PANACEA & TRUST Projects
Status update
Jacob Bensabat – Coordinator
EWRE, Haifa Israel.
and Auli Niemi, Uppsala University...
PANACEA (www.panacea-co2.org)
Predicting and monitoring the long-term behavior of CO2 injected in
deep geological formatio...
TRUST (www.trust-co2.org)
High resolution monitoring, real time visualization and reliable
modeling of highly controlled, ...
4
5
Natural analogues show
World wide study included 49 natural CO2 reservoirs, of which 6 were leaking and 3 were
inconclus...
6
• Confining pressure
increased during the
period
• This resulted in:
– Fracture aperture
decrease with time due to
the i...
7
•Pumping/hydraulic tests
•Brine Push-Pull tests: inert and reactive tracers
•High-pressure brine injection: to test maxi...
8
Sleipner L9 layer
Uppermost point L9 model = -800 m b.s.l. Sea bed ~80 m b.s.l. (T=7 °C). Injection location, (spill/lea...
9
20% SPE 134891 Injection rate
Tinj=35°CTinj=32°C
WP2 - SITES AND ANALOGUES
10
Numerical study of Convectively-Enhanced Dissolution
Dynamic of the convection-diffusion boundary
layer at large Raylei...
11
Boundary Element numerical solution of
viscous fingering
Viscous fingering evolution of CO2-brine displacement in a Hel...
12
Heterogeneous permeability field
K with mean dimensionless value 1.21
Concentration for homogeneous KConcentration for ...
Stable trapping by convective dissolution
1. Nondimensional convective flux at high Ra
Planform of convection: long downwe...
14
H-18 Heletz caprock mineralogy
WP4 – LEAKAGE
15
• Simple method developed for
creating artificial fractures in
core samples
• Laser scanner used for capturing
fracture...
16
Cyclic scCO2 and brine flow experiments
• 6 brine / scCO2 cycles of flow
• No mineral dissolution and precipitation rea...
17
• Test new cement formulations for improving the CO2 buffering effect, using MgO–
based cement. Conduct the experiments...
18
Characterization and modeling well integrity (fractured
cements)
• Study of the permeability changes of fractured cemen...
19
Characterization and modeling well integrity (fractured
cements)
• Determine the reaction kinetics & effective diffusio...
5/8/2014 20
TOUGH2-FLAC code
Coupled THM-simulations for Heletz site
for fault re-activation due to injection
5/8/2014 21
Propagation in confined aquifers with large viscosity contrasts
Leakage from confined aquifers
5/8/2014 22
Evaluation of the pressure plume
• A modeling approach developed combining different methods for evaluation of...
CO2 injection and flow regimes
For a typical industrial scale injection scenario at 50 years
(with injection rate ~ 1 Mt/y...
5/8/2014 24
R=30 km
A=2800 km2
FFC-1 R=17 km
R=17 km
R=17 km
Pressure buildup [bar] at 50 yrs
Easting (km)
Northing(km)
0 ...
Single-phase analytical /Theis solution gives good
approximation for far field pressure behavior
5/8/2014 25
5/8/2014 26
BRINE MIGRATION & CO2 LEAKAGE
1km2
injection point
flux into freshwater
fault: 50m away, 1300m long
larger res...
5/8/2014 27
Fault – co2 saturation vs. time (k=5.e-13)
Fluxes: total / co2, all boundaries / fault only
BRINE MIGRATION & ...
5/8/2014 28
• The present study of combined reservoir/fault process examines realistic features of brine
migration/co2 lea...
5/8/2014 29
FP5 (2002-2005)
Prototyping of MMV technologies at Maguelone
5/8/2014 30
• Hydrogeophysical monitoring experiments at Maguelone with CO2 injection (CNRS,
IMAGEAU) in the context of ‘’...
5/8/2014 Melbourne, March 12th, 2014 31
New RTSG
downhole observatory
New WestBay
multipacker system with
Permanent p/T se...
PANACEA website
www.panacea-co2.org
All the project findings in the sections:
• Publications and events
• Deliverables
PAN...
5/8/2014 33
A large number of papers in
scientific journals
International journal of Greenhouse
Gas Control
Advances in ...
5/8/2014 34
Joint organization
of 5 EU-funded
projects (FP7):
Meeting kindly
hosted by
One-day workshop on the long-term
f...
TRUST –
Technical Work Packages
• Sites and Field tests (Heletz, Hontomin, Swedish/Baltic Sites)
• MMV technologies and re...
5/8/2014 36
5/8/2014 37
WP2 – SITES AND EXPERIMENTS
Heletz
5/8/2014 38
Enhanced Injection System
5/8/2014 39
300 m
1200 m
1644 m
All Cementations
with
Portland cement
A
W
K
LC11
1627.0-1635.0 m
1621.0-1626.0 m
1610.0-16...
5/8/2014 40
New generation of monitoring wells for CO2
• Behind-the-casing completion (the well is not perforated and all ...
5/8/2014 41
Basic principle : Developments :
1) A suitable communication protocol (FSK)
2) A secure chamber (electronic ca...
5/8/2014 42
K-FBG / K-BGS Monitoring Unit
Gas sensing technology :
- CH4 to C4H10 (< 1% volume)
- H2S, CO2 (to be develope...
5/8/2014 43
The first set of objectives is to assess the plume position, monitor its extension and interaction with the ho...
5/8/2014 44
VIBROMETRIC design of borehole seismic instruments
3-component, wide-
band digital receivers
deployed in 3 bor...
5/8/2014 45
KIS Tracers: Motivation
What is happening to the CO2 in the subsurface and how can it be monitored during and ...
5/8/2014 46
Max. interfacial area
Min. interfacial area
Variable interface
5/8/2014 47
Modelling Fracture Propagation in Caprocks Cooled by
Supercritical CO2 Injection
Objectives:
The objective of ...
5/8/2014 48
Right: Simulated fracture growth.
Unlike in almost all existing codes,
in our simulations, the fractures
are n...
5/8/2014 49
Leakage detection and mitigation
• New technology for leakage prevention & remediation based on composite
orga...
5/8/2014 50
Leakage detection and mitigation
• New technology for fracture leakage remediation based on catalyzed
self-hea...
5/8/2014 51
Injection Strategies /effects for trapping and economy
Different injection modes tested at Heletz and Hontomin...
5/8/2014 52
Injection Strategies – example study
Injection conditions at the
wellhead
T,
ºC
p,
MPa
Energy
consumption, kW
...
5/8/2014 53
Temperature, pressure and density along the well
P, MPa
0 5 10 15 20 25
-1500
-1250
-1000
-750
-500
-250
0
T, ...
5/8/2014 Melbourne, March 12th, 2014 54
Stability (mobilized friction angle) under normal initial
stress state (3 m away f...
5/8/2014 55
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PANACEA & TRUST Projects Status update - Auli Niemi at at EC FP7 Projects: Leading the way in CCS implementation, London, 14-15 April 2014

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Presentation given by Auli Niemi of Uppsala University on "PANACEA & TRUST Projects Status update" at the EC FP7 Projects: Leading the way in CCS implementation event, London, 14-15 April 2014

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PANACEA & TRUST Projects Status update - Auli Niemi at at EC FP7 Projects: Leading the way in CCS implementation, London, 14-15 April 2014

  1. 1. PANACEA & TRUST Projects Status update Jacob Bensabat – Coordinator EWRE, Haifa Israel. and Auli Niemi, Uppsala University, Sweden Leading the way in CCS implementation London 14-15 April 2014. 1
  2. 2. PANACEA (www.panacea-co2.org) Predicting and monitoring the long-term behavior of CO2 injected in deep geological formations • Started - January 1st, 2012. • Duration – 36 months. • Budget – 5.21 Million Euro – EU contribution 3.68 Million Euro. • Consortium: EWRE (Israel), Uppsala University (UU-Sweden), Technion Israel Institute Of technology (IIT-Israel), Goettingen University (UGOE- Germany), CSIC (Spain), CNRS (France), Edinburgh University (UEDIN- Scotland), Cambridge University (UCAM-England), STATOIL (Norway), University of Nottingham (UNOTT-England), IMAGEAU (France) and Bureau Veritas (BV- France). 2
  3. 3. TRUST (www.trust-co2.org) High resolution monitoring, real time visualization and reliable modeling of highly controlled, intermediate and up-scalable size pilot injection tests of underground storage of CO2 • Started – November 1st, 2012. • Duration – 60 months. • Budget – 12.63 Million Euro – EU contribution 8.68 Million Euro. • Consortium: EWRE (Israel), Uppsala University (UU-Sweden), Technion Israel Institute Of technology (IIT-Israel), Goettingen University (UGOE-Germany), CSIC (Spain), CNRS (France), IMAGEAU (France), Cambridge University (UCAM-England), VIBROMETRIC (Finland), Imperial College (IMPCOL-England), ETH (Switzerland), KLOE (France), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT- Germany), Bureau Veritas (BV- France), Israel Electric Corporation (IEC-Israel), MERI (Spain) and Lapidoth Oil Explorers (Lapidoth-Israel). 3
  4. 4. 4
  5. 5. 5 Natural analogues show World wide study included 49 natural CO2 reservoirs, of which 6 were leaking and 3 were inconclusive CO2 state and density control leakage 40% of gaseous reservoirs and 8% of supercritical reservoirs leak Leaking reservoirs have a low average density of CO2 (<250 kg/m3) compared to non- leaking reservoirs (~550 kg/m3) Overburden thickness and pressure controls leakage Average thickness: 160m (leaking), 220m (sealing) Reservoirs with overpressured overburden are more likely to seal than reservoirs with normal pressured overburden Faults are the preferred leakage pathways 5 out of 6 leaking reservoirs leak along faults However, faults often are sealing and part of the trap in non-leaking reservoirs WP2 - SITES AND ANALOGUES
  6. 6. 6 • Confining pressure increased during the period • This resulted in: – Fracture aperture decrease with time due to the increased normal stress across the fracture – An increase in differential pressure – Associated with a decrease in fracture permeability Experimental Work – natural analogues
  7. 7. 7 •Pumping/hydraulic tests •Brine Push-Pull tests: inert and reactive tracers •High-pressure brine injection: to test maximum injection pressure and caprock •CO2 Push-Pull test: with inert, reactive + partitioning tracers WP2 - SITES AND ANALOGUES Hontomin demonstration site
  8. 8. 8 Sleipner L9 layer Uppermost point L9 model = -800 m b.s.l. Sea bed ~80 m b.s.l. (T=7 °C). Injection location, (spill/leakage from underneath layer): x~1600m, y~2100m. Injection location WP2 - SITES AND ANALOGUES
  9. 9. 9 20% SPE 134891 Injection rate Tinj=35°CTinj=32°C WP2 - SITES AND ANALOGUES
  10. 10. 10 Numerical study of Convectively-Enhanced Dissolution Dynamic of the convection-diffusion boundary layer at large Rayleigh number and concurrent induced mega plume at the core of the domain. Due to the interaction between the highly intensive small plumes at the boundary layer, large plumes of slower insensitive are induced and migrated to the core of the domain. Zoom of the boundary layer and mega plumes dynamics near the top layer WP3 - MIXING and TRAPPING
  11. 11. 11 Boundary Element numerical solution of viscous fingering Viscous fingering evolution of CO2-brine displacement in a Hele-Shaw cell Recently it have been experimental reported in the literature that the pattern evolution of high mobility ratio immiscible viscous fingering displacement is completely different to those of low mobility ration, as is the cases of air- brine and CO2-brine displacements. Viscous fingering evolution of air-brine displacement in a Hele-Shaw cell In the case of low mobility ratio, due to the interaction between neighbouring fingering, it is possible to occur fingering braking and bubble formation.
  12. 12. 12 Heterogeneous permeability field K with mean dimensionless value 1.21 Concentration for homogeneous KConcentration for heterogeneous K Dimensionless dissolution rate (SF): homogeneous K, SF=4.81, heterogeneous K, SF=3.84 Effect of heterogeneity on Convectively-Enhanced Dissolution Use of Gaussian Process Emulator for Quantifying Uncertainty in the Prediction of Convectively-Enhanced Dissolution due to Heterogeneity of the Media. Empirical cumulative distribution function of the rate of dissolution (SF) computed by using Monte Carlo and Gaussian Processes emulator with a Matern 3/2 covariance function. Comparison between Monte Carlo and GP emulator rate of dissolution predictions, for an emulator design of 174 points.
  13. 13. Stable trapping by convective dissolution 1. Nondimensional convective flux at high Ra Planform of convection: long downwelling fingers 2. Long-term dissolution parameterised by simple box models 3. Coupling these models to propagating currents predicts finite runout distance. 1 2 3
  14. 14. 14 H-18 Heletz caprock mineralogy WP4 – LEAKAGE
  15. 15. 15 • Simple method developed for creating artificial fractures in core samples • Laser scanner used for capturing fracture surface topography (in collaboration with Strathclyde University) • Flow experiments to investigate effect of stress anisotropy, temperature, pressure and fluid pressure on CO2 fracture flow scCO2 fracture flow experimentsWP4 – LEAKAGE
  16. 16. 16 Cyclic scCO2 and brine flow experiments • 6 brine / scCO2 cycles of flow • No mineral dissolution and precipitation reactions. • Residual trapping is the dominant mechanism accounting for the overall increase in differential pressure Sandstone sample Fractured caprock sample Brine flow cycles scCO2 flow cycles
  17. 17. 17 • Test new cement formulations for improving the CO2 buffering effect, using MgO– based cement. Conduct the experiments under the desired conditions, from atmospheric pCO2 to 50 bar and temperature from 25 to 90 °C. • Determine the reactivity of the cap-rock, with samples from Hontomin by means of flow-through experiments to evaluate the leakage risk. Conduct CO2 -rich brine injection at in situ conditions through fractured claystone sample and characterize the permeability change for different flow rate. • Characterize the reservoir rock reactivity and the multi-phase flow parameters change during dissolution and precipitation processes. Conduct flow-through experiment through limestone sample and characterize the different dissolution patterns and the flow parameters change due to dissolution and precipitation processes. Reactivity of cement, caprock and reservoir WP4 – LEAKAGE
  18. 18. 18 Characterization and modeling well integrity (fractured cements) • Study of the permeability changes of fractured cements flowed by scCO2 or CO2-rich brine ICARE Lab CO2 sequestration evaluation flow system Experiment using fractured Portland cement (Class G) Fracture aperture = 37 µm CO2-satuated brine @ Q = 2 ml.min-1 ► Healing due silica-gel growing
  19. 19. 19 Characterization and modeling well integrity (fractured cements) • Determine the reaction kinetics & effective diffusion Set of experiment @ constant flow injection through Holed Portland cement disks. Measuring front position and size at increasing times
  20. 20. 5/8/2014 20 TOUGH2-FLAC code Coupled THM-simulations for Heletz site for fault re-activation due to injection
  21. 21. 5/8/2014 21 Propagation in confined aquifers with large viscosity contrasts Leakage from confined aquifers
  22. 22. 5/8/2014 22 Evaluation of the pressure plume • A modeling approach developed combining different methods for evaluation of different aspects of the pressure impacts, e.g. Caprock fracturing, fault slip and far- field brine migration • These methods involve different degrees of complexity: • Single-phase analytical solution (e.g. Theis solution) • Two-phase two-component analytical solution (e.g. Mathias et. al. 2011) • Single-phase numerical modeling • Multiphase numerical modeling (e.g., based on TOUGH2/ECO2N) • Site modeling performed for the pressure impacts: • the South Scania site(Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretacious) • the Baltic sea region (Mid Cambrian) • Estimation of pressure-limited capacity and pressure plume-induced Area of Review (AoR); • Coupled hydro-geochemical modeling performed on the risk of mobilization of hazardous minerals due to leaked CO2. WP5 – FAR FIELD IMPACTS
  23. 23. CO2 injection and flow regimes For a typical industrial scale injection scenario at 50 years (with injection rate ~ 1 Mt/yr) Rdry-out ~ 102m Rtwo-phase ~ 1-10 km R R>Rtwo-phase, brine flow (single phase flow) Illustration of typical scales relevant for pressure buildup Evaluation of the pressure plume 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 CO2 saturation Radial distance (km) 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 0 12 24 36 48 60 Pressureincrease(bar) <Sg >v <p-pini >v Dry-out zone Two-phase flow zone Brine single-phase flow zone
  24. 24. 5/8/2014 24 R=30 km A=2800 km2 FFC-1 R=17 km R=17 km R=17 km Pressure buildup [bar] at 50 yrs Easting (km) Northing(km) 0 50 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80 TOUGH2 simulation results Conceptualization for two-phase analytical method to evaluate the effect of number of injectors on injection pressure 1 2 3 4 5 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 x 10 7 Injection rate (Mt/yr) Pressure(Pa) If ΔP/Pini < 1.3, max rate = 0.96 Mt/yr If ΔP/Pini < 1.5, max rate = 1.69 Mt/yr Estimation of max. injection rate based on pressure threshold 10 -14 10 -13 10 -12 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 x 10 7 Formation permeability (m2 ) Pressure(Pa) Sensitivity of injection pressure to permeability Analytical results 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4 x 10 7 Total injection rate (Mt/yr) Pressureincrease(Pa) 3 wells 5 wells 7 wells Effect of number of injectors Evaluation of the pressure plume
  25. 25. Single-phase analytical /Theis solution gives good approximation for far field pressure behavior 5/8/2014 25
  26. 26. 5/8/2014 26 BRINE MIGRATION & CO2 LEAKAGE 1km2 injection point flux into freshwater fault: 50m away, 1300m long larger reservoir narrow vs. wide fault • Study of the combined flow process of brine and CO2 through reservoir boundaries and fault. • Focus on medium spatial and temporal scales. • Calculations of outward fluxes, velocities in the fault, composition of fluid leaking into a freshwater aquifer • Comparison: fluxes through side boundaries vs. leakage through fault.
  27. 27. 5/8/2014 27 Fault – co2 saturation vs. time (k=5.e-13) Fluxes: total / co2, all boundaries / fault only BRINE MIGRATION & CO2 LEAKAGE
  28. 28. 5/8/2014 28 • The present study of combined reservoir/fault process examines realistic features of brine migration/co2 leakage. • Depending on fault permeability and fault width: It takes 2-7 years for the co2 to climb the 1300m fault, 50m away from the injection point, starting from -1600m, with injection rate of 1.5kg/s . It becomes gaseous at depth of approx. 500m. • Several years after reaching the upper freshwater aquifer, traces of co2 spread all over but significant saturation is very localized around the entrance point. • Comparison: fluxes through side boundaries vs. leakage through fault.: 0.004% for narrow fault, after 5 years, high perm. 0.1% for wide fault, after 7 years, low perm. Additional calc. to come. • In real reservoirs faults are not vertical, but split and branch – the leakage is even less effective BRINE MIGRATION & CO2 LEAKAGE
  29. 29. 5/8/2014 29 FP5 (2002-2005) Prototyping of MMV technologies at Maguelone
  30. 30. 5/8/2014 30 • Hydrogeophysical monitoring experiments at Maguelone with CO2 injection (CNRS, IMAGEAU) in the context of ‘’SIMEx’’ (Shallow Injection Monitoring Experiments). • Objectives : • Further develop the Maguelone shallow experimental site with 3 new holes (for injection at 9 m, and monitoring with a WestBay multipacker string and the new RTSG). • Test new integrated downhole monitoring instrument. • Conduct CO2 injection experiments to test the relative sensitivity of an integrated set of monitoring methods and instruments (surface and downhole).
  31. 31. 5/8/2014 Melbourne, March 12th, 2014 31 New RTSG downhole observatory New WestBay multipacker system with Permanent p/T sensors SWS imaGeau New injection & pumping hole in the shallow sands (9 m) Maguelone experimental site development as part of PANACEA
  32. 32. PANACEA website www.panacea-co2.org All the project findings in the sections: • Publications and events • Deliverables PANACEA flyer Available for download on the website (“Public Downloads” section) 08/05/2014 Dissemination, communication and public acceptance PANACEA - WP9 - Bureau Veritas
  33. 33. 5/8/2014 33 A large number of papers in scientific journals International journal of Greenhouse Gas Control Advances in Water Resources Journal of Fluid Mechanics Water Resources Research Physics of Fluids Annual Reviews of Fluid Mechanics Physical Review Letters European Journal of Mineralogy Energy Procedia Procedia Earth and Planetary Science … Frequent participation in CCS events  American Geophysical Union, 2012 & 2013  European Geosciences Union, 2012 & 2013  UKSSCRC meetings, 2012 & 2013  Trondheim CCS Conference, 2013  International Conference on Boundary Element and Meshless Techniques, 2013  European Current Research on Fluid Inclusions, 2013  …
  34. 34. 5/8/2014 34 Joint organization of 5 EU-funded projects (FP7): Meeting kindly hosted by One-day workshop on the long-term fate of geologically stored CO2 June 3rd 2013, Trondheim (Norway) Proceedings available at www.bsdt2013.org Press release of the event: Brainstorming Day on the long-term fate of geologically stored CO2
  35. 35. TRUST – Technical Work Packages • Sites and Field tests (Heletz, Hontomin, Swedish/Baltic Sites) • MMV technologies and real-time reporting and visualization • Modeling • Strategies for storage management (optimal injection strategies etc.) • Leakage detection and mitigation • Risk Assessment: Procedures, Protocols for Certification and Licensing • Extrapolation • Training and capacity building 5/8/2014 35 High resolution monitoring, real time visualization and reliable modeling of highly controlled, intermediate and up-scalable size pilot injection tests of underground storage of CO2
  36. 36. 5/8/2014 36
  37. 37. 5/8/2014 37 WP2 – SITES AND EXPERIMENTS Heletz
  38. 38. 5/8/2014 38 Enhanced Injection System
  39. 39. 5/8/2014 39 300 m 1200 m 1644 m All Cementations with Portland cement A W K LC11 1627.0-1635.0 m 1621.0-1626.0 m 1610.0-1615.0 m 1616.5-1617.5 m 1581.0-1585.0 m 1585.0-1610.0 m Monitoring well – Heletz 18C 133/8 inch OD Casing Utube P/T Optic Fibre KLOE Chain IMAGEAU Chain Sensor sampler 3.5" Fiber Glass 3.5" Carbon Steel Geophones VM WP3 – MMV TECHNOLOGIES
  40. 40. 5/8/2014 40 New generation of monitoring wells for CO2 • Behind-the-casing completion (the well is not perforated and all the monitoring technologies are installed in the cemented part of the well (between the outer casing and the borehole wall); much safer approach as no perforation is conducted. • Novel temperature sensors, using Bragg sensors (direct measurement of temperatures at any vertical separation, possibility to extend in order to measure other parameters such as strain, CO2 saturation etc.); • Tube-in-tube fluid sampling; • ERT (Electrical Resistivity Tomography) • Standard P/T sensors • Optical fiber for DTS (to compare with the Bragg sensors) and for acoustic sensing; • Movable geophones for seismic monitoring.
  41. 41. 5/8/2014 41 Basic principle : Developments : 1) A suitable communication protocol (FSK) 2) A secure chamber (electronic cartridge) in the borehole for electronic modules used for the electrical array. 3) Electrical array on line developed for high pressure and high temperature Acquisition module (monitoring unit) Signal modulator Wireline (~ 1500m) Signal- demodulator + electronic module for electrode acquisition Stainless steel electrode Electrical array with stainless steel electrode PC surface ~1500 m ~1600 m Design/Construction by imaGeau of a resistivity device for deep deployment (1630m) Wireline for power and communication Electronic cards used for electrical array acquisition Connection to the electrical array
  42. 42. 5/8/2014 42 K-FBG / K-BGS Monitoring Unit Gas sensing technology : - CH4 to C4H10 (< 1% volume) - H2S, CO2 (to be developed) FBG based technology (using Bragg sensors) : - Temperature (- 180°C ; + 300°C, standard) - Strain, Pressure KLOE Optical fiber monitoring system (T, CH4, strain, …) λ Bragg Ref λ Bragg measurement Fuite no1 - TECHNIP (Fexible) - fibre Cryofiber - 27/11/08 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 15:15:59 15:23:28 15:30:58 15:38:27 15:45:56 15:53:25 16:00:55 16:08:24 Temps Delta_Température(°C) CAPTEUR no1 CAPTEUR no2 CAPTEUR no3 LE AK LEAK STOPPED Low temperature increase after nitrogen injection in the flexible Temperature increase Time Relativetemperaturevariation (°C) Leak detection – Cryofiber (27/11/08)
  43. 43. 5/8/2014 43 The first set of objectives is to assess the plume position, monitor its extension and interaction with the host formation, or to predict its evolution, including the potential migration into adjacent formations. A second set of objectives is to assess the sustainability of CO2 storage in relation to well and reservoir integrity, either during injection or in the long run. The main advantage of surface images is the large-scale coverage of the site from above, allowing the detection of the horizontal extension of the injected CO2 body. Borehole geophysical surveys are used to obtain more local but more precise data, valuable either to improve the inversion of surface images or to constrain in-situ models. While the former have been more extensively used in the past, the latter have been deployed thus far to a lesser extent, partly due to logistical difficulties in performing frequent surveys in boreholes when CO2 is present. Such logistical difficulties are reduced when installing permanent geophysical sources and receivers in shallow and dedicated observation boreholes, providing near continuous recording. Seismic monitoring strategy
  44. 44. 5/8/2014 44 VIBROMETRIC design of borehole seismic instruments 3-component, wide- band digital receivers deployed in 3 boreholes, 300 m deep each, tentatively installed in arrays of five units per borehole
  45. 45. 5/8/2014 45 KIS Tracers: Motivation What is happening to the CO2 in the subsurface and how can it be monitored during and after injection? Development of tracers which indicate the size of the interface scCO2/ brine AND its development with time Influence of pressure stimulation on mixing Significance of fingering at field scale Residual saturation of CO2 • Standard partitioning tracers – Volume sensitive – Partitioning equilibrium • Novel KIS-Tracers – Interface sensitive – Time-dependent – Reaction kinetics WP3 – MMV TECHNOLOGIES
  46. 46. 5/8/2014 46 Max. interfacial area Min. interfacial area Variable interface
  47. 47. 5/8/2014 47 Modelling Fracture Propagation in Caprocks Cooled by Supercritical CO2 Injection Objectives: The objective of this work package is to perform computational modelling of poroelastic and thermoelastic behaviour of the caprock during CO2 injection. In particular, we will run simulations that will evaluate caprock failure over a realistic time-scale covering the CO2 injection period, as a function of geomechanical deformation, for a range of injection scenarios. These simulations will be validated using data gathered in WP 3. The resulting models will serve to identify injection scenarios that may jeopardise containment. Methodology: Stresses, deformations and temperatures in the reservoir and caprock will be modelled with an in- house finite element simulator that accounts for thermoelastic effects, poroelastic effects, and two-phase flow. Fracture propagation is modelled by calculating the stress intensity factors at the tips of pre-existing cracks that are assumed to be present in the rock. Specific focus will be placed on evaluating the effect of the temperature shock at the onset of CO2 injection on the propagation of pre-existing fractures in the caprock. WP4 – MODELING
  48. 48. 5/8/2014 48 Right: Simulated fracture growth. Unlike in almost all existing codes, in our simulations, the fractures are not artificially restricted to follow the computational mesh; instead, the mesh conforms to the evolving fracture geometry. Right: A fracture at the interface between the reservoir and the caprock grows upwards due to the build-up of thermal strains. Fluid pressure contours around the tip before (a) and after (b) growth are plotted.
  49. 49. 5/8/2014 49 Leakage detection and mitigation • New technology for leakage prevention & remediation based on composite organic silica fluids (Patent REMEDIASOL) Ongoing task : Determine the optimal reagent fluid formulation and use WP5 – LEAKAGE DETECTION
  50. 50. 5/8/2014 50 Leakage detection and mitigation • New technology for fracture leakage remediation based on catalyzed self-healing slurries (Pending Patent SECAREM) Ongoing task : Determine the optimal mixture composition and injection prototocol
  51. 51. 5/8/2014 51 Injection Strategies /effects for trapping and economy Different injection modes tested at Heletz and Hontomin.: (i) Varying P and T (e.g., liquid injection) (ii) Pulsed injection schemes and alternating CO2 and water injections The results on trapping (residual and dissolution), pressure buildup, and size of the CO2 plume and energy use at the injection well will be measured. This task includes 1) design and predictive model simulations, 2) carrying out the actual experiments and 3) analysis and modeling of the results of the experiments (in collaboration with WP04). WP5 – STRATEGIES FOR STORAGE MANAGEMENT
  52. 52. 5/8/2014 52 Injection Strategies – example study Injection conditions at the wellhead T, ºC p, MPa Energy consumption, kW Gas-phase 35 6.5 409.6 Near-critical point 31 7.0 368.2 Supercritical phase 40 8.0 361.9 Liquid-phase (high T and p) 25 8.0 154.7 Liquid-phase (low T and p) 5 4.2 83.6 Under transport conditions (Liquid, P=10 Mpa, T=30 ºC), you may even recover energy Energy requirements from typical storage conditions (-20ºC, 20 bar)
  53. 53. 5/8/2014 53 Temperature, pressure and density along the well P, MPa 0 5 10 15 20 25 -1500 -1250 -1000 -750 -500 -250 0 T, ºC 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 depth,m -1500 -1250 -1000 -750 -500 -250 0 density, kg/m3 0 200 400 600 800 1000 -1500 -1250 -1000 -750 -500 -250 0 geothermal (a) (b) (c) gas-phase liquid-phase (high P and T) liquid-phase (low P and T) CO2 injection conditions supercritical phase near critical point -500 gas-phase liquid-phase (high P and T liquid-phase (low P and T) 2 supercritical phase near critical point T (ºC) P (Mpa) Density (kg/m3)
  54. 54. 5/8/2014 Melbourne, March 12th, 2014 54 Stability (mobilized friction angle) under normal initial stress state (3 m away from inj well, 8 months after start) Worsened stability at reservoir good! (increased permeability) Improved stability at caprock good! (increased tightness)
  55. 55. 5/8/2014 55

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