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Embedding creativity techniques and tools into service design processes by Neil Maiden.
 

Embedding creativity techniques and tools into service design processes by Neil Maiden.

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"Embedding creativity techniques and tools into service design processes" by Neil Maiden. Presented at "Creativity in Design", UXPA UK event, April 2014

"Embedding creativity techniques and tools into service design processes" by Neil Maiden. Presented at "Creativity in Design", UXPA UK event, April 2014

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    Embedding creativity techniques and tools into service design processes by Neil Maiden. Embedding creativity techniques and tools into service design processes by Neil Maiden. Document Transcript

    • 1 Embedding Creativity Techniques and Tools into Service Design Processes Neil Maiden Professor of Systems Engineering Centre for Creativity in Professional Practice What’s in the Talk 1. Creative requirements processes –  Challenging the role of requirements elicitation –  Creative experiences in requirements projects 2. Creativity workshops –  Processes underpinned with creativity models 3. Creativity in service design –  Coupling design artefacts and creativity techniques 4. Let’s work together Centre for Creativity in Professional Practice
    • 2 The Reality about Requirements Understand that –  Elicited requirements limited by perceptions of what is possible –  Customers are frequently rear-view mirrors –  People don’t separate requirements from design Requirements encapsulate creative thought –  Stakeholders already thinking about future Denys Lasdun –  “Our job is to give the client, on time and on cost, not what he wants, but what he never dreamed he wanted; and when he gets it, he recognizes it as something he wanted all the time” Centre for Creativity in Professional Practice A Real-World Example Removed key constraint: weather variability Centre for Creativity in Professional Practice Steam catapults; glided approaches; weather- adapted approach routes .. not what they wanted, but what they never dreamed they wanted..
    • 3 A Second Real-World Example Specifying concept for new conflict resolution support –  Indian textile expert encouraged incubation about requirements on patterns –  French ATCos highlighted need for aesthetics in generated resolutions Centre for Creativity in Professional Practice ...not what they wanted, but what they never dreamed they wanted.. Rich storyboards to describe concept of operation for multi-sector planning –  Complete system view –  Film screenplay techniques –  Constructed 2 large storyboards for whole system over 4 hours period –  Participants invented semantics of storyboard –  Tactile and flexible –  Ownership important Centre for Creativity in Professional Practice A Third Real-World Example .. not what they wanted, but what they never dreamed they wanted..
    • 4 A Prototypical Definition of Creativity Sternberg and Lubart (1999) define creativity as –  “the ability to produce work that is both novel (i.e. original, unexpected) and appropriate (i.e. useful, adapted to task constraints)” Novel with respect to –  H-Creativity: historically creative – new to person-kind (Boden 1990) –  P-Creativity: psychological creative – new to the person, but not to person-kind or others (Boden 1990) –  S-Creativity: situated creativity – a designer or reasoner had an idea for a specific task novel in that particular situation or domain (Suwa et al. 2000) Engenders surprise –  Deviation in patterns of outcomes (Maher et al. 2013) Centre for Creativity in Professional Practice Creativity Workshops in Requirements Projects A space for creating and inventing ideas Invent ideas with which to write specifications Creativity workshop Understanding of current situation Possible technical solutions Outline use case model Overview of future system Storyboards for key use cases Centre for Creativity in Professional Practice
    • 5 Creativity Workshops Pin boards structured by use case System models available to all U-shaped table for talks and report backs Games to encourage playfulness Colour- coded snow cards for ideas Facilitated guidance at all times Centre for Creativity in Professional Practice Creativity Workshop Structure Design informed by existing creativity models Integrate with established requirements methods Workshop period Diverge Preparation Incubation Illumination Verification Diverge Workshop period Converge Preparation Incubation Illumination Verification Daupert 2002 Poincare 1982 time Two-day workshops Encourage exploratory, combinatorial or transformational creativity Encourage exploratory, combinatorial or transformational creativity Boden 1990 Model Revised Model Revised Model Shared input/ output models Centre for Creativity in Professional Practice
    • 6 Eurocontrol’s DMAN System [DIS’2004] Departure manager for major European airports –  Sponsored by Eurocontrol –  Applied RESCUE over 12-month period –  Joint project involving UK and French national bodies –  Applications including Heathrow & Charles de Gaulle –  16-20 key stakeholders participated for two days Centre for Creativity in Professional Practice Eurocontrol’s MSP System [RE’05] Multi-Sector Planning (MSP) –  Gate-to-gate scheduling of aircraft across European national boundaries –  Manage controller complexity levels –  Redesign controller work –  Co-ordinate existing systems 16-20 key stakeholders participated for two days Operational Concept of Use Centre for Creativity in Professional Practice
    • 7 Service Design Thinking Design Thinking (Lockwood 2010) –  Observation, collaboration, fast learning, visualization of ideas, rapid prototyping and concurrent business analysis 5 Principles [Stickdorn & Schneider 2010] 1.  User-centred: services should be experienced through customer’s eyes 2.  Co-creative: all stakeholders should be included in design process 3.  Sequencing: service should be visualized as a sequence of interrelated actions 4.  Evidencing: intangible services should be visualized in terms of physical artefacts 5.  Holistic: entire environment should be considered Centre for Creativity in Professional Practice Coupling – Hinging – Design Artifacts with Creativity Techniques Centre for Creativity in Professional Practice Combine –  Evidencing, sequence and co-creation with –  Explicit creative thinking techniques In principled manner –  Creative thinking as complex search problem –  Information search, idea discovery (Kerne et al. 2008) –  Pairwise combination of artifact and technique
    • 8 Desktop Walkthrough, Creativity Triggers Desktop walkthrough –  Small-scale 3D model of service environment –  Build environment out of props, toys and objects –  Explore emerging interactions Creativity triggers –  Guidelines to converge on ideas with qualities associated with innovative outcomes –  Connection, information and choice, convenience Centre for Creativity in Professional Practice Redesigning North Finchley Town Team Destktop walkthrough of different uses of town centre Creative stimulation of design ideas, not just problems and needs Centre for Creativity in Professional Practice
    • 9 Making Your Work More Creative Opportunities for collaboration –  Redesign your current requirements and service design processes –  Facilitate your creativity workshops –  Train you to use more creativity techniques –  Guide you to use our technologies for creative requirements work Contact –  N.A.M.Maiden@city.ac.uk –  @NeilMaiden Centre for Creativity in Professional Practice