Finding the right Storage SiteWhat do we need? Other: Injectivity: • Environment The ease with • Infrastructure Schlumberger Public which the CO2 • Regulation can be injected • Public opinion • Finance Capacity: Containment: The amount of The ability to CO2 that can store CO2 be safely safely and stored permanently…the best risk reduction approach is to choose the right site in the first place
Finding the right Storage Site Schlumberger Public
Modeling & Measurement to reduce Uncertainty Schlumberger Public
Storage OptionsStored in geological formations:● Depleted oil or gas fields Depth:● Deep saline formations 1,500 – 3,000m Schlumberger Public 5,000 – 10,000ft TWO KEY POINTS: Storage sites are NOT huge caverns… …but „solid rocks‟ like a sponge. Secondary CO2 is NOT a gas, at depth, seals but like a dense liquid. Primary seals„Enhanced Oil Recovery‟ is NOT the same as storage. Storage reservoir
Storage mechanisms & containmentStorage sites evolve over time...● Structural & stratigraphic trapping● Residual – in pore space Schlumberger Public● Solubility – in water● Mineralisation – “turned to stone”Oil & gas fields demonstratestorage times of millions of years. Natural accumulations of CO2 have been safely stored for millions of years. from IPCC, 2005
North Sea offers storage options for UK & EuropeNorth Sea has an abundance ofdepleted oil & gas reservoirs anddeep saline formations. Schlumberger Public● Should we go for many small stores or a few large ones ?● Which ones should they be ?● Studies for pipeline networks (need to know where to go!) Source for Figure: Pöyry Energy Consulting Study on CCS costs, commissioned by UK Government
Depleted Oil and Gas reservoirs or saline formations ? Depleted Oil or Gas reservoir: Saline Formation:Location known Location known roughly Schlumberger PublicCapacity known, limited Capacity less known, larger CapacityInjectivity known Injectivity unknownLow pressure Normal pressure InjectivityContainment works for oil/gas Containment not provenCaprock properties unknown Caprock properties unknownLots of wells, integrity unknown Few wells Containment
CO2 Storage already done on an industrial scale In Salah each Sahara desert, ~1 M-tonne Algeria of CO2 per yearWeyburn Schlumberger PublicCanada, at end Sleipnerof 200km Norwegianpipeline North Sea Remote regions have fewer public awareness issues CO2 can be Carbon transported taxes long distances work! by pipeline Courtesy of IEA Weyburn CO2 Storage and Monitoring Project , BP, Sonatrach, and Statoil 12
CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery versus Storage Enhanced Oil Recovery Storage ● CO2 rate depends on ● CO2 rate determined by source production strategy (eg. power station) ● CO2 recycled ● CO2 in long-term storage Schlumberger Public ● Legislation under ● Legislation under new CO2 regime petroleum industry (high public awareness) ● Operational Monitoring only ● Long-term monitoring ● Revenue from hydrocarbon ● Revenue from price of carbon (eventually – current projects government subsidized) Significant experience in CO2 pipelines and injection wells gained from US EOR activities in the last 30+ years.
Accessing theStorage Schlumberger PublicFormation Image courtesy of MGSC, all rights reserved.
CarbonWorkFlow CO2 Injection Schlumberger Public Development Closure Appraisal / Characterization Post closure Performance Management & Risk Control Pre Selection Post liability transfer Pre-injection Injection Post-injection CarbonWorkFlow* process for long-term CO2 storage enabling assessment and management of risk in every phase of a project. *Mark of Schlumberger
Wellbore Integrity – the challengeNot just a „hole in the ground‟ ―a complex hydro-mechanical system designed to fulfil many requirements: • Shape: really strange (2km long, 20cm wide → 10,000 : 1 aspect ratio) Schlumberger Public ● Connects the surface to storage formation ● Holds the borehole open ● Long-lasting ● Unaffected by CO2 ● Materials – steel, cement, elastomers, fluids ● Barriers for fluid flow ● Economical – cost effective ● Repairable ● Geologically compatible ● Environmentally acceptable ● Retirement strategy – „plug and abandon‟6 inch line, 1pt = 432 : 1
Regulation – a well also has to be legalUS Environmental Protection Agency, Class VI well guidelines Schlumberger Public Major goal is to protect underground sources of drinking water (USDWs)
CO2 well integrity – it‟s not just the injection well Schlumberger Public USDW wells CO2 Pressure injection relief well well Monitoring Abandoned well well
Interfaces – some critical points1. wellhead2. USDW boundary3. borehole – cement Schlumberger Public4. cement – casing5. casing – annulus6. annulus – tubing7. tubing – CO28. packer – casing & tubing9. caprock – storage formation10. well – storage (perforations) From US Environmental Protection Agency, Class VI well guidelines
Possible leakage paths across a single cemented annulusWhat can go wrong?● no isolating material where required Contaminated Injection tubing ― (wrong volumes) Schlumberger Public cement ― losses during placement Casing● incomplete isolating material coverage Vertical ― “mud channel” fracture● improper bond with formation Pipe ― “mud removal” debonding● improper bond with tubular Formation Mud debonding ― “micro-annulus” channels● isolating material not performing ― contamination during placement ― mechanical failure during well life
Mitigation of leakage through wellsA full well design based on risk assessment● Position of well components● Definition of overlaps Schlumberger Public● Where to use each cement system / completion materials● Providing secondary barriers as much as possible● Robust construction practices required
Monitoring Injection & Storage Schlumberger Public
CO2 Monitoring – 3 objectives Schlumberger Public USDW wells #3: Monitor the environment #2: Watch possible leakage paths CO2 injection #1: Watch stored CO2 Pressure relief well well Monitoring Abandoned well well Detection & Quantification
A Practical Example:Illinois Basin – Decatur Project Schlumberger Public
AcknowledgementsThe Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC)is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy throughthe National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL)via the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program Schlumberger Public(contract number DE-FC26-05NT42588)and by a cost share agreement withthe Illinois Department of Commerce and Economic Opportunity,Office of Coal Development through the Illinois Clean Coal Institute.The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortiumis a collaboration led by the geological surveys ofIllinois, Indiana, and Kentucky
DOE‟s Carbon Sequestration Program GoalsDevelop Technology Options by 2020 That...Deliver technologies & best practices that provideCarbon Capture and Safe Storage (CCSS) with:● 90% carbon dioxide (CO2) Schlumberger Public capture at source● 99% storage permanence● < 10% increase in Cost of Energy (COE) ― Pre-combustion capture (IGCC)● < 35% increase in COE ― Post-combustion capture ― Oxy-combustion
Illinois Basin – Decatur ProjectPhase III Awarded December 2007Major Project Elements:● Underground Injection Control (UIC) permitting: January 2008 – November 2011 ― application, hearing, minor modification, major modification, completion reports… Schlumberger Public● Injection well drilled: February 14 - May 4, 2009● Geophone well drilled: November 2009● Baseline 3D seismic survey completed: January 2010● Compression / dehydration / pipeline facility ― design, procurement, construction, testing, February 2009-October 2011● Monitoring well drilled, cased: Sept-Nov 2010● Monitoring well completion: May-June 2011● Completion Report to Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): August 2011● Permission to Inject: November 2011● Initiate injection: November 16, 2011● Operating injection at a rate of 1000 tonnes/day 27
Illinois Basin – Decatur Project ScopeA collaboration of● Illinois State Geological Survey● MGSC● Archer Daniels Midland Company (ADM) Schlumberger Public ― CO2 source + site location● Schlumberger Carbon Services ― Storage and monitoring● Trimeric ― Compression & dehydration● and other subcontractors to inject 1 million metric tons of anthropogenic CO2 at a depth of ~7,000 ft (~2,000 m) to test geological carbon sequestration in a saline formation at a site in Decatur, Illinois 28
MGSC Illinois Basin – Schlumberger Public Decatur Project (IBDP) Site MGSC monitoring wellMGSC Injection and geophone wells photo by Illinois Dept. 0.5 mile of Transportation, 8 November 2010
800 m 800 mD D D Illinois Basin – Decatur Project Test Site E (on ADM industrial site) C Schlumberger Public CC A. Dehydration / Compression B facility location B. Pipeline route C. Injection well B B D. Verification/ monitoring well E. Geophone well A AA IDOT Image 19-May-2010 30
Surface Facilities: Dual 550 TPD ReciprocatingCompressors with Dehydration Shell and tube heat exchangers Cooling water Dehydration Schlumberger Public Supply & return unit contactor Inlet separator Dehydration inlet separator Discharge separator Motor Blower Suction scrubber Compressor Pipeline to wellhead Blower aftercooler 31
Compressor Installation March 2010 Schlumberger Public September 2010 December 2010 Images courtesy of MGSC, all rights reserved. 32
Wellhead Installed, Pipeline Constructed,Injection Begun! January 2010 Injection day – November 2011 Schlumberger Public Supply end at compressors Images courtesy of MGSC, all rights reserved.
Baseline 3D Geophysical SurveyCompleted January 2010 Schlumberger Public 35
Surface Measurement Components● Pipeline Pressure & Temperature● Ambient Meteorological Data ―Wind speed & direction Schlumberger Public ―Barometric pressure ―Relative Humidity ―Rainfall● CO2 Mass Flow Rate● Vented CO2 Mass Flow Rate
Shallow MeasurementsRed: groundwater wellYellow: soil flux rings (118)Blue: shallow resistivity points Schlumberger Public Injection well Soil flux measurements 37
Three Deep Wells – Subsurface MonitoringInjection Well (7,230 ft) Geophone Well (3,500 ft) Monitoring Well (7,272 ft)● Wellhead Pressure & ● Multi-level ● Wellhead/Tubing Temperature Geophone Array Pressure● Annulus Pressure & ― 31-levels, ● Tubing-Casing Annulus Schlumberger Public 3-component packages Fluid Volume ― 4D Vertical Seismic Pressure ― Monitors integrity of Profile Surveys ● Westbay* multilevel tubing & packer ― Cemented in place groundwater● Fiber-optic (DTS) ― Additional passive characterization and Temperature seismic data monitoring system ― Temperature profile ― Modular multi-packer along tubing design● Microseismic Geophones ― Pressures & (PS Platform* PS3) Temperatures ― 3-levels, 4-component ― Fluid sampling ports packages ● Many of these ― Quality Assurance (QA) ― Monitors near-wellbore Zone measurements ● Two zones above seismicity integrated in a caprock● Bottomhole Pressure & real-time on-site ● One in caprock Temperature monitoring system ● Nine in storage formation* Mark of Schlumberger
Pre-injection Background Monitoring Schlumberger Public Earth Tide Cycles Observed in Reservoir Pressure • Pressure/Temperature gauge in injection well tubing @ 6,325‟ (MD) • Fluctuations in reservoir pressure caused by gravitational influences of sun and moon
Pre-injection Background Monitoring Schlumberger Public 0.7 °F/100-ft 1.6 °F/100-ft 0.6 °F/100-ft Lithology-Influenced Geothermal Gradient • Notable changes in thermal gradient associated with transitions in lithology • Indicative of thermal properties of various formation types
Monitoring Data Flow Schlumberger Public Diagram from G. Picard
CO2 Storage - Summary● Finding Geological Storage ― Capacity, Injectivity, Containment + non-technical aspects ― Depleted reservoir, or saline formation ? ― CCS not the same as CO2 EOR Schlumberger Public● Accessing the Storage Formation ― A well is not just a “hole in the ground” ― Consider existing wells and new ones ― Quality of execution is essential over and above good design and materials● Monitoring Injection & Storage ― Monitoring is critical part of storage design ― Large number of technology options – not all applicable everywhere ― Requirement to monitor for many years after injection ceases● A Real Example ― Illinois Basin – Decatur Project ― 4 years from funding decision to injection ― In operation NOW.
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