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Market Briefing. Malaysia. 27th January



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  • 1. BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY IN MALAYSIA’S NUCLEAR MARKET by: Muhamad B. Lebai Juri, PhD Director General, Malaysian Nuclear Agency 43000 Kajang, Malaysia UKTI Jan 2014
  • 2. PRESENTATION OUTLINE  Overview of nuclear science and technology in Malaysia  Nuclear 3S Infrastructure  Strengthening Human Capital Development  Nuclear supply chains  Public acceptance  Conclusion
  • 5. NUCLEAR Civilian Military (PEACEFUL USE) (WEAPON) Power (Electricity Generation)  Nuclear Reactor Tech.  Thorium Fuel Cycle  Nuclear Waste Management Non-Power (Various Applications)      Industry Medical Agriculture Manufacturing Environment
  • 6. MAJOR NUCLEAR INFRASTRUCTURES IN MALAYSIA GAMMA IRRADIATOR E-BEAM RESEARCH REACTOR (4) (7) (1) Irradiation plant industrial and medical products using gammarays Irradiation plant using electron beam Irradiation facility research materials and isotope production using neutron source
  • 7. MAJOR NUCLEAR INFRASTRUCTURES IN MALAYSIA SECONDARY STANDARD DOSIMETRY LABORATORY (SSDL) (1) Calibration of radiation measuring instruments and dosimeters LATEX VULCANIZATION IRRADIATOR (1) Research & Production of Irradiated Vulcanised Rubber Latex
  • 8. MAJOR NUCLEAR INFRASTRUCTURES IN MALAYSIA RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT CENTER (1) Compliance to Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984 RADIOCHEMISTRY AND ENVIRONMENT LABORATORY (1) Environmental radioactivity measurements NON DESTRUCTIVE TEST LABORATORY (1) Diagnosing defects of componets and system reliability
  • 9. MAJOR NUCLEAR INFRASTRUCTURES IN MALAYSIA GAMMA GREEN HOUSE RADIOISOTOPE LABORATORY/CYCLOTRON (1) (4) Mutation breeding research Production of radioisotopes, radiopharmaceuticals (3) & radiopharmaceuticals kits (1)
  • 10. Revenue Nuklear Malaysia 1988-2013 16 15.21 15.18 13.78 14 12.7212.62 12.50 12 11.98 12.43 12.7 RM (Miliion) 10.73 10 9.17 9.78 9.92 8.30 8 7.19 5.72 6 5.01 5.03 3.96 4 2.95 3.48 2.73 1.71 1.77 2 0.33 0.83 0 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Year
  • 11. APPLICATION OF RADIATION SOURCES  Licensees for medical and non-medical sectors  Distribution of radiation workers in various sectors NDT 2% INDUSTRIAL 43% MEDICAL 55% Non-Medical Sector •Irradiation facilities (Sterilization) •Gauges •Industrial radiography •Oil and Gas •Mineral processing •Research and Education •Sales
  • 12. DISTRIBUTION OF X-RAY MACHINE & RADIOACTIVE SOURCES • X-ray machine ( 62%) • Radioactive source (38%)
  • 13. Contribution of NA toward the GDP (2012) • GDP increment of 0.024% (RM 138.64 million) in 2006 to 0.032% (RM 236.62 million) in 2008. • Increment of GDP per capita from RM 5.31 in 2006 to RM 8.76 in 2008.
  • 15. NUCLEAR SAFETY INFRASTRUCTURE • 1968 Radioactive Substances Act • 1984 Atomic Energy Licensing Act • 20_ _ New Atomic Energy Licensing Bill (under purview of Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation, MOSTI)
  • 16. ENFORCEMENT CONTROLS Radioactive Material Nuclear Material Irradiating Apparatus Prescribed Substance Regulatory Body Atomic Energy Licensing Board & Department of AELB MALAYSIAN LEGAL INFRASTRUCTURE Licensing Authority for Medical Purposes Director General of Health Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984 (Act 304)
  • 17. LEGAL INFRASTRUCTURE Act 304 Regulations License Conditions To provide for the regulation and control of atomic energy; For matters connected therewith or related thereto •Licensing Regulations •BSS Regulations •Transport Regulations •Appeal Regulations, etc. Section 17, Act 304
  • 18. INTERNATIONAL MEMBERSHIP • Association of Southeast Asian Nation (ASEAN) Membership since 1967 • International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Membership since 1969 • Regional Cooperative Agreement (RCA), signed 1975 • International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) Membership since 2012 • Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA) 20??
  • 19. INTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENTS RELATED TO 3S SIGNED BY MALAYSIA • Non-Proliferation Treaty - 1968 • Safeguards Agreement -1972 • 1986 IAEA Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident - 1987 • 1986 IAEA Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency - 1987 • South East Asia Nuclear Weapon Free Zone (SEANWFZ), signed -1995 & Ratified - 1996 • Comprehensive Nuclear Test – Ban Treaty (CTBT), signed -1998 & ratified - 2008 • Additional Protocol - 2005
  • 20. NUCLEAR SECURITY • As a signatory to NPT & a member state of the IAEA, Malaysia reaffirms its commitment to non-proliferation as well as to implementation of its obligations under the NPT Safeguards Agreement. • Malaysia support robust practices on Nuclear security including export control system. • Dec 2012, Malaysia/AELB was officially recognized by IAEA as a Security Support Centre.
  • 21. Some Initiatives in the Implementation of 3S • Global Threat Reduction Initiative, GTRI (US) • RN42 (CTBTO)
  • 22. GTRI, Nuclear Malaysia Equipments installed: • High security lock • Motion sensor • CCTV dome • Electric lock • Security grating • Exit button • Glass break sensor • Siren and strobe • Radiation detector 22
  • 23. Sinagama Alarm Keypad High Security Lock Special Film Window Motion Sensor Glass Break Sensor
  • 24. Gamma Green House SUMMARY Wire mesh
  • 25. Source Security Grating
  • 26. CCTV, Security Grating Underground fibre optic ground sensor
  • 27. 4 set of gamma and neutron detectors 27
  • 28. 28
  • 29. Radionuclide Monitoring Station, RN 42 (CTBTO) Tanah Rata, Cameron Highland
  • 30. Compressed Filter AIR 2 IDC Compressed Filter Filter 1 Masuk DECAYMBER 24 hrs 3 VSAT ANTENNA Out 24 hrs AIR SAMPLER GAMMA 24 hrs DETECTOR COMPUTER & ELECTRONICS
  • 31. LOCAL COLLABORATION TO ENHANCE NUCLEAR SAFETY AND TECHNOLOGY Multilateral Cooperation Regional Cooperation R&D Institutions Universities Private Sector (Industries) Bilateral Cooperation Government Agencies Ministries NGO: MARS, MNS MARPA, NDT Soc
  • 32. INT. COLLABORATION TO ENHANCE NUCLEAR SAFETY AND TECHNOLOGY CTBT Non Proliferation Treaty (since1968) IAEA – Contract Research Projects (12) Forum for Nuclear Cooperation Agreement (FNCA) (7) IAEATechnical Cooperatio n Projects (6) IAEARegional Cooperation Agreements (9) Others (such as EU, ASEANTOM) International Project Innovative Nuclear Reactors & Fuel Cycles (INPRO) (1)
  • 34. Malaysia Energy Mix Fuel Sources % (components of the mix) Gas 50% Coal 40% Hydro 8% Renewal Sources (e.g. Biomass, Solar etc) 2% Nuclear none
  • 35. 7 Jan. 2011: Incorporation of MNPC as NEPIO 10 Dec. 2010: Decision to establish NEPIO 25 Oct. 2010: Economic Transformation Program (ETP) launched with nuclear power deployment included 16 July 2010: Cabinet Decision take cognisance National Nuclear Policy 10 June 2010: New National Energy Policy incorporated in Tenth Malaysia Plan with nuclear energy as longer term option for the Peninsula. 26 June 2009: Nuclear energy adopted as one of fuel options for electricity supply post-2020, especially for the Peninsula; 10 Sept. 2008: Decision to draft National Nuclear Policy 29 Aug. 2008: 2009 Budget in Parliament to explore nuclear energy & formulate new National Energy Policy
  • 36. DETAILED TIMELINE ON NUCLEAR POWER DEPLOYMENT Project Development Start Feasibility Study (FS) & Bid Specifications including basic & detailed design & site investigation Finish Pre-FS (PFS) YR1 Complete Regulations Desk-top Site Survey & Ranking Govt. Policy Decision on Nuclear Project & Plant Type Financial Planning & Closure Bid Specifications & Issue Request for Proposals (RFP) Finish Detailed Plan First Concrete Pouring Contract Award NPP Vendor Procurement of Components Bid Evaluation YR2 40-month Construction Period Initial Power Supply Start Site Excavation Finish FS Set Reactor Pressure Vessel Site Grading YR3 Detailed Site Investigations, EIA/RIA/SIA with input from NPP vendor on plant design Final Site Selection Sign/Accede/Ratify International Instruments & National Legislative Development YR4 YR6 YR5 Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) for Site Permit Nuclear Fuel Loading YR7 YR8 YR9 Cold Hydrostatic test YR10 Commissioning 8-month YR11 YR12 Pre-Operational Baseline Radiological Data Gathering Site Permit Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for Operating Licence Construction Permit Programme & Legislative Development Operator Training Operating Licence Point of No Return Infrastructure Assessment & Planning & Project Management, Bid Evaluation & Safety Assessment Training Continuous Stakeholder Involvement, Public Information Programme & Long-Term Supporting Human Capital & Industrial Development & Technology Acquisition Regulatory & Quality Assurance Training & Implementation & Technological Support Organisation (TSO) Development Source: Nuclear Malaysia; Malaysia NKEA OGE Laboratory 37
  • 37. Nuclear Power in Malaysia • • • • Government policy Human Capital Industry’s capability/capacity Public Acceptance
  • 38. An update on National Energy Policy • Currently under development by Economic Planning Unit (EPU), under the Prime Minister Department • The report expected to be available early 2014 • National new energy policy timeframe is until 2050 – Nuclear is considered as one of the options for electricity generation – but STILL NO CLEAR DECISION
  • 40. FRAMEWORK FOR NUCLEAR HRD PROGRAM FOR MALAYSIA Government Nuclear R&D Institutes • Nuclear Policy and Promotion • Planning of Nuclear Power • Nuclear Regulation and Control • Development, Acquisition, Dissemination of Nuclear Power Technology • Nuclear Manpower Training • Licensing and Inspection • Evaluation and analysis of Nuclear Safety Nuclear HRD Program Education Institutions • • • • Regulatory Authority Industries (All must work in tandem) Education in Nuclear Eng Education in Nuclear S&T B.Sc, MSc PhD Degree Vocational Education Level Utilities/Operator • Operation & Maintenance of NPP • In-house Training for NPP Personnel • Construction, design & A/E • Manufacturing of component and Equipment Society & Associations • Malaysian Nuclear Society • MSNT, MARPA • MARS 41
  • 41. Age Schooling Years 26 21 25 20 24+ 19 24 18 23 17 22 16 21 15 20 14 19 13 18 MALAYSIA EDUCATIONAL PATHWAYS 12 17 11 16 10 World of Employment/ Entrepreneurship Postgraduates Degree Universities & Higher Education University Institutions Colleges Polytechnic/ College Community Diploma Vocational Qualifications Certificate Sixth Form – Higher School Certificate Matriculation POLYTECHNICS Community Colleges Skills Certificate School Certificate (11 years of education) Secondary Academic Schools Technical Schools Lower Secondary (3 years) Primary (6 years) Source: MOHE Technical & Vocational Institutions Vocational Schools Skills Training Center Ages 13 to 15 42 Ages 7 to 12 42
  • 42. LIST OF UNIVERSITIES WITH NUCLEAR RELATED EDUCATION INSANIAH University College Universiti Malaysia Perlis Universiti Malaysia Kelantan Universiti Utara Malaysia AIMST University Universiti Sains Malaysia Universiti Darul Iman Malaysia Universiti Terbuka Wawasan Universiti Malaysia Terengganu Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris UniversitiTenagaNasional (UNITEN) Elective subject-Nuclear Technology Universiti Malaysia Pahang UniversitiKebangsaan Malaysia Bachelor Programme: Nuclear Science Elective subject: Nuclear Law Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia INTI International University College Nilai International University College Univerisiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka Master Programme-Nuclear Engineering UniversitiTunHussienOnn Malaysia Bachelor Programme-Nuclear Engineering UniversitiTeknologi Malaysia
  • 43. HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS Source: MOHE Higher Education Institutions In Malaysia (May 2011) Types of Institution Total Public Universities 20 Polytechnics 27 Community Colleges 70 Private Universities/University Colleges 52 Private Colleges 403 Total 572 Level of study 2008 2009 2010 2015 (projection) PhD 12,240 14,600 17,700 21,500 M.Sc 36,000 45,000 49,500 60,400 B.Sc 270,000 272,000 275,000 334,000 Total 318,240 331,600 341,700 415,900 44
  • 44. Moving Forward: NUCLEAR CONSORTIUM IN EDUCATION, RESEARCH AND TRAINING • To facilitate the development of nuclear related education, research and training program in Malaysia • Establish collaboration platform between Malaysian Nuclear Agency and local educational institutes • Sharing of resources and expertise • Sharing of facilities from Malaysian Nuclear Agency and local educational institutes
  • 45. KEY HR CHALLENGES IN NUCLEAR POWER DEPLOYMENT Possible / Current Approaches Challenges National level ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ • • Transformation of existing education policy Employment prospect (job scheme, incentive, etc) Amendment of foreign workers policy Attracting and retaining foreign and local talent Inadequate nuclear education programs (coordination, programs, etc). Limited funding and quota for training ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Technical Support Organisation ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Improving Human Resource Management (HRM) and support system Inadequate personnel Conflict of interest (R&D vs. TSO) Clarification of roles of TSO in NPP Improving Employment system Funding & Coordination (cross ministry) Limited funding, quota and time for trainings ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Establish Multi-lateral and bi-lateral cooperation Attract expatriate personnel who have work in nuclear sector abroad Engage experienced consultants Formulation of National Nuclear Policy and National Energy Policy Develop and improve HRD infrastructure e.g. National Nuclear Training Centre Establish National HRD Roadmap Fast-tracking nuclear related education for TSO personnel Deployment plan for TSO personnel Aptitude and attitude test Continuous capacity building program Examples: Nuclear Malaysia, Universities, Industries 46
  • 46. KEY HR CHALLENGES IN NUCLEAR POWER DEPLOYMENT Operating Organisation Challenges ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Willingness of vendors to offer HRD package solely Personnel’s keenness to convert into NP personnel Transformation of remuneration package Inadequate competent and experienced personnel Possible / Current Approaches ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Regulatory Body ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Amendment of existing nuclear act Inadequate number and experienced personnel Remuneration scheme Nuclear law education Limited quota for training • • ▪ • Collaboration with vendors in HRD Convert conventional power plant engineers to be competent in NP O&M, commissioning, etc. Recruitment of experienced oil and gas personnel under deployment plan between companies Offer higher incentives and remuneration Licensed and certified NPP personnel by 2021 Aptitude and attitude test Continuous capacity building in nuclear legislation Engagement of external assessors and transfer of expertise to local regulators Aptitude and attitude test Examples: AELB, Energy Commission 47
  • 47. KEY HR CHALLENGES IN NUCLEAR POWER DEPLOYMENT Challenges Possible / Current Approaches Education Institute ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ • Industry ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ No nuclear power related education program in higher learning institutions Lack of competent and experienced lecturers in nuclear education Future prospect for nuclear educated students are still not clear Lack of promotion for nuclear education Inadequate nuclear research and experimental facilities Need to produce nuclear craftsmen and technician Uncertain roles and participation of industry in NPP Inadequate integration between national and education institutes Coordination between industries Deployment of competent industry’s workforce into nuclear power program Nuclear safety culture ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Introduce nuclear engineering courses as elective in engineering courses at undergraduate level (for familiarization to engineering students) Introduce nuclear engineering courses at Master level (to produce nuclear engineer) Establish consortium of universities Establish network with international renowned universities and research institutions Joint education programs with other organizations (JICA, JAEA, KAIST, KINS, etc) Fellowship, training course and internship Formal courses of overseas study Non-power nuclear application industry is quite establish Attract industry key players to participate in NPP Capacity building Possible deployment of key personnel in industry to participate in NPP 48
  • 49. NUCLEAR SUPPLY CHAIN IN CONSIDERATION 1)The choice of reactor design & type eg Pressurized Water Reactor - PWR, VVER, AP1000 , EPR etc Boiling Water Reactor – BWR, ABWR etc 2) Consortium structures established Reactor Vendors ( Westinghouse, AREVA, KEPCO, Toshiba etc ) & their chosen/selected nuclear suppliers ( local and/or international companies ) to support the construction of the nuclear power reactor and plant.
  • 50. NUCLEAR SUPPLY CHAIN IN CONSIDERATION 3 a) Availability and/or lead times of critical components and services eg Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) , Steam Generators, pipework and valves, and main Engineering, Procurement and Construction (EPC) contractor , plant management capacities, etc - which could lead to delays in a national nuclear new build, and/or to cost escalation. b) It would be strategic and imperative to review and identify/determine what would the countries and companies need to develop or produce components , which currently (or in future) cannot be obtained from overseas suppliers without long delays, which could ultimately threaten both the: • security and • affordability of energy supplies
  • 51. NUCLEAR SUPPLY CHAIN IN CONSIDERATION 4. Many capable companies exist in Malaysian industry but they lack nuclear experience, where specifications are often different from usual industry standards Thus local companies must be introduced to and updated regarding Codes ,Standards and Accreditation by International Organizations including the ASME, USA etc a) In striving to enter the nuclear industry sector b) to ensure public safety c) facilitation of international business acceptance and d) enhance export opportunities 5. WNA – Economy of scale in supply chain and transfer technology, a minimum number of new builds should not be less than 10 power plants.
  • 52. ROLE OF NUCLEAR MALAYSIA AS A NUCLEAR POWER R&D and TECHNICAL SUPPORT ORGANISATION (TSO) ROLE OF NUCLEAR MALAYSIA AS A NUCLEAR POWER R & D and TECHNICAL SUPPORT ORGANISATION (TSO) NEPIO (MNPC) NPP Owner SPV Planning & implementation coordination NPP Operator SPV Technical support TSO (Nuclear Malaysia) Regulate National Regulators (AELB, ST, DOSH, DOE, MHLG) Malaysian Industries Malaysian Educational & Training Institutions supply NPP Vendor Single Turnkey Contractor Vendor Country TSO Vendor Country Regulators Vendor Country Industries Vendor Country Educational &Training Institutions 53
  • 54. • The decision by government to explore nuclear option for electricity generation attract mixed reaction from the public – pro and against; • It is becoming increasingly challenging in Malaysia to implement technologies because of the widespread public opposition, influential non-government organizations (NGOs) and also strong sentiment from minority groups; • Public records and news sources covering the reactions of these groups towards various beneficial projects requires more sophisticated PI/PA strategies to be employed
  • 55. Asian Rare Earth (ARE) Processing Plant
  • 56. Plant Broga Incinerator Project 300 MW Eastern Sabah Coal http://www.freemalaysiatoday.com/category/nation/2013/06/08/oil-and-gasrich-sabah-looking-at-coal-again/
  • 57. Fukushima Accidents
  • 58. Lynas Advanced Material Plant (LAMP)
  • 59. Lynas Advanced Material Plant (LAMP) “For Malaysia and the world’s most advanced technology companies, the plant is a gamble that the processing can be done safely enough to make the local environmental risks worth the promised global rewards.”- The New York Times
  • 60. Biggest Challenge of Public Acceptance at National & Local Levels in Malaysia PUBLIC INFORMATION & ACCEPTANCE TARGETS: 70% public acceptance by end 2012 NATIONAL PUBLIC OPINION Why nuclear? Why not solar? Is it safe? What about the waste? Isn’t it too expensive? Where to get the fuel? Nuclear accidents? Public radiation exposure? Environmental impacts? Yes, but not in my backyard! STATE GOVERNMENTS Why build in this State? Won’t we lose the next election? Is it safe? What benefit to the State? MUNICIPAL AUTHORITIES Why build in this district? Is it safe for the people? LOCAL POPULATION NIMBY BANANA!* , GENERAL CIVIL SOCIETY & PUBLIC STAKEHOLDERS civic society, mass media, non-governmental organisations (NGO’s), religious, women & other civic organisations, teacher training colleges, university & school students, general public. STATE & LOCAL STAKEHOLDERS AROUND NUCLEAR PLANT SITES local government, community leaders, village heads, local associations, such as farmers & fishermen associations, schools, etc. *NIMBY *BANANA = Not in My Backyard = Build Absolutely Nothing Anywhere Near Anything Why build here? Is it safe for us? Accident effect? Won’t our food, fish, vegetable supply be contaminated? Our children? Our river, our beach?
  • 61. Public Opinion Survey Pre-Fukushima The use of nuclear energy as one of the ways to provide electricity in Malaysia. Opinion on the role of nuclear energy in Malaysia No answer/ respond 4.1 very important 11.2 Don't Know Somewhat important 52 32.7 Somewhat Oppose not too important Strongly Oppose not an important at all Somewhat Favor 52.0 % think that the role of nuclear energy in Malaysia is very important. Strongly Favor 0 10 20 30 40 50 79.6 % favor of the use of nuclear energy to provide electricity (42.9 % strongly favor and 36.7% somewhat favor). Post-Fukushima Survey in 2012 (MSc Student) • 47.1% Support NPP • 29% Disagree • 16.5% Malaysia Not ready • 7.4% Neutral
  • 62. Strategy: PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT GOALS OVER 10 – 15 YEARS Public Participation; Define overall approach and strategy/policies. Obtain local support at recommended site(s). Educate broader Malaysian population on nuclear power deployment in Malaysia’s energy mix. Develop Malaysian public participation infrastructure. ~ 10 – 15 years 63
  • 63. 1. The current nuclear industry in Malaysia is concentrated in non-power applications 2. The nuclear industry has progressed in Malaysia and positively contributed to socio-economic development of the country 3. Realization of nuclear power program in the future will offer significant prospect for Malaysian industry as well as access to advanced technology and business opportunities 4. Continuous improvement in terms of infrastructure, resources and capability is continent to uplift local nuclear industry
  • 64. THANK YOU