respond in the target language: students can act out physical commands; identify student colleagues from teacher description, and point
  57. 57. 42 to pictures. In the ―early-production stage,‖ students can respond to either-or questions, use single words and short phrases, fill in charts, and use fixed conversational patterns like ―How are you? What's your name?.‖ In the ―speechemergent phase,‖ students are involved in role plays and games, provide personal information and opinions, and participate in group problem solving. According to them (p.187,) learners have four kinds of responsibilities in this approach: 1. “Provide information about their specific goals so that acquisition activities can focus on the topics and situations most relevant to their needs. 2. Take an active role in ensuring comprehensible input. They should learn and use conversational management techniques to regulate input. 3. Decide when to start producing speech and when to upgrade it. 4. Where learning exercises (i.e., grammar study) are to be a part of the program, decide with the teacher the relative amount of time to be devoted to them and perhaps even complete and correct them independently.” (2001, p.187) Learners are then expected to participate in communication activities with other learners. About teachers roles, they affirm that in the Natural Approach the teacher has three central roles: the teacher is the primary source of comprehensible input in the target language for acquisition, and the teacher as the primary generator of that input is required to provide multiple nonlinguistic clues to assist students in interpreting that input. Therefore, the Natural Approach demands a much more center-stage role for the teacher than do many contemporary communicative methods. In the second role, the teacher creates a classroom atmosphere that is interesting, friendly, and in which there is a low affective filter for learning. To achieve this, some Natural Approach techniques are useful, as not demanding speech from the students before they are ready for it, not correcting students errors, and providing interesting subject matters for the students. Finally, in the third role, the teacher must choose and direct a rich mix of classroom activities,
  58. 58. 43 involving varied group sizes, different content, and contexts. The teacher is seen as responsible for collecting materials and designing their use. These materials are based not only on teacher perceptions but on elicited student needs and interests. Thus, as with any other non-orthodox teaching systems, the Natural Approach teacher has a particular responsibility to communicate to the students the assumptions, organization, and expectations of the method in a clear way, so that the students will know what learning and teaching are involved. In relation to the role of instructional materials, they say (p.188,) that materials are intended to make the classroom activities as meaningful as possible by supplying an extra-linguistic context that will help the acquirer to understand and acquire the language, by relating classroom activities to the real world, and by developing real communication among the learners. The main materials come from realia, not from textbooks. The main goal of materials is to promote comprehension and communication, so pictures and other visual aids are essential, because they supply the content for communication. They help to get a large amount of vocabulary in the classroom. Other important materials include schedules, brochures, advertisements, maps, and books at levels appropriate to the students. Games are also very useful classroom materials because they focus on what it is the students are doing and use the language as a tool for reaching the goal rather than as a goal in itself. But the selection, reproduction, and collection of materials place a considerable burden on the Natural Approach teacher because they relate to a syllabus of topics and situations. About the procedure, Richards and Rodgers report (pp.188-189) that the Natural Approach adopts techniques and activities from different method sources and they are supposed to be innovative with respect to the purposes for which they are recommended and used. There is a wide range of activities from the Situational Language Teaching, and the Communicative Language Teaching, for example. They provide some examples to illustrate this procedure, so as to provide comprehensible input:
  59. 59. 44 1. Start with TPR [Total Physical Response] commands. At first the commands are quite simple: "Stand up. Turn around. Raise your right hand." 2. Use TPR to teach names of body parts and to introduce numbers and sequence. "Lay your right hand on your head, put both hands on your shoulder, first touch your nose, then stand up and turn to the right three times" and so forth. 3. Introduce classroom terms and props into commands. "Pick up a pencil and put it under the book, touch a wall, go to the door and knock three times." Any item which can be brought to the class can be incorporated. "Pick up the record and place it in the tray. Take the green blanket to Larry. Pick up the soap and take it to the woman wearing the green blouse." 4. Use names of physical characteristics and clothing to identify members of the class by name. The instructor uses context and the items themselves to make the meanings of the key words clear: hair, long, short, etc. Then a student is described. "What is your name?" (selecting a student). "Class. Look at Barbara. She has long brown hair. Her hair is long and brown. Her hair is not short. It is long." (Using mime, pointing and context to ensure comprehension). "What's the name of the student with long brown hair?" (Barbara). Questions such as "What is the name of the woman with the short blond hair?" or "What is the name of the student sitting next to the man with short brown hair and glasses?" are very simple to understand by attending to key words, gestures and context. And they require the students only to remember and produce the name of a fellow student. The same can be done with articles of clothing and colors. "Who is wearing a yellow shirt? Who is wearing a brown dress?" 5. Use visuals, typically magazine pictures, to introduce new vocabulary and to continue with activities requiring only student names as responses, The instructor introduces the pictures to the entire class one at a time focusing usually on one single item or activity in the picture. He may introduce one to five new words while talking about the picture. He then passes the picture to a particular student in the class. The students' task is to remember the name of the student with a particular picture. For example, "Tom has the picture of the sailboat. Joan has the picture of the family watching television" and so forth. The instructor will ask questions like "Who has the picture with the sailboat? Does Susan or Tom have the picture of the people on the beach?" Again the students need only produce a name in response. 6. Combine the use of pictures with TPR. "Jim, find the picture of the little girl with her dog and give it to the woman with the pink blouse." 7. Combine observations about the pictures with commands and conditionals. "If there is a woman in your picture, stand up. If there is something blue in your picture, touch your right shoulder." 8. Using several pictures, ask students to point to the picture being described. Picture 1. "There are several people in this picture. One
  60. 60. 45 appears to be a father, the other a daughter. What are they doingCooking. They are cooking a hamburger." Picture 2. "There are two men in this picture. They are young. They are boxing...” (2001, pp.189-190) 2.4.6 THE MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES According to Richards and Rodgers (2001,p.115), MI or Multiple Intelligences is a learner-based philosophy that characterizes human intelligence as having multiple dimensions. MI is based on the work of Gardner, who considers that IQ tests only measure logic and language, but the brain has other important kinds of intelligence, that can be trained. In this way, learners are supposed to have individual learning styles, preferences, or intelligences. Gardner’s view of intelligences is culture-free. He proposes eight native intelligences: 1. Linguistic: the ability to use language in special and creative ways, which is something lawyers, writers, editors, and interpreters are strong in 2. Logical/mathematical: the ability to think rationally, often found with doctors, engineers, programmers, and scientists 3. Spatial: the ability to form mental models of the world, something architects, decorators, sculptors, and painters are good at 4. Musical: a good ear for music, as is strong in singers and composers 5. Bodily/kinesthetic: having a well-coordinated body, something found in athletes and craftspersons 6. Interpersonal: the ability to be able to work well with people, which is strong in salespeople, politicians, and teachers 7. Interpersonal: the ability to understand oneself and apply one’s talent successfully, which leads to happy and well-adjusted people in all areas of life 8. Naturalistic: the ability to understand and organize the patterns of nature. (2001,p.116) It is said that the idea of these multiple intelligences has attracted many educators, as well as the public. According to Gardner’s ideas, there is a cluster of mental abilities that are separate and share the top of the hierarchy that is the intelligence. But other intelligences have also been proposed, such as ―Mechanical Intelligence, Emotional Intelligence, and Practical Intelligence.‖ Also, language is linked to life
  61. 61. 46 through the senses; a multisensory view of language seems to be important, because the senses provide the context for the linguistic message. MI pedagogy is said to emphasize on the language class as a setting for educational support systems aimed at making the language learner a better designer of the learning experience. There is no syllabus, but there has been proposed a basic developmental sequence that represents an alternative for that. A given example of such a sequence is the following: Stage 1: Awaken the Intelligence. Through multisensory experiencestouching, smelling, tasting, seeing, and so on- learners can be sensitized to the many- faceted properties of objects and events in the world that surrounds them. Stage 2: Amplify the Intelligence. Students strengthen and improve the intelligence by volunteering objects and events of their own choosing and defining with others the properties and contexts of experience of these objects and events. Stage 3: Teach with/for the Intelligence. At this stage the intelligence is linked to the focus of the class, that is, to some aspect of language learning. This is done via worksheets and small-group projects and discussion. Stage 4: Transfer of the Intelligence. Students reflect on the learning experiences of the previous three stages and relate these to issues and challenges in the out-of-class world.” (Pp.118-119) It is said that MI has been applied in different kinds of classrooms, for example, in some classrooms there are eight self-access activity corners, each corner related to any of the eight intelligences. In other larger classrooms, the teacher chooses and directs the different activities of the different intelligences, and the students move through this cycle of activities. The classroom is intended to support the development of the whole person, and the environment and its activities are supposed to enable students to become more successful learners in general. The MI provides teachers with a complex mental model from which to build the curriculum and improve themselves as educators. So they become curriculum developers, lesson designers and analysts, activity finders or inventors, and directors of a variety of multisensory activities developed under the constrains of
  62. 62. 47 space, time, and resources within the classroom. Teachers are supposed to better the second language abilities of their students, as well as, to become the main contributors of the development of their students’ intelligences. And the learners are expected to take the MI inventory and develop from that inventory. It says that the better knowledge the student has of his/her own intelligences and how they work, it will help him/her to use them and to access the necessary information and knowledge from the lessons. There are different learning activities that are suggested for each of the intelligences, (p.121), for instance: For the Linguistic Intelligence, lectures, group discussions, listening to cassettes or talking books, storytelling and memorizing, among others are recommended. For the Logical/Mathematical Intelligence, it is recommended to have logical problems and puzzles, scientific demonstrations, creating codes, and calculations. For the Spatial Intelligence, charts, maps, photographs, optical illusions, movies, and microscopes are useful. For the Bodily/kinesthetic Intelligence, it is good to have mime, field trips, creative movement, role plays, and cooking. For Musical Intelligence, singing, playing music, Jazz Chants, and student-made instruments can be used. Finally, for Interpersonal Intelligences, group brainstorming, peer teaching, board games, pair work, journal keeping, interest centers, and options for homework are recommended. 2.4.7 HOW DO WE LEARN / ACQUIRE A LANGUAGE ? Language learning and language acquisition have attracted many professionals from different areas or fields, especially linguists. However, there is no one theory or study that explains and demonstrates exactly how people naturally get another
  63. 63. 48 language the best way, so that the teaching/ learning experience would be a 100% successful. Moreover, it is necessary to consider that in some cases people have limitations to learn. 2.4.7.1 INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES MAY AFFECT LEARNING According to Aida Mainieri and Zayra Méndez, in their anthology Detección de Problemas de Aprendizaje (2002,) they report that there are many children with a normal intelligence who don’t suffer from any physical deficiency in any of their visual, auditory or speaking areas, and don’t have any affective or brain problems, either; however, when they are given an appropriate opportunity to get some formal education, they are unable to learn, as anybody would expect. Therefore, they propose the neuropsychological model to deal with and to try to explain their learning problems. Thus, it is important to be aware of the fact that in acquiring a language there is a two way process. If a student does not get the expected learning goals, it is not necessarily the teaching part or method that is failing, it should be considered the learner disposition or limitation to acquire the best that is teaching to him or her. 2.4.7.2 A LINGUISTIC UNIVERSAL In an article posted by the Columbia Encyclopedia (2010,) it is mentioned that we all have a predisposition in our brains for acquiring any language. It is a linguistic universal that may apply to the different languages. “…most explanations involve both the observation that children copy what they hear and the inference that human beings have a natural aptitude for understanding grammar. While children usually learn the sounds and vocabulary of their native language through imitation, grammar is seldom taught to them explicitly; that they nonetheless rapidly acquire the ability to speak grammatically supports the theory advanced by Noam Chomsky and other proponents of transformational grammar. According to this view, children are able to learn the "superficial" grammar of a particular language because all intelligible languages are founded on a "deep structure" of grammatical rules that are universal and that correspond to an innate capacity of the human brain.” (Columbia Encyclopedia, 2010)

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