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Kemiskinan dan kesehatan
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Kemiskinan dan kesehatan

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  • Very good stuffs and becoming something classic for us in Indonesia. It is better if the data updated to the most recent condition. Have a nice day!
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  • The four dimensions of poverty outlined above are derived from the World Development Report 2000/2001: Attacking Poverty (Washington, D.C.: World Bank, 2000). Poverty is more than inadequate income or human development. It is also vulnerability, lack of voice, power, and representation. This multidimensional view of poverty brings greater complexity to poverty reduction strategies because more factors – such as cultural and social forces – need to be taken into account. Dealing with this complexity requires participation and empowerment. Unlike other development tools, microfinance can affect the multidimensional components of poverty in numerous ways: Increases in income enable people to improve food consumption and invest in housing. Timely loans permit poor households to pay school fees. Assets built with microloans and access to cash during times of emergency enable the poor to better protect themselves against shocks. Access to financial services enhance the self-esteem and confidence of the poor, often enabling microfinance clients to have greater influence over decisions within their households and their communities.

Kemiskinan dan kesehatan Kemiskinan dan kesehatan Presentation Transcript

  • KEMISKINAN DAN KESEHATAN Hari Kusnanto
  • ARTI KEMISKINAN
    • Absolut: garis kemiskinan, pengeluaran kurang dari $1 per kepala, per hari
    • Relatif: dibandingkan orang lain, eg. 50% median pengeluaran yang bukan untuk makan, per orang, per hari atau setengah relatif: konsumsi kurang dari 2100 kalori per orang per hari
    • Subyektif: apakah merasa bisa mencukupi kebutuhan pokok?
  • The Poor and the Health services
    • There is a part of the population that is very poor, badly defined and therefore badly served by public health services.
    • Health care not accessible
    • There is no efficient strategy defined by the health and social affairs department to take care of these people
    • Only an approach by social groups (handicapped, …) or a pragmatic, case by case approach of the health staff
  • Status Kesehatan antara Orang Kaya dan Miskin, 1990
  • BERAPA YANG MISKIN?
    • Lebih dari 1 milyar orang hidup dengan kurang dari US $1
    • Separuh penduduk dunia (3 milyar) hidup dengan kurang dari US $2
    • Diperkirakan ada 37 juta orang miskin di Indonesia
    • Sanitasi dan perumahan tidak layak di sebagian besar penduduk dunia, terutama keluarga miskin
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  • KESENJANGAN
    • Kekayaan mereka yang tinggal di 20% negara kaya dibanding negara miskin pada tahun 1960: 30 banding 1, pada tahun 1997: 74 banding 1
    • 15% orang paling kaya menerima 80% penghasilan di dunia, sementara 85% orang lainnya menerima 20% penghasilan di dunia
    1997 1960
  • Ketimpangan Kesehatan Antar Negara
  • Semakin kecil pengeluaran per kapita semakin tinggi risiko air minum tercemar (SUSENAS 2001) Pengeluaran Per Kapita (Rupiah) Sumber air tak terlindung
  • Pengeluaran Per Kapita (Rupiah) Sumber penerangan dengan listrik Semakin kecil pengeluaran per kapita semakin rendah sumber penerangan listrik (SUSENAS 2001)
  • Di antara masyarakat yang lebih miskin pengeluaran untuk kesehatan lebih sedikit dari pengeluaran untuk tembakau (SUSENAS 2001) Rata-rata per bulan (rupiah) <100000 100000- 200000- 300000- 400000- 500000< 199999 299999 399999 499999 Pengeluaran per kapita per bulan Pelayanan Kesehatan Tembakau
  • MAKNA KEMISKINAN
    • Individual dan keluarga: produktivitas kerja rendah, rentan terhadap kebangkrutan dan ketergantungan
    • Populasi: kekurangan (kemiskinan massal di negara berkembang) dan ketimpangan
    • Risiko sakit dan kematian lebih tinggi
  • Medical Poverty Trap
  • Makna Kemiskinan Amartya Sen Kemiskinan adalah kekurangan yang mengakibatkan ketidakmampuan
  • Poverty is Multi-dimensional Material deprivation (low food consumption, poor housing) Low human development (education, health) Lack of voice & ability to influence decisions Acute vulnerability to adverse shocks (illness, economic crises, natural disasters) P O V E R T Y
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  • situasi kemiskinan di Indonesia
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  • Nutritional Status Non-Food Expenditure Food Expenditure Environmental Hygiene, Health Care, etc . Social/ Personal Care Intra-Household Issues Intervention Programs Income Poverty Kemiskinan dan Kurang Gizi
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  • PERSEPSI MASYARAKAT
  • Alasan utama kemiskinan lokal
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