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UKUPA Feb 08 Flow Interactive Personas
 

UKUPA Feb 08 Flow Interactive Personas

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Flow Interactive consultants give an insightful tutorial on how to research, develop and design for personas.

Flow Interactive consultants give an insightful tutorial on how to research, develop and design for personas.

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  • This is an excellent resource on the subject of personas covering the theory, their generation and application. It includes generously detailed samples and ideas for collaborative workshops to generate persona types.
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    UKUPA Feb 08 Flow Interactive Personas UKUPA Feb 08 Flow Interactive Personas Presentation Transcript

    • Personas Archetype, not Stereotype
    • What are personas?
    • Personas can look like this...
    • To design for your users you must first define who your users are
    • Where did the idea come from? • A Persona is an artificial person, invented for the purpose of helping a designer understand the people who will be using their product. • Pruitt and Adlin have traced their heritage to much earlier. But to the modern design community, their usage was popularized by Alan Cooper in 1998 in his book quot;The Inmates Are Running the Asylum.quot; Flow Interactive
    • Why do we use personas?
    • Different people have different needs Flow Interactive
    • Personas also avoid designing for the average user A car for the “average” family - average means nobody is really satisfied! Flow Interactive
    • Misconceptions
    • What aren’t Personas? • Stereotypes!!! They are the synthesis of user research findings. They are not simply made up! • Users aren’t elastic. Flow Interactive
    • Making personas
    • Contextual research Watch, listen and learn in the user’s environment. What do people do? What do they say? How do they work? Flow Interactive
    • When you can’t go into the field Flow Interactive
    • This is what raw research findings look like:
    • Data driven personas The clue is in the name! The data comes from client’s in- house knowledge. The good stuff comes from ‘looking’ at how your users interact with your website. Good to use when you have a rich set of data, such as Amazon, Play.com, etc. Flow Interactive
    • How much research? Depends on how diverse your users’ behaviours really are. Typically we find that behaviour is less diverse that you might expect. Anything from 6 to 20 respondents is typical and useful. Sometimes do more for political reasons. Supplement with all your existing data: search logs, surveys, focus groups, customer facing staff Examples… First choice 15 lab BUPA 20 lab Yell 16 field DfES 59 field
    • What’s an effective way of communicating these back to your design team? How can you make them ‘actionable’? ... and bring them to life for non-research lovers? Flow Interactive
    • Personas and goals workshop Price driven Quality driven Nervous user Confident user Fact driven Feeling driven Wilma is a middle aged bookkeeper from Hatfield. She uses Sage and Excel on a rather old computer at work, but has internet access at home. She has an eye for a bargain but is a stickler for details. Flow Interactive
    • Persona consist of goal statements: • Life goals e.g. “get the big promotion!” vs “be an ethical person” • Experience goals: e.g. “have fun” vs “get it done quickly” (1-2) • End goals: e.g. “find the cheapest flights” • Design challenges. E.g. Why this persona is important to the business, and what to bear in mind • And a motto • One sentence that sums up the persona
    • Personas come in two main flavours: • Primary persona – the primary persona is the singularly most important person for whom the site should be designed. The primary persona should always “emerge” from the set of secondary personas: it should not be created from scratch. Secondary personas – typically between three and seven of these are generated from the ethnographic research first, before the primary persona. With big systems (e.g. CMS), you can have lots of different user types, each of which you’d sum up as personas. You can also have negative personas: people you want to specifically exclude Flow Interactive
    • Quick guide to personas • Create a narrative – ideally, a one to two-page narrative description for each persona • Be specific – identify workflow and daily behavioural patterns, using specific details, not generalities. Detail two or three technical skills to give an idea of computer competency • Create mnemonic triggers – include one or two fictional details about the persona's life, e.g. an interest or a habit that make each persona unique and memorable Flow Interactive
    • Quick guide to personas • Use your imagination – don't use someone you actually know as a persona. Try instead to create a composite based on the qualitative data you have captured • Strive for novelty – don't recycle a persona from a previous project for a new project. Instead, do your ethnography properly and create new personas for each project Flow Interactive
    • Quick guide to personas • Keep the numbers low – keep the number of personas created for a project relatively small. Usually between three and seven secondary personas, depending on the interface project, from which will emerge the primary persona • Be realistic – strive to develop a believable archetype so the design team will accept the persona Flow Interactive
    • Making & using personas Review existing Recruit research Analyse existing Create the Introduce the data and formulate subjects based on and new data personas. personas to the persona the persona using collaborative organisation, as hypothesis. hypothesis. affinity sorting Workshop: project style and techniques. establish objectives require. Perform contextual dimensions, create research. sketches, select Establish and flesh out dimensions and personas. Assign goals. goals. Flow Interactive
    • Key things to consider: • Fictional utility – personas are not quot;made upquot;. They are an output of data analysis • Imaginary, not woolly – although personas are imaginary, they are archetypes not caricatures, and should be defined with precision. • Realism – names and personal details for personas should be created to put contextual flesh on the archetypal bones • Goals – personas should in the first instance be differentiated and identified by their goals • Persona-centric design – interfaces should be designed and built to very specifically satisfy the needs and goals of the primary persona Flow Interactive
    • A travel site
    • Persona Case Study Flow Interactive
    • •After a user study, we analysed participants responses to get an overview. - Age and Segment - Type of trip - Motivations - Frustrations - Behaviours and Attitudes - End Goals when researching and booking travel online Flow Interactive
    • •We mapped each participant against key behavioural axis: - Planning in advance/Last minute - Relax/Explore - Attitude to risk Flow Interactive
    • We located patterns of behaviour and found groups of users that ‘stuck together’… Flow Interactive
    • Book in Quality Relax Previous Previous hotel 1-2 trips a Maximiser Emotional Main researcher Travel alone 1-2 days Brand loyal Destination Web fresh Trust reviews advance destination year driven 1,2,3,4 1,4,7,16, 1,4,5,6,7, 1,2,5,7,8, 1,17, 3,6,12 3,4,5,6,9, 1,2,3, 2,14 7,8,10, 19,17,20 1,3,7,8,10 3,10,14,15 8,14 3,4,5,6,9, 17,19,20 8,9,15, 910,15,16, 19,20 11,13,14, 12,13,14, 17,19,20 12,13,15, 11,13,14 17,19 17,19,20, 15,16,18 16,20 17,19,20 15,18,20 3-4 days With friends 1,7,11,13, 15,16,18 3 -6 trips a Joint decision Relationship intermediate intermediate 5,6,7,8 3,12,13, year driven 14,16,18 1 week 8,9,12 With partner 3,5,8,9,12, 3,5,8,9,12, 2,4,5,7,8, 3,4,5,6,8, 2,4,5,6,8 2,12,13, 2,8,10, 13,14,18 13,14,18 9,10,11,12 9,11,12, 15,`7 12,16,19 13,15,16,18 13,16,18 2 weeks 1,2,11,15, 9,10,11, 12,13,14 2,4,5, 6,10,14 2,6,10, 3,10,16 3,4,6, 2,3,4,5,6,7, 3,10,16 1,2,7, 4,5,6,7,8,9, 3,10,16 4,5,6,9 3 2,4,5,6,9, 1,7,17, 1,3,4,5,6, 1,7,17 15,16,17, 11,15 11,1213, 8,9,10,11, 8,10,12 10,11,15 14,16,18 19,20 7,9,10, 18,19,20 14,18 12,13,14 17,19,20 17,18,19 11,16,18, 15,16,18 19,20 Book last Price Explore New destination New 1-2 trips a Satisficer Practical Sole decision With family More than 2 Google Event driven Web savvy Don’t trust . minute hotel month weeks Flow Interactive
    • Book in Quality Relax Previous Previous hotel 1-2 trips a year Maximiser Emotional Main researcher Travel alone 1-2 days Brand loyal Destination Web fresh Trust reviews advance destination driven 1,2,3,4 1,4,7,16, 1,4,5,6,7, 1,2,5,7,8, 1,17, 3,6,12 3,4,5,6,9, 1,2,3, 2,14 7,8,10, 19,17,20 1,3,7,8,10 3,10,14,15 8,14 3,4,5,6,9, 17,19,20 8,9,15, 910,15,16, 19,20 11,13,14, 12,13,14, 17,19,20 12,13,15, 11,13,14 17,19,20 17,19,20 15,16,18 16 17,19,20 15,18,20 With friends 1,7,11,13, 15,16,18 Don’t look 3 -6 trips a Joint decision Relationship intermediate 5,6,7,8 for reviews 3,12,13, year driven 14,16,18 1 week 8,9,12 With partner 3,5,8,9,12, 3,5,8,9,12, 1,2,4,5,7,8, 3,4,5,6,8, 2,4,5,6,8 2,12,13, 2,8,10, 13,14,18 13,14,18 9,10,11,13, 9,10,11,12 9,11,12, 15,`7 12,16,19 14,15,16,18 13,15,16,18 13,16,18 2 weeks 1,2,11,15, 9,10,11, 12,13,14 2,4,5, 6,10,14 2,6,10, 3,10,16 3,4,6, 2,3,4,5,6,7, 17,19,20 1,2,7, 4,5,6,7,8,9, 1,7,17, 4,5,6,9 3 2,4,5,6,9, 1,7,17, 1,3,4,5,6, 1,7,17 15,16,17, 11,15 11,1213, 8,9,10,11, 8,10,12 10,11,15 20,19 14,16,18 19,20 7,9,10, 18,19,20 14,18 12,13,14 17,19,20 17,18,19,20 11,16,18, 15,16,18 19,20 Book last Price Explore New destination New 1-2 trips a Satisficer Practical Sole decision With family More than 2 Google Event driven Web savvy Don’t trust minute hotel month weeks reviews . Flow Interactive
    • Flow Interactive
    • Flow Interactive
    • Flow Interactive
    • Using personas
    • Personas are the first step to innovation 5 Contextual research 1 1 2 Concept 4 Prototype 3 4 Specify Build and launch 5 2 3 And they are useful throughout They are a fundamental the rest of the design* process! tool for innovation. * Design is the whole thing, not just the graphics
    • Personas: Used as a communication tool •It all about getting everyone to sing off the same song sheet •Focusing on users •Reducing arguments They enable decision making because you can ‘query’ them as if they were a ‘real’ person •Standardised approach •Common language •They fill in the gaps between user-studies - you can’t have users on-site all the time. Flow Interactive
    • Mood boards Flow Interactive
    • Bed time reading
    • Bed time reading
    • Bed time reading
    • References ▪ Carroll, John M. Making Use: Scenario-Based Design of Human-Computer Interactions. MIT Press, 2000. ISBN 0-262-03279-1 ▪ Carroll, J.M. ed. Scenario-Based Design: Envisioning Work and Technology in System Development. Wiley, 1995. ISBN 0-471-07659-7 ▪ Chapman, C.N. & Milham, R. The personas' new clothes. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES) 2006, San Francisco, CA. October 2006. [1] ▪ Cooper, Alan. The Inmates are Running the Asylum. SAMS, 1999. ISBN 0-672-31649-8 ▪ Grudin, J. and Pruitt, J. Personas, participatory design and product development: an infrastructure for engagement. Paper presented at Participatory Design Conference 2002, Malmo, Sweden. June 2002. ▪ Pruitt, John & Adlin, Tamara. The Persona Lifecycle : Keeping People in Mind Throughout Product Design. Morgan Kaufmann, 2006. ISBN 0-12-566251-3 ▪ Rönkkö, K. An empirical study demonstrating how different design constraints, project organization, and contexts limited the utility of personas. Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS) 2005, Waikoloa, HI. January 2005.
    • [Client: project, Date]