Directing implementation


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Directing implementation

  1. 1. DIRECTING IMPLEMENTATION A part of Lecture Note for Hospital Management Dr. Fahmy Radhi, MBA
  2. 2. Directing <ul><li>Directing – management process of motivating and leading employees to meet an organization objective </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation – the factor that cause and sustain an individual’s behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership – The process of directing and influencing the task related activities of individual </li></ul>
  3. 3. Motivating <ul><li>Motivation – the way drives or needs direct a person’s behavior toward a specific goals </li></ul>
  4. 4. Motivation Theories <ul><li>Classical Theory – incentive wage system used as main motivation for employees </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior Theory – social needs influence to human behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Contemporary Theories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maslow’s Hierarchy Model, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theories X an Y, </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy <ul><li>Human needs are arranged from low to high into a hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>When a human need is satisfied, it will stop as main motivator, but it still influence to his/her behavior </li></ul>
  6. 6. Five Needs in a Hierarchy <ul><li>Physiological Needs - biological need </li></ul><ul><li>Security Needs – to be financially secure and protected against job loss </li></ul><ul><li>Social Needs – to belong and to interact with other people </li></ul><ul><li>Esteem Need – the need for self-respect and for respect from other </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Actualization Need – the need to use and display one’s full range competence </li></ul>
  7. 8. McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y <ul><li>Theory X </li></ul><ul><li>employees dislike work, responsibility, and accountability and </li></ul><ul><li>employees must be closely directed and controlled to be motivated </li></ul><ul><li>Theory Y </li></ul><ul><li>want to be challenge </li></ul><ul><li>like to display creativity </li></ul><ul><li>highly motivated to perform well if given some freedom to direct or manage their own behavior </li></ul>
  8. 9. LEADERSHIP <ul><li>Leadership – the process of directing and influencing the task-related activities of group members </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership requirements : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>involving other people as employees or followers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>there is unequal distribution of power between leaders and group members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>having the ability to use the different forms of power to influence the followers’ behaviors in the number ways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>having value as moral leadership </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. The Leadership Approaches <ul><li>Trait approach </li></ul><ul><li>The behavior approach </li></ul><ul><li>Managerial Grid approach </li></ul><ul><li>Situational Leadership Model </li></ul><ul><li>Contingency approach </li></ul>
  10. 11. Trait approach <ul><li>Trait approach – identify the personal characteristics of leaders by </li></ul><ul><li>Comparing leaders and non-leaders: leaders more extroverted and more self-confident than non-leader </li></ul><ul><li>Comparing the effective and ineffective leaders: effective leaders more intelligence, initiative, and more self-assurance than ineffective leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Using assumption that the leaders are born, not made </li></ul>
  11. 12. The behavior approach <ul><li>The behavior approach – identify the leaders’ behavior by exploring: </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership functions: tasks-related and group maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership style: tasks oriented and employee-oriented styles, Participative and Authoritative style </li></ul>
  12. 13. Managerial Grid <ul><li>Managerial Grid: the diagram that measure a manager’s concern for people and tasks </li></ul>
  13. 14. Situational Leadership Model <ul><li>Situational Leadership Model – how leaders should adjust their leadership style in response situation and condition </li></ul>
  14. 15. Contingency approach <ul><li>Contingency approach – the leader style depend on types of situations, employees, tasks, organization and environment variables </li></ul><ul><li>Leader-member relations – the quality of interaction is the most important influence on the manager’s power </li></ul><ul><li>Task Structure – managers automatically have high power in structure tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Position power is inherent in the formal position </li></ul>