Industrial perspective on CCSmarine and terrestrial riskIan Phillips – Director, CO2 Infrastructure 1
Agenda• Who are CO2DeepStore ?• What do we mean by a leak?• Working hypothesis – stores won’t leak to surface!!• Focus on what is useful
Who are CO2DeepStore? A CCS Developer• CO2DeepStore is a UK • Petrofac company – A Co-Investing Energy – founded in 2007 and based in Services Business Aberdeen – Designs / Builds / Operates – focussed entirely on creating, onshore and offshore facilities developing and operating CO2 • Company profile (2010 Annual Report) transportation and storage – Revenues US$4.4 billion projects as Operator and / or investment partners – Net cash $1.1 billion – acquired 100% by Petrofac in – FTSE 100 – Market cap April 2010 US$7.4 billion (March 2011) – 14,000+ employees – 5 major operating centres • 19 further offices worldwide 3
Who are CO2DeepStore? What does Petrofac offer in CCS?10 $ $ $ $ $ 5 0 Capture Compression & Dehydration Pipeline transport Offshore facilities Reservoir and wells CO2DeepStore is Petrofacs CCS co-investment company
Who are CO2DeepStore? CO2DeepStore portfolio of interests Hunterston Longannet East Irish Sea Peterhead Goldeneye Yorkshire cluster (prospect)Rotterdam cluster(prospect)
What do you mean by a leak?• During Operations – Process equipment – Pipelines – on and offshore – Offshore facilities• Post closure – Abandoned wells – Geological fissures – Catastrophic leaks• But remember – EU CCS Directive and UK law require pre-injection demonstration of low leak risk – Everything carries risk!!
What do we mean by a leak?Picture of a Storage Site
What do we mean by a leak?Picture of a leaking Storage Site
What do we mean by a leak? Natural CO2 vents set expectationsLiquid carbon dioxide from theChampagne vent in the Marianas Trench • Existing natural CO2 vents • Volcanic source CO2 emerges from fissures and vents Venting of CO2 at Ischia, Offshore Italy
Working hypothesis – stores won’t leak to surface!! Will a storage reservoir leak?• Primary store must be demonstrably able to contain CO2 – Cap rock integrity – Oil and gas fields ideal – Deep saline aquifers more challenging• Secondary seals required• Manage pressure – Stop before original pressure • Hydrostatic containment• Conclusion – leakage from the store to surface is VERY unlikely
Working hypothesis – stores won’t leak to surface!! Even if it does leak………..• CO2 migrates through porous media – Rock strata – Fault planes – Cement in abandoned wells• Capillary forces create residual saturation – Pore scale trapping• Conclusion – leakage very unlikely to reach the surface
Working hypothesis – stores won’t leak to surface!! Abandoned offshore wells • Subsea well with Christmas TreeMinimum 1000m Storage reservoir
Working hypothesis – stores won’t leak to surface!!What can we see under the sea ?
Focus on what is useful Conclusions• Geological leakage of CO2 is extremely unlikely – If it happens its likely to be at very slow rates • Or so big its pretty obvious!! – If it happens its likely to be a long way in the future – Its likely to be very difficult to detect• Much more likely is operational leakages – Potentially larger volumes – Short term transitory effects• Video of CO2 release from pipeline
Focus on what is useful Research focus• Small volume pipeline leaks – Effects of concentration and time• Larger pipeline and process leaks – Dispersion – speed and concentrations – Transient effects – Long term effects• Study natural analogues – Can we spot a geological leak by its impact on the ecosystem – without spending a fortune
Any questions – or comments!!Ian Phillips – Director, CO2 InfrastructureIan.phillips@CO2DeepStore.com 16