Quantification of Saline Aquifers for
Geological Storage of CO2 –
Experiences from
MUSTANG Project
Auli Niemi
Uppsala Univ...
Test
sites
MUSTANG is a large-scale integrating EU FP7 R&D
project (2009-2014), with 19 partners and 25 affiliated
organiz...
www.co2mustang.eu
Partners
____________________________________________________
Scientific Industial and Regulatory Adviso...
Outline
• Project structure and some examples results
from different work packages
• Focus on the two CO2 injection experi...
Mustang Field Sites
Contributing: UU, SGU, UNOTT, CSIC, LIAG, UGÖTT,GII, IIT, EWRE, UB, CNRS, UEDIN
• Gain understanding
o...
South Scania Horstberg Valcele Hontomín Heletz
Character Multilayered
sequence of
heterogeneous as well
as uniform aquifer...
South Scania
Site, Sweden
M.Erlström, SGU
South Scania –
example simulations
Mustang Test Sites – major field activity
Contributing: UU, SGU, UNOTT, CSIC, LIAG, UGÖTT,GII, IIT, EWRE, UB, CNRS, UEDIN
Improving the field testing methods
Geophysical methodsCO2 Injection-
monitoring – sampling
system
Contributing: UU, UGÖTT...
Reservoir rock samples
Caprock samples
Reservoir properties
Fractured caprock
alteration
Initial state
Claystone
20µm
1mm
...
Difficult to core we realized crushed samples
Example: Helez sandstone evolution when in contcact
with CO2 rich brine
CO2 rich-brine flow-through experiments at
Heletz storage conditions
Experimental conditions:
Q
(ml/min) t (h)
CO2
(mol/L)...
CO2 rich-brine flow-through experiments at
Heletz storage conditions
Q
(ml/min) Brine
H1 0.05 Heletz Brine
H2 0.05 Heletz ...
• Supercritical CO2 will NOT pass
through caprock fractures but
• CO2 in its gas phase WILL diffuse
through caprock fractu...
CO2-enriched brine flow-through experiment in fractured cement plugs
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
-0,00006
0,00000
0,...
Processes - Modeling
Develop a framework of process and simulation models
describing CO2 spreading and trapping
• Formulat...
Example - Adding reactive chemistry to Code-Bright
– Saturation
– Porosity after calcite dissolution
CaCO3(s) + H+ = Ca2+ ...
Example: two-phase flow and transport with time dependent
tracer reaction/partitioning between the phases
X (m)
Z(m)
0 10 ...
Upscaling
• For two-phase flow, transport, mechanics and chemistry
• Analytical approaches (Denz et al)
• Numerical approa...
www.co2mustang.eu
MUSTANG CO2 injection experiments
Deep injection of supercritical
CO2 Heletz, Israel
- extensive monitoring and
modeling
-...
Maguelone shallow injection experiment
Pezard et al. 2011
Maguelone shallow experiment
• Injection of CO2 into a shallow
reservoir (13-16 m deep)
• Monitoring both from surface and...
Example of time-lapse electrical monitoring
Pressure and fluid sampling during CO2 injection
experiment, Jan 2013
• Analys...
Heletz deep injection
experiment
Scientifically motivated CO2 injection experiment of
scCO2 injection to a reservoir layer...
Objectives
• To gain understanding and
Develop methods to determine the
two key trapping mechanisms
of CO2 (residual trapp...
Experiment scenarios
injection-withdrawal
of scCO2 and brine
zone of residual trapped scCO2
1. 2.
 Determine in-situ trap...
Experiment scenarios
injection-withdrawal
of scCO2 and brine
zone of residual trapped scCO2
1. 2.
 Determine in-situ trap...
Simulated response in (1) temperature , (2) pressure in the bottom
of well and (c) tracer BTC for different values of Sgr
...
Experiment scenarios
injection-withdrawal
of scCO2 and brine
zone of residual trapped scCO2
1. 2.
 Determine in-situ trap...
Clear correlation between tracer enrichment in
CO2 and dissolution of mobile CO2
Example of dipole CO2 injection - simulat...
• Field activities underway since
Jan 2011
• Well opening attempts
(Jan 2011-July 2011) in two existing wells
failed > re-...
Progress of field work
• Drilling activities;
Well 1: drilling Feb-May 2012, cementing and casing May
2012, perforating Se...
Heletz site – Caprock and Target layers
Shtivelman et al, GII, 2012
Heletz 18A (Pezard, 2012)
Heletz 18B (Pezard, 2012)
Heletz site – Caprock and Target layers
Shtivelman et al, GII, 2012
Heletz 18A (Pezard, 2012)
Heletz 18B (Pezard, 2012)
Example XRD results from Heletz H-18
Typical Heletz Well H-18 sandstone core
Typical Heletz Well H-18 caprock core
Edlmann...
Laboratory testing of the rock samples
• petrophysical properties, permeability, relative
permeability, capillary pressure...
Examples of porosity and permeability estimates
Sample
name
Porosity (%) Bulk volume
(cc)
Grain volume
(cc)
Heletz
caprock...
Two-phase characteristic functions
Benson et al, 2013 (Stanford Univ)
Heletz sandstone flow experiment
• Sandstone cores disintegrated during
35,000ppm brine vacuum saturation
• Due to ease of...
Pre-injection tests
• Hydraulic and thermal tests started in May 2013
• Well clogging > well stimulation during autumn 201...
Injection well instrumentation – Jan 2014
• Fluid injection and withdrawal, fluid
sampling, pressure, temperature
monitori...
CO2 injection experiment in the coming months
• Heletz experimental CO2 injection site is being
developed within EU FP7 project MUSTANG and will
be continued in subsequ...
Acknowledgements:
- all Heletz/MUSTANG partners but especially providing material here
- J. Bensabat (EWRE); P. Pezard (CN...
THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION !
Contact: auli.niemi@geo.uu.se
Webb-page: www.co2mustang.eu
Acknowledgement: EU FP7 framewor...
Quantification of Saline Aquifers for Geological Storage of CO2 – Experiences from MUSTANG Project - Auli Niemi at at EC F...
Quantification of Saline Aquifers for Geological Storage of CO2 – Experiences from MUSTANG Project - Auli Niemi at at EC F...
Quantification of Saline Aquifers for Geological Storage of CO2 – Experiences from MUSTANG Project - Auli Niemi at at EC F...
Quantification of Saline Aquifers for Geological Storage of CO2 – Experiences from MUSTANG Project - Auli Niemi at at EC F...
Quantification of Saline Aquifers for Geological Storage of CO2 – Experiences from MUSTANG Project - Auli Niemi at at EC F...
Quantification of Saline Aquifers for Geological Storage of CO2 – Experiences from MUSTANG Project - Auli Niemi at at EC F...
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Quantification of Saline Aquifers for Geological Storage of CO2 – Experiences from MUSTANG Project - Auli Niemi at at EC FP7 Projects: Leading the way in CCS implementation, London, 14-15 April 2014

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Presentation given by Auli Niemi of Uppsala University on "Quantification of Saline Aquifers for Geological Storage of CO2 – Experiences from MUSTANG Project" at the EC FP7 Projects: Leading the way in CCS implementation event, London, 14-15 April 2014

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Quantification of Saline Aquifers for Geological Storage of CO2 – Experiences from MUSTANG Project - Auli Niemi at at EC FP7 Projects: Leading the way in CCS implementation, London, 14-15 April 2014

  1. 1. Quantification of Saline Aquifers for Geological Storage of CO2 – Experiences from MUSTANG Project Auli Niemi Uppsala University, Sweden and MUSTANG partners Leading the way in CCS implementation Workshop in London on 14-15 April 2014 Test sites
  2. 2. Test sites MUSTANG is a large-scale integrating EU FP7 R&D project (2009-2014), with 19 partners and 25 affiliated organizatons (coordinated by Uppsala University) Objective: to develop methodology and understanding for the quantification of saline aquifers for CO2 geological storage 7 field sites including one deep injection experiment and one shallow injection experiment of CO2, as well as strong laboratory experiment, process understanding and modeling components MUSTANG project
  3. 3. www.co2mustang.eu Partners ____________________________________________________ Scientific Industial and Regulatory Advisory Board
  4. 4. Outline • Project structure and some examples results from different work packages • Focus on the two CO2 injection experiments • Link to the continuation EU FP7 projects that have started (PANACEA, TRUST and CO2QUEST) • Main summarizing reports coming summer 2014 • For detailed results, see the project webb-site (www.co2mustang.eu)
  5. 5. Mustang Field Sites Contributing: UU, SGU, UNOTT, CSIC, LIAG, UGÖTT,GII, IIT, EWRE, UB, CNRS, UEDIN • Gain understanding of possible site characteristics and their implications for modeling • Collect and analyze site-specific data, interpret it as input parameters for simulation models • Simulations of CO2 injection and storage
  6. 6. South Scania Horstberg Valcele Hontomín Heletz Character Multilayered sequence of heterogeneous as well as uniform aquifers Deep, low permeable aquifers High temperature Oil and gas field Complex structural setting Large data set Exploration site Pre-investigation phase Abandoned oil field Well known geology Field test site Structure Subhorisontal Inversion structure Multitrap folds Closed dome Anticline fold No. wells 16 (21 ) 2 712 (2413) 4 40 Site model, km2 Regional c. 1000 Local: c. 10 c. 50 c. 5 c. 15 c. 20 Depth range, of potential storage layers 1100–1950 m 3700–4000 m 1100–2200 m 1400–1600 m 1380–1560 m Age E. Cretaceous-Jurassic Early Triassic Neogene Jurassic Cretaceous Thicknesses of potential storage layers 4–55 m 13–40 m 20–30 m 140 0.6–21 Main rock type Sandstone Sandstone Sandstone Limestone/dolomite Sandstone Main seal rock type Claystone Argillaceous limestone Claystone Marlstone Clay Marl Limestone Shale, marl Porosity, % 20–29 5–10 20–28 12-17 16–20 Permeability, mD 10–4000 <10 15–500 n.d. 100–250 1 In the local scale, 2in the 3D parameter model, 3 Total wells with data Field Sites – Overview of properties
  7. 7. South Scania Site, Sweden M.Erlström, SGU
  8. 8. South Scania – example simulations
  9. 9. Mustang Test Sites – major field activity Contributing: UU, SGU, UNOTT, CSIC, LIAG, UGÖTT,GII, IIT, EWRE, UB, CNRS, UEDIN
  10. 10. Improving the field testing methods Geophysical methodsCO2 Injection- monitoring – sampling system Contributing: UU, UGÖTT,GII, EWRE, CNRS, Imageau, Vibrometric, CSIC, Class VI Solutions, SageRider, Trimeric Tracer techniques – e.g. interface-specific tracers
  11. 11. Reservoir rock samples Caprock samples Reservoir properties Fractured caprock alteration Initial state Claystone 20µm 1mm Laboratory Experiments - Synopsis Percolation bench 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 980 990 1000 1010 1020 60°C 50°C 40°C 30°C 20°C 12°C Density/kgm -3 Pressure / MPa 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 980 990 1000 1010 1020 60°C 50°C 40°C 30°C 20°C 12°C Density/kgm -3 Pressure / MPa Brine-CO2 mixture properties Contributing: CNRS, UGÖTT, KIT, UEDIN, UU
  12. 12. Difficult to core we realized crushed samples Example: Helez sandstone evolution when in contcact with CO2 rich brine
  13. 13. CO2 rich-brine flow-through experiments at Heletz storage conditions Experimental conditions: Q (ml/min) t (h) CO2 (mol/L) PCO2 (Mpa) M initial (g) Porosity initial (%) M final (g) Porosity final (%) Brine H1 0.05 93.05 0.11 1.80 5.16 22.80 5.12 24.12 Heletz Brine H2 0.05 91.45 0.11 1.80 5.85 26.30 5.82 27.80 Heletz Brine H3 0.30 28.62 0.11 1.80 5.48 15.10 5.46 16.70 Heletz Brine H4 0.30 44.81 0.11 1.80 5.27 24.20 5.12 38.98 Heletz Brine eq, Gypsum H5 0.05 42.96 0.11 1.80 5.24 18.80 5.19 20.42 Heletz Brine eq, Gypsum
  14. 14. CO2 rich-brine flow-through experiments at Heletz storage conditions Q (ml/min) Brine H1 0.05 Heletz Brine H2 0.05 Heletz Brine H3 0.30 Heletz Brine H4 0.30 Heletz Brine eq, Gypsum H5 0.05 Heletz Brine eq, Gypsum
  15. 15. • Supercritical CO2 will NOT pass through caprock fractures but • CO2 in its gas phase WILL diffuse through caprock fractures under reservoir conditions • The mineralogy and petrology of the caprock is unaltered by contact with scCO2 CO2 flow through caprock Fractured caprock sample (38mm diameter, 49.6mm length) Edlman et al
  16. 16. CO2-enriched brine flow-through experiment in fractured cement plugs 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 -0,00006 0,00000 0,00006 0,00012 0,00018 portlandite dissolution rate mineralconcentration(mol/L)andrate(mol/L/hour) distance from inlet (µm) CALCITE PORTLANDITE carbonation rate Numerical simulation Calcite redissolution rate Transition (diss.>carbonation) Gouze at al
  17. 17. Processes - Modeling Develop a framework of process and simulation models describing CO2 spreading and trapping • Formulation of process models (Bear et al.) • Relative significance of various processes for Key Questions in geosequestration (Tsang C-F et al) • Improvement of existing numerical simulators - coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical & Chemical (THMC) system (Carrera et al.) - treatment of scales (Dentz et al) - Uncertainty due to heterogeneity (Cliffe et al) - Rigorous analysis of some sub-processes (Power et al) Contributing: IIT, UU, CSIC, UCAM, EWRE, UEDIN
  18. 18. Example - Adding reactive chemistry to Code-Bright – Saturation – Porosity after calcite dissolution CaCO3(s) + H+ = Ca2+ + HCO3 − CO2(aq) = CO2(g) H+ + HCO3 − = H2O + CO2(aq) NaCl(s) = Na+ + Cl− HCO3 − = H+ + CO3 2- H2O = H+ + OH− Saaltnik et al, 2012
  19. 19. Example: two-phase flow and transport with time dependent tracer reaction/partitioning between the phases X (m) Z(m) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 -10 -5 0 15.5 16 X (m) Z(m) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 -10 -5 0 0 0.2 0.4 Spatial distribution of simulated CO2 pressure at 16 days (unit: MPa) Spatial distribution of simulated degree of CO2 saturation at 16 daysg X (m) Z(m) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 -10 -5 0 0.2 0.4 X (m) Z(m) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 -10 -5 0 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 Spatial distribution of simulated tracer concentration in CO2 at 16 days Spatial distribution of simulated tracer concentration in water at 16 days Tong et al, TiPM, 2013
  20. 20. Upscaling • For two-phase flow, transport, mechanics and chemistry • Analytical approaches (Denz et al) • Numerical approaches (effective parameters, dual/multi-porosity approaches) (Yang et al.)
  21. 21. www.co2mustang.eu
  22. 22. MUSTANG CO2 injection experiments Deep injection of supercritical CO2 Heletz, Israel - extensive monitoring and modeling - major financial component of the project Shallow injection of gaseous CO2 Maguelone, France - cross-validation of certain geophysical methods, especially geoelectric, co-financing by CNRS Pezard, CNRS
  23. 23. Maguelone shallow injection experiment Pezard et al. 2011
  24. 24. Maguelone shallow experiment • Injection of CO2 into a shallow reservoir (13-16 m deep) • Monitoring both from surface and downhole, including high frequency seismic and electrical resistivity, pressure recording and fluid sampling • Three N2 injections during 2012 for tuning the field monitoring strategy • CO2 injection took place in January 2013 • Project leader CNRS/ P. Pezard
  25. 25. Example of time-lapse electrical monitoring Pressure and fluid sampling during CO2 injection experiment, Jan 2013 • Analysis of the results underway, including modeling with TOUGH2 codes Expected improvement of the ’knowledge gaps’ - Cross-validation of a suite of monitoring methods (electric, seismic and fluid sampling/pressure monitoring) - Model validation for CO2 gas transport in the shallow subsurface Maguelone shallow injection experiment
  26. 26. Heletz deep injection experiment Scientifically motivated CO2 injection experiment of scCO2 injection to a reservoir layer at 1600 m depth, with sophisticated monitoring and sampling
  27. 27. Objectives • To gain understanding and Develop methods to determine the two key trapping mechanisms of CO2 (residual trapping and dissolution trapping) at field scale, impact of heterogeneity • Validation of predictive models, measurement and monitoring techniques Site: a well-investigated depleted oil reservoir with saline water on the edges (Heletz, Israel) wells for field experiments Heletz CO2 injection experiment
  28. 28. Experiment scenarios injection-withdrawal of scCO2 and brine zone of residual trapped scCO2 1. 2.  Determine in-situ trapping parameters: residual & dissolution trapping  Reduced influence of formation heterogeneity scCO2, brine & tracers sc CO2 push-pull dipole  Heterogeneity affects migration and trapping  Hydraulic tests  Thermal tests  Tracer tests residual trapping residual trapping residual & dissolution trapping, (& interfacial area)
  29. 29. Experiment scenarios injection-withdrawal of scCO2 and brine zone of residual trapped scCO2 1. 2.  Determine in-situ trapping parameters: residual & dissolution trapping  Reduced influence of formation heterogeneity scCO2, brine & tracers sc CO2 push-pull dipole  Heterogeneity affects migration and trapping  Hydraulic tests  Thermal tests  Tracer tests residual trapping residual trapping residual & dissolution trapping, (& interfacial area)
  30. 30. Simulated response in (1) temperature , (2) pressure in the bottom of well and (c) tracer BTC for different values of Sgr Option 1: Residual zone created by injecting CO2 saturated water Option 2: Residual zone created by CO2 injection followed by fluid withdrawal Rasmusson et al, (2013) manuscript in review IJGHGC
  31. 31. Experiment scenarios injection-withdrawal of scCO2 and brine zone of residual trapped scCO2 1. 2.  Determine in-situ trapping parameters: residual & dissolution trapping  Reduced influence of formation heterogeneity scCO2, brine & tracers sc CO2 push-pull dipole  Heterogeneity affects migration and trapping  Hydraulic tests  Thermal tests  Tracer tests residual trapping residual trapping residual & dissolution trapping, (& interfacial area)
  32. 32. Clear correlation between tracer enrichment in CO2 and dissolution of mobile CO2 Example of dipole CO2 injection - simulation
  33. 33. • Field activities underway since Jan 2011 • Well opening attempts (Jan 2011-July 2011) in two existing wells failed > re-evaluation of the plan + additional fund raising (especially Lapidoth company contributions) • drilling of two new wells during 2012 Progress of field work
  34. 34. Progress of field work • Drilling activities; Well 1: drilling Feb-May 2012, cementing and casing May 2012, perforating Sep 2012 Well 2: drilling July-Sept 2012, cementing and casing completed Feb 2013 • Core samples for testing September 2012 • Geophysical baseline Dec 2012 • Pre-injection hydraulic and tracer testing started in May 2013, well clogging/stimulation autumn 2013, hydraulic tests continued Dec 2013-2014 • Well instumentation and injection kit; Jan-April 2014 • CO2 injection spring-summer 2014
  35. 35. Heletz site – Caprock and Target layers Shtivelman et al, GII, 2012 Heletz 18A (Pezard, 2012) Heletz 18B (Pezard, 2012)
  36. 36. Heletz site – Caprock and Target layers Shtivelman et al, GII, 2012 Heletz 18A (Pezard, 2012) Heletz 18B (Pezard, 2012)
  37. 37. Example XRD results from Heletz H-18 Typical Heletz Well H-18 sandstone core Typical Heletz Well H-18 caprock core Edlmann et al, Edinburgh Univ
  38. 38. Laboratory testing of the rock samples • petrophysical properties, permeability, relative permeability, capillary pressure, mineral composition, rock mechanical properties • behavior of rock (and fractures) when in contact with CO2 and/or CO2/brine mixtures Laboratories: CNRS, Univ. of Edinburgh, University of Göttingen, Stanford University, Luleå University of Technlogy, Uppsala University
  39. 39. Examples of porosity and permeability estimates Sample name Porosity (%) Bulk volume (cc) Grain volume (cc) Heletz caprock A 7.78 81.03 74.72 Heletz caprock B 10.82 47.94 42.76 Heletz caprock C 8.36 75.24 68.95 Heletz caprock D Sample damaged Heletz caprock E 8.81 71.81 65.48 Heletz caprock F 5.75 77.38 72.93 Heletz sandstone 27.94 35.67 25.71 Porosity, bulk volume and grain volume Porosity based on MICP curves Results (Helium porosity) Univ Stanford (S. Benson et al.) Univ Edinburgh (Edlmann et at) Permeability so far tested by four groups (Stanford, LIAG, CNRS, Univ Edinburg) and values vary between 100 to 400 mD
  40. 40. Two-phase characteristic functions Benson et al, 2013 (Stanford Univ)
  41. 41. Heletz sandstone flow experiment • Sandstone cores disintegrated during 35,000ppm brine vacuum saturation • Due to ease of disintegration careful management of injection and production rates, sand production screen over injection and production wells or other sand management techniques • Caprock does not react negatively when in contact with CO2
  42. 42. Pre-injection tests • Hydraulic and thermal tests started in May 2013 • Well clogging > well stimulation during autumn 2013 • Hydraulic testing Dec 2013 show very good permeability; 700 mD horizontal, >100 mD vertical (core samples show values between 100 mD and 400 mD
  43. 43. Injection well instrumentation – Jan 2014 • Fluid injection and withdrawal, fluid sampling, pressure, temperature monitoring (instrumentation Class VI Solutions, SageRider, Trimeric)
  44. 44. CO2 injection experiment in the coming months
  45. 45. • Heletz experimental CO2 injection site is being developed within EU FP7 project MUSTANG and will be continued in subsequent EU FP7 projects • Panacea – project focusing on long term effects of CO2 geological storage, is a modeling project (2012-2014) (led by EWRE, Israel • TRUST – project continuing and expanding the field experiment of MUSTANG (sizeable injection, testing different modes of injection etc.) (Nov. 2012- Nov 2017)(led by EWRE, Israel) • CO2QUEST – project focusing on effect of impurities of CO2 stream (March 2013- Feb 2016) (led by UCL, England) Continuation projects
  46. 46. Acknowledgements: - all Heletz/MUSTANG partners but especially providing material here - J. Bensabat (EWRE); P. Pezard (CNRS) - F. Fagerlund (UU) - K. Rasmusson (UU) - M. Rasmusson (UU) - K. Edlmann (Univ Edinburgh) - T. Lange (Univ Göttingen) - P. Gouze (CNRS), L.Luquot (CNRS,CSIC) - V. Shtivelman (GII) - S. Benson, F. Hingerl, R. Pini (Stanford) - B. Freifeld (Class VI Solutions)
  47. 47. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION ! Contact: auli.niemi@geo.uu.se Webb-page: www.co2mustang.eu Acknowledgement: EU FP7 framework program project no: 227286

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