TCP Workshop (24/09/13): Online tools to access and analyse trade and investment statistics

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Both the Office for National Statistics (ONS) and HM Revenue and Customs (HMRC) online resources can help us to understand the UK's trade position and how it is changing. Jacqui Jones, Deputy Director of Business Indicators and Balance of Payments Division at the ONS and Rafael Mastrangelo, Senior Statistical Officer at HM Revenue & Customs take us through what's available and how best to use it.

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  • The trade data sources shown here are used to produce official statistics to help users understand the UK trade position and how it is changing. Trade statistics are published monthly by HMRC and ONS, and are also included in the GDP statistics. Annually trade statistics are included in the UK National Accounts and UK Balance of Payments publications. Annual Business Survey - Sample size : 73,000 (62,000 GB plus 9,000 NI)Access to the estimates via Statistical Bulletins and Reference Tables andVirtual Microdata Lab (VML) for Great Britain onlyHow do people get access to the VML. HMRC also has a datalab which is aimed for academic research who want to conduct high quality research that benefits both the department and the wider academic community, in the form of a wider evidence base to support knowledge sharing and policy making. This could also get a mention. (http://www.hmrc.gov.uk/datalab/about.htm)
  • In 2012, the total value of UK imports (goods and services) was £526 billion and exports (goods and services) £492 billion.
  • Between 2011 and 2012 there was only an increase of £2 billion in the value of goods exported. Whereas imported goods increased by £10 billion. Imports and exports of services were relatively flat. As you can see from the slide in the last three years the UK has imported more goods than exported; and exported more services than imported. The overall trade balance (exports minus imports) has been in deficit in the last 3 years. Historically the balance of trade (exports minus imports) has shown a deficit in all but six years since 1900. The last trade surplus was in 1982. So, the UK generally imports more than it exports. This has a negative impact on trade’s contribution to GDP.
  • In 2011, just over one in ten registered businesses exported and a similar number imported. With fewer trade restrictions, increases in e-commerce, and more free trade agreements in the future, it will be interesting to see if more businesses start to trade internationally.
  • Trade more to Europe in comparisons to the Americas, Asia, Africa and Australasia and Oceania. As we will see shortly, the United States and Germany are key UK trading partners.
  • Value of trade = imports + exports of goods and services. We can see from this slide that the value of exports to EU28 countries decreased between 2011 and 2012 (by £7 billion). In previous year we exported more to EU countries than non-EU. In 2012, this changed and exports split nearly 50/50 between EU and non-EU. Imports from EU and non-EU countries have continued to increase but not as rapidly as between previous years.
  • United StatesBy value, the UK exports more goods to the United States than any other country. 14% of the value of goods that the UK exported in 2012 were exported to the US.EUIn terms of value, the UK exports more goods to Germany than any other EU27 member state. 11% of the value of goods that the UK exported were exported to Germany. In 2012, the UK exported £32 billion of goods to Germany. The Netherlands (£25 billion), France (£21 billion) and Ireland (£17 billion) are also high value UK trading partners for exports of goods. ChinaChina is an emerging market as far as exports of UK goods are concerned. Since the financial crisis exports to China have been increasing. In 2012 £10.5 billion worth of goods were exported to China, which represents 3.5% of the value of goods that the UK exported.
  • Again the United States and Germany are key trading UK trading partners for the export of services. Whereas the UK exports similar values of goods and services to the United States (goods £41 billion/services £43 billion) the export value of goods and services to Germany is considerably different (£11 billion for export value of services) versus (£32 billion for export value of goods)In percentage terms:22% of the value of UK exports of services went to the United States in 2012. [in contrast to 14% of exported goods]6% went to Germany. [in contrast to 11% of exported goods]5% went to the Netherlands5% went to Ireland2% went to Japan.United StatesBy value the UK exports more services to the United States than any other country (£43 billion).EUIn terms of value the UK exports more services to Germany than any other EU country. In 2012, the UK exported £11 billion of services to Germany.The Netherlands (£10 billion), Ireland (£10 billion) and France (£9 billion) (like exports of goods) are high value trading partners. China and JapanBy value (£m) the UK exports more services to Japan than to China. In contrast, in 2012, the UK exported to Japan half the value of goods compared with China. In 2012, the UK exported services worth £5 billion.
  • This slide shows, by the value of imports, for the countries that have the highest value of UK imports.
  • In 2012, 52% (£260 billion) of the value of UK exports was from exporting manufactured products. And 65% (£340 billion) of imports was from importing manufactured products. Next to the value of imported and exported manufactured products, the UK imports and exports a lot of mining and quarrying products (£24 billion)Although the value of imports is nearly double that of exports. In contrast, professional, scientific and technical services in 2012, the UK exported £36 million.Source: Office for National Statistics, Trade in Goods by Classification of Product by Activity (September 2013).
  • In 2012, 52% (£260 million) of the value of UK exports was from exporting manufactured products. And 65% (£340 billion) of imports was from importing manufactured products. In 2012 the highest value of manufactured goods exports were for: motor vehicles, trailers and semi trailers (£30.6 billion but we imported £38.4 billion), chemical products (28.5 billion), and machinery equipment n.e.c. (£27.9 billion). The highest value of imports were for: computer, electronic and optical products (£42.6 billion), motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers (£38.4 billion) and food products (£24.2 billion). Machinery equipment n.e.c. includes products such as: general purpose and agricultural machineryOther transport equipment includes products such as: ships, trains, and aircraft. Other manufactured goods includes products such as: jewellery, musical instruments, sports goods and games and toys.
  • In 2012, Iceland had the highest percentage of households with Internet access (95%) and Bulgaria the lowest percentage of households with Internet access (51%). The UK (87%) had the joint seventh highest percentage of households with Internet access In contrast, UK individuals appear to make more use of Internet purchasing than many other countries. The light blue line shows the the percentage of UK individuals who made an Internet purchase in the last 12 months. The UK is shown as the joint third highest after Norway (76%) and Sweden (74%).
  • National and cross border e-commerce salesIn 2011, the estimated value of e-commerce transactionswas £483 billion; this represented 19%of total UK turnover (turnover as measured by the ONS Annual Business Survey), up from 14% in 2008.
  • This slides shows the percentage of UK total turnover derived from e-commerce sales from 2008 to 2011. It is evident that there has been continued growth in total e-commerce sales, Internet sales and EDI sales since 2008. Over these years, the value of EDI sales has remained substantially higher than Internet sales. In 2011, the value of EDI sales was £354 billion and Internet sales £129 billion. There are also data available by size of business.
  • This slide shows the percentage of businesses making EDI and Internet sales by industry. It should be noted that some businesses make sales via EDI and the Internet. Here you can see that in 2011, the construction industry had the lowest percentage of businesses selling over the Internet (5%) and other services the lowest percentage of businesses selling via EDI (3%). In contrast, the retail industry had the highest percentage of businesses selling over the Internet (32%) and the wholesale industry the highest percentage of businesses selling via EDI (18%).
  • On this slide you can see unsurprisingly, that in the 2010 calendar year, all the countries had a higher percentage of businesses making electronic sales to their own country compared with electronic sales to other EU countries and non-EU countries. Norway had the highest percentage of businesses making electronic sales to their own country (31%). In contrast, only 7% of Norwegian businesses made electronic sales to EU countries (7%). In the 2010 calendar year, 18% of UK businesses made electronic sales to their own country, 7% of UK businesses made electronic sales to EU countries, and 6% of UK businesses made electronic sales to non-EU countries, Ireland and Malta had the highest percentage of businesses making electronic sales to EU countries (both at 13%) and non-EU countries (both at 9%).
  • These changes will be taking place over the next two years.
  • The OpenAPI – which is a fully operational API and API support service. An API allows one application to ‘talk’ to another. In this context it enables a third party application (eg, a website) to find and retrieve data directly from the ONS website. The Data Explorer – which is a powerful data explorer tool that users can choose to download an entire dataset in a range of output formats. In addition, users can view dataset online and manipulate in a way that gives the user control over what data they want to see and how they want it presented. The tool also offers visualisation tools to chart and map data being displayed
  • TCP Workshop (24/09/13): Online tools to access and analyse trade and investment statistics

    1. 1. Building the UK Trade Story Jacqui Jones Office for National Statistics And Rafael Mastrangelo HM Revenue & Customs 24 September 2013
    2. 2. Overview – Building the Trade Story 1. The high level UK picture Trade data sources 2. UK imports from where? UK exports to who? 5. Cross border e-commerce On-line tools and guides 3. What is the UK importing and exporting? 4. Analysing market share
    3. 3. Trade Data Sources Trade in goods HMRC – uktradeinfo website https://www.uktradeinfo.com/ Eurostat – COMEXT website http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/newxtweb/ United Nations – comtrade database http://comtrade.un.org/db/ Trade in services International Trade and Services Survey Annual Business Survey Bank of England surveys Administrative data sources E-commerce E-commerce survey
    4. 4. Building the Trade Story The high level UK picture
    5. 5. UK – a key global trading partner in 2012 Source: ONS Balance of Payments; UNCTAD 3.5% 9.5% 11.0% 7.5% Share of World Trade Total value of UK trade = £1 trillion 6th place
    6. 6. Total UK imports and exports of goods and services (£m) -100000 -50000 0 50000 100000 150000 200000 250000 300000 350000 400000 450000 2010 (£m) 2011 (£m) 2012 (£m) Source: Office for National Statistics, UK Trade release, September 2013
    7. 7. Proportion of exporting and importing registered businesses Source: Office for National Statistics, Annual Business Survey 2011
    8. 8. Building the Trade Story UK imports from where? UK exports to who?
    9. 9. Exports of goods and services by destination
    10. 10. Value of Trade to EU and non-EU (£m) 0 50000 100000 150000 200000 250000 Exports to EU28 (£m) Imports from EU28 Exports to non-EU Imports from non-EU 2010 2011 2012 Source: Office for National Statistics, UK Trade release, September 2013
    11. 11. Top trading partners for the export of goods (£m) (2012) 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000 45000 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 £41 billion United States Germany China Source: Office for National Statistics, UK Balance of Payments (Pink Book), 2013 £32 billion £10.5 billion
    12. 12. Top trading partners for the export of services (£m) (2012) 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000 45000 50000 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Netherlands (£m) Ireland (£m) United States Germany Japan £5 billion Source: Office for National Statistics, UK Balance of Payments (Pink Book), 2013 £43 billion £11 billion
    13. 13. Top import trading partners (2012): Goods £billion % of total value of UK imported goods Services £billion % of total value of UK imported services Germany 53 13% United States 21 17% China 31 7.7% France 11 8.8% United States 30 7.3% Spain 10 8.3% Total 407 Total 119 Source: Office for National Statistics, UK Balance of Payments (Pink Book), 2013
    14. 14. Building the Trade Story What is the UK importing and exporting?
    15. 15. Imports and Exports of products by Industry (seasonally adjusted) (2012) Exports ranking (£m) Imports ranking (£m) Manufactured products 1 Mining and quarrying products Water supply, sewerage & waste management Arts, entertainment & recreation services Information & communication services Agriculture, forestry and fishing products Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning 2 6 4 Professional, scientific and technical services 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 5 3 7 8
    16. 16. Imports and Exports of Manufactured Products (£m) 2012 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000 45000 2012 (£m) exports (SA) 2012 (£m) imports (SA)
    17. 17. Analysing market share of Imports and Exports using Trade in Goods data By Rafael Mastrangelo
    18. 18. Overview • Run through a hypothetical example of analysing market share • Using Import and Export data from UKtradeinfo and Comext website • Commodity code used is 85081100: • Vacuum cleaners, incl. Dry cleaners and wet vacuum cleaners, with self-contained electric motor, power <= 1500w and having a dust bag or other receptacle capacity <= 20L | 18
    19. 19. Total value of UK imports and exports of vacuum cleaners for EU and non EU 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Millions UK Imports from Non EU UK Imports from EU UK Exports to Non EU UK Exports to EU | 19
    20. 20. Percentage and value of UK imports and exports of vacuum cleaners with individual countries | 20 UK Imports of Vacuum Cleaners Partner Country Value (€) % MALAYSIA 86,438,384 51.7% CHINA 51,606,484 30.8% GERMANY 11,375,897 6.8% IRELAND 6,105,424 3.6% UNITED STATES 3,928,328 2.3% HONG KONG 2,291,170 1.4% NETHERLANDS 1,337,958 0.8% DENMARK 1,141,453 0.7% VIET-NAM 870,285 0.5% BELGIUM 721,013 0.4% ITALY 457,039 0.3% KOREA 292,538 0.2% MEXICO 229,001 0.1% SPAIN 151,772 0.1% FRANCE 108,949 0.1% Total UK Imports from World 167,344,425 100.0% UK Exports of Vacuum Cleaners Partner Country Value (€) % IRELAND 9,361,524 39.7% FRANCE 3,099,033 13.2% GERMANY 2,591,959 11.0% NETHERLANDS 2,424,500 10.3% CANADA 1,003,502 4.3% AUSTRALIA 718,438 3.0% UNITED ARAB EMIRATES 633,905 2.7% POLAND 344,690 1.5% SPAIN 304,009 1.3% BELGIUM 261,657 1.1% SOUTH AFRICA 229,083 1.0% SWITZERLAND 139,044 0.6% RUSSIAN FEDERATION 133,363 0.6% FINLAND 118,856 0.5% MAURITIUS 117,471 0.5% Total UK Exports to World 23,565,526 100.0%
    21. 21. Percentages of UK exports in vacuum cleaners 39.7% 13.2% 11.0% 10.3% 4.3% 3.0% 2.7% 1.5% 1.3% 1.1% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% IRELAND FRANCE GERMANY NETHERLANDS CANADA AUSTRALIAUNITED ARAB EMIRATESPOLAND SPAIN BELGIUM | 21
    22. 22. Percentages of French imports in vacuum cleaners 24.7% 18.6% 17.2% 16.9% 5.5% 4.4% 3.7% 2.6% 2.2% 1.0% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% CHINA BELGIUM NETHERLANDS GERMANY UNITED KINGDOM ITALY DENMARK SPAIN KOREA HUNGARY | 22
    23. 23. Percentages of German imports in vacuum cleaners 32.5% 20.0% 10.0% 6.6% 5.5% 4.8% 3.3% 2.7% 2.3% 1.2% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% CHINA MALAYSIA ROMANIA NETHERLANDS FRANCE HUNGARY ITALY UNITED STATES POLAND UNITED KINGDOM | 23
    24. 24. European member states imports of vacuum cleaners from China & UK in 2012 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 AT BE BG CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GR HU IE IT LT LU LV MT NL PL PT RO SE SI SK Millions EU Imports from China EU Imports from UK | 24
    25. 25. Percentage and value of German imports and exports of vacuum cleaners with individual countries 1.1%2,765,231KOREA 1.1%2,916,909SLOVENIA 1.2%3,161,353UNITED KINGDOM 1.5%3,701,989AUSTRIA 1.8%4,567,495BELGIUM 2.1%5,418,384DENMARK 2.3%5,837,665POLAND 2.7%6,962,859UNITED STATES 3.3%8,398,876ITALY 4.8%12,125,167HUNGARY 5.5%14,023,949FRANCE 6.6%16,740,824NETHERLANDS 10.0%25,468,554ROMANIA 20.0%50,729,390MALAYSIA 32.5%82,517,876CHINA %Value (€)Partner Country German Imports of Vacuum Cleaners 1.1%2,765,231KOREA 1.1%2,916,909SLOVENIA 1.2%3,161,353UNITED KINGDOM 1.5%3,701,989AUSTRIA 1.8%4,567,495BELGIUM 2.1%5,418,384DENMARK 2.3%5,837,665POLAND 2.7%6,962,859UNITED STATES 3.3%8,398,876ITALY 4.8%12,125,167HUNGARY 5.5%14,023,949FRANCE 6.6%16,740,824NETHERLANDS 10.0%25,468,554ROMANIA 20.0%50,729,390MALAYSIA 32.5%82,517,876CHINA %Value (€)Partner Country German Imports of Vacuum Cleaners | 25
    26. 26. Comparison between the top countries Germany export vacuums to and the equivalent UK export values 32,196 30,404 29,532 27,485 24,700 18,793 15,814 12,441 11,510 10,956 103 5 55 133 3,099 2,425 262 0 304 139 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 35,000 UNITED STATES AUSTRIA ITALY RUSSIA FRANCE NETHERLANDS BELGIUM UNITED KINGDOM SPAIN SWITZERLAND Thousands German Exports UK Exports | 26
    27. 27. Building the Trade Story Cross Border E-Commerce
    28. 28. UK Internet Access and Purchases 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 % of households with Internet access 2012 % of individuals who made an Internet purchase in the last 12 months 2012
    29. 29. Percentage of UK total turnover derived from e-commerce sales (2008 to 2011) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 2008 2009 2010 2011 Internet sales EDI sales Total e-commerce sales
    30. 30. Percentage of UK businesses making EDI and Internet sales by industry (2011) 8.6 4.7 17.8 13.7 7.2 12.0 5.9 3.3 5.6 0 10 20 30 40 50 Retail Information & communication Wholesale Transport and storage Utilities Manufacturing Accommodation & food services Other services Construction Internet sales EDI sales
    31. 31. Percentage of businesses (with 10 or more employees) that made electronic sales in their own country, to other EU countries and to non- EU countries in the 2010 calendar year 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 % of enterprises making electronic sales to their own country in 2010 % of enterprises making electronic sales to other EU countries in 2010 % of enterprises making electronic sales to non-EU countries in 2010
    32. 32. On-line Business Statistics User Guide
    33. 33. Access: Interactive User Guide in action Launch the User GuideSelect your search parametersView your resultsThe User guide can be found on the ONS website
    34. 34. On-line Tools
    35. 35. Interactive Maps
    36. 36. New Tools ONS is developing new web tools that will: • provide an enhanced web site capability for organisations and individuals to use and explore ONS statistics more effectively. • open up direct access to ONS data sources for third parties to power their own websites and applications via an Application Programming Interface (API). • allow ONS to extend the reach of our data to a wider audience and meet the open government transparency agenda.
    37. 37. New Tools • The new tools will initially allow users to access census datasets ahead of transitioning other datasets, including trade data, over the next two years. This will be achieved through two main components: - the OpenAPI - the Data Explorer
    38. 38. Advice and help • ONS contact centre: 0845 601 3034 • Information on the HMRC datalab. http://www.hmrc.gov.uk/datalab/about.htm
    39. 39. Thank You Questions?

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