Digital Switchover In Europe Old, David Bradshaw


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Ponencia mostrada en el Seminario TDT. Realizado en Verano de 2009 (Santander)

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  • Most countries have now launched DTT services. Of those that have not, many have announced launch plans for 2009-2010 (Ireland, Slovakia, Poland) Next step is analogue switch-off Process completed in 7 countries while a further 8 countries have started the process. At this stage, almost all countries in the EU have stated that they will abide by the EC’rs recommended deadline of 2012.
  • Figures for end of year. Less importance between number of years since launch of platform and DTT penetration. Why - more information available, more marketing, cheaper STBs Note: difficulty in determining penetration (15% of total number of STBs sold) and issue of second TV sets Increasing coverage is only possible after ASO begins Impressive figures in terms of total receivers sold in 2008: 15 million in Spain (1 million in Dec 08) over 12.5 million receivers sold in the UK in 2008 (estimate 17.8 million homes use DTT services – 71% of all TV households),
  • Terrestrial markets: over 50% (if not more) of population rely on terrestrial platform for primary TV services Mixed markets: mixture of satellite, cable, and terrestrial (no one platform is dominant, terrestrial around 30%) Cable countries: little dependency on terrestrial platform
  • National approach – all viewers benefit simultaneously from the advantages of DSO, all viewers treated equally and given same access to services. This approach depends on achieving desired DTT coverage prior to ASO. If something goes wrong, all suffer equally. Phased shut-off – planners prepare a timetable detailing when ASO will be shut off in various regions across the country. Benefits – lessons learned in one region can be applied to other regions. Should something go wrong, damage is limited to single region. Release frequencies can be re-used in neighboring region to increase DTT coverage / services. The cost and effort of DSO spread out over time
  • Strong marketing by pay-DTT operator KPN (telecom operator) which offers basic DTT package for half of the price of basic cable package
  • Full commercial platform with 3 pay-DTT multiplexes operated by Boxer
  • HD service – 4 free-to-air and 1 pay. Use the DVB-T standard MPEG-4 used for HD and SD pay DTT platform France Numérique includes participation of broadcasters, network operator and government Two DTT pilots completed in Couloumiers (near Paris) and in Kaysersberg (along border with Germany where very short simulcast period). Pilot in Cherbourg (north west) to be completed in November France will have the one of the shortest amount of time for ASO completion (barely two years) in Europe
  • Successful DTT platform and introduction of concept of pre-paid DTT cards Subsidies from government have allowed for high penetration of MHP receivers Switch-off of two channels (RAI Due and Rettequatro) in Rome and in Turino as part of ASO plan. Full platform switch-off in the Autumn
  • Indictors for ASO – published roadmap including a confirmed ASO date, ASO organisation in place including all members of the broadcast industry, sufficient fundign is made available (depending on subsidies given), communications campaign to inform viewers.
  • Phased timetable Driven by engineering considerations Robust and achievable … but a massive engineering project Have to convert 1,154 transmitters 3 regions/ 3 transmitters switched so far Will provide stronger signal allowing 98.5% to receive digital TV
  • Whitehaven = Lead switchover area: critical to learn lessons for the remainder of the programme 25,000 homes in the borough of Copeland 1 main transmitter & 2 relays No Freeview or DTT before switchover Targeted Help Scheme = Anyone 75 and over, severely disabled or registered blind / partially sighted can receive Digital box for one TV Installation (aerial if needed) User support Two thirds Two-thirds pay £40, one-third receive for free (if on income support, income-based job seekers allowance or pension credit)
  • ‘ digital tick’ logo used in all communications with consumers Manufacturers need the digital tick to make Freeview and Freeview + products in the UK Freeview is a non-subscription digital terrestial television service. Freeview offers up to 48 digital TV channels and 24 digital radio stations as well as red button (interactive) content. 17.2 million UK homes were watching digital TV through Freeview by the end of 2008. Freeview + builds on the Freeview requirements to allow features such as recording a series and recording the same programme at a different time or channel to avoid recording conflicts. Freeview+ boxes have reached over 900,000 sales.
  • DTG members include BBC, ITV, Channel 4, Freeview, Freesat, Five, Arqiva, Cisco, Sony, Panasonic, Sky, Virgin Media.
  • The time necessary to upgrade the equipment. In some cases, the changes cannot take place in the winter. Tight schedule is necessary for the upgrades. Issue in the USA where the digital coverage area did not match analogue coverage area. Viewers need to be informed. More frequency planning may be necessary should regulators decide to allocate the upper part of the UHF band to mobile operators Most of the cost of ASO will be borne out by viewers. Most households have more than 1 TV set Viewers must be aware of the process (issue in USA not so much about the date, but about reception and antennas) Receiver issues – must work in the market, sufficient quantities need to be available, tuner mandation in France, Italy, USA to stop the continued sale of analogue TV sets. In the UK, half of all TV sets sold were analogue-only in the first seven months of 2007, Focus necessary for low-income families, elderly households, those with disabilities Some population groups will resist being forced to convert to digital (size of the group, and how vocal, will vary). Generally decreases over time. (500K in 2004, decreased to 150k in 2006)
  • Other handbooks available include: DVB-H, HD/DTT, the evolution of terrestrial networks, study on mobile TV
  • Digital Switchover In Europe Old, David Bradshaw

    1. 1. Digital Switchover in Europe David Bradshaw | La Televisión Digital Terrestre: El futuro ya ha llegado |Santander| 23 June
    2. 2. Digital Switchover in Europe <ul><li>Present status </li></ul><ul><li>Digital penetration in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies and approaches to Switchover </li></ul><ul><li>Some examples </li></ul><ul><li>Market types </li></ul><ul><li>UK experience </li></ul><ul><li>The challenges </li></ul>
    3. 3. Switchover strategies: key factors <ul><li>Size of the terrestrial platform </li></ul><ul><ul><li>most tv households own an average of 2.2 sets and most secondary television sets rely upon the terrestrial platform. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spectrum availability and international issues </li></ul><ul><li>DTT penetration and coverage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As increasing numbers of terrestrially-dependent households convert to digital television services, it becomes feasible to switch off the analogue platform. </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. DSO status in Europe <ul><li>Countries having launched DVB-T </li></ul>Countries completed analogue switch off (ASO) ASO process underway
    5. 5. DTT penetration / coverage DigiTAG figures end 2008 Country Coverage Penetration Yrs launched UK 80% 39% 10 Spain 92% 58% 8 Italy 85% 38% 4 Germany 90% 11% 4 France 87% 35.8% 3
    6. 6. Different DSO strategies
    7. 7. Announced ASO dates Mixed / Cable markets Terrestrial markets Country DTT Launch ASO Date Netherlands 2003 Completed Finland 2001 Completed Sweden 1999 Completed Switzerland 2001 Completed Germany 2002 Completed Belgium, Flemish 2002 Completed Denmark 2006 2009 Norway 2007 2009 Austria 2006 2010 Spain 2000/2005 2010 France 2005 2011 Czech Republic 2005 2011 UK 1998 2012 Italy 2003 2012
    8. 8. Approaches to ASO <ul><li>National shut-off of analogue services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Approach used in the Netherlands, Finland, Andorra, Luxembourg, United States </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(Adequate coverage before ASO) </li></ul><ul><li>Phased shut-off of analogue services </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Approach used in Germany, Italy, Sweden, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Austria, France, Spain and the United Kingdom </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(limited risk, increasing coverage) </li></ul></ul></ul>Photo: DTG
    9. 9. Cable markets <ul><li>The Netherlands </li></ul><ul><li>DTT platform launched in 2003 offering limited free-to-air services from the PSB and extensive pay services from Digitenne </li></ul><ul><li>ASO completed on a single day on 10 December 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Since then, DTT penetration has increased from 3-5% to 11% of the population – and strong growth continuing (role of KPN) </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile television services (DVB-H) also available </li></ul>
    10. 10. Mixed markets <ul><li>Denmark </li></ul><ul><li>Launch of free-to-air DTT services in 2006 and pre-commercial launch of pay-DTT services in 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Full commercial platform to launch after ASO completed </li></ul><ul><li>Free-to-air services currently use MPEG-2 while pay platform will use MPEG-4 AVC </li></ul><ul><li>Analogue switch-off to be completed on a single day on 30 October </li></ul>
    11. 11. Mixed markets <ul><li>Sweden </li></ul><ul><li>Launch of DTT services in 1999 offering a largely pay DTT platform operated by Boxer </li></ul><ul><li>Five phases to switch-off starting in September 2005 and completed in October 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Strong emphasis on communication activities </li></ul><ul><li>40% of viewers waiting until last month to purchase DTT receivers </li></ul>
    12. 12. Terrestrial markets <ul><li>France </li></ul><ul><li>Launch of DTT services in March 2005 offering viewers 18 free-to-air and 9 pay-DTT services </li></ul><ul><li>Five HD/DTT services </li></ul><ul><li>Combination of MPEG-2 and MPEG-4 AVC compression formats </li></ul><ul><li>France Télé Numérique set up to manage analogue switch-off </li></ul><ul><li>Two DTT pilot projects completed and a third underway </li></ul><ul><li>Analogue switch-off starting in </li></ul>2010 for completion by 30 November 2011
    13. 13. Terrestrial markets <ul><li>Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Launch of DTT services in December 2004 offering viewers over 30 free-to-air services and pre-paid DTT services </li></ul><ul><li>High penetration of MHP receivers </li></ul><ul><li>Analogue switch-off pilots completed in Sardinia & Aoste </li></ul><ul><li>Partial ASO completed in Turin and Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Analogue switch-off to be completed by 2012 </li></ul>2009 2010 2011 2012 2008
    14. 14. Terrestrial market: Italy Technical Areas and Households Involved Switch-off Date Technical Areas Households in DSO % of comulated digital HH referred to total Italian HH 2008 <ul><li>Sardinia </li></ul>0.66 Mn 3% 2009 <ul><li>Aosta Valley, western Piedmont, Trentino e Alto Adige, Lazio, Campania </li></ul>6.65 Mn 30% 2010 <ul><li>Eastern Piedmont, Lombardia, Emilia Romagna, Veneto, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Liguria </li></ul>9.98 Mn 68% 2011 <ul><li>Marche, Abruzzo, Molise, Basilicata, Puglia </li></ul>3.61 Mn 81% 2012 <ul><li>Tuscany, Umbria, Sicily, Calabria </li></ul>4.94 Mn 100%
    15. 15. Factors for success <ul><li>Confirmed ASO date and roadmap </li></ul><ul><li>Setting up an organisation to lead DSO and with cooperation of full broadcast chain </li></ul><ul><li>Sufficient financial resources </li></ul><ul><li>Communications campaign to inform viewers </li></ul>
    16. 16. Digital Switchover in the UK The Consumer Expert Group The Platform Advisory Group Policy and Regulation Advisory Groups Implementation
    17. 17. Digital Switchover in the UK <ul><li>Digital UK launched April 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Switchover started in Copeland on 17 October 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Next major switchover at Manchester this autumn </li></ul><ul><li>50% of the UK switches by end 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Completed in 2012 </li></ul>
    18. 18. UK Switchover Timetable <ul><li>15 TV Regions </li></ul><ul><li>60+ main transmitters (each switches on a different date) </li></ul><ul><li>1,100+ relay transmitters </li></ul><ul><li>88.8% of UK households own a digital TV (Ofcom's Digital Progress Report Q4 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Switchover will increase coverage to 98.5% (equivalent to analogue today) </li></ul>
    19. 19. <ul><li>May 2006 - Border region launched </li></ul><ul><li>July - Whitehaven pilot agreed by Digital UK </li></ul><ul><li>August - Whitehaven residents informed by post </li></ul><ul><li>April 2007 - On-screen captions start </li></ul><ul><li>July - Booklet to all homes </li></ul><ul><li>August - Help Scheme launched </li></ul><ul><li>17 Oct - BBC 2 analogue switched off </li></ul><ul><li>14 Nov - BBC1, ITV1, Channel 4 analogue switched off </li></ul>Whitehaven Switchover
    20. 20. Switchover Products A product or service that is designed to work before, during and after switchover A product that can receive digital services from the Freeview UK platform. A digital TV recorder that can receive and record Freeview content accurately.
    21. 21. Digital TV Group (DTG) <ul><li>Industry association for digital television in the UK </li></ul><ul><li>Not-for-profit organization, funded by its membership </li></ul><ul><li>Platform neutral </li></ul><ul><li>Technology agnostic </li></ul><ul><li>Based in London, UK </li></ul><ul><li>Representing a worldwide membership </li></ul><ul><li>Publishes and maintains the D-Book: the technical requirements for interoperability for the UK digital terrestrial TV market </li></ul><ul><li>Manages the industry’s test centre: DTG Testing </li></ul>
    22. 22. DTG Testing <ul><li>Comprehensive Test and Conformance Regime </li></ul><ul><li>Development of test materials </li></ul><ul><li>Management of engineering channel for over air downloads </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive application testing </li></ul><ul><li>Receiver ‘Zoo’ </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    23. 23. Key challenges of digital switchover <ul><li>Technical issues – size of the conversion task </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analogue transmitters to be replaced with digital equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New frequency planning, new frequencies for many transmitters, coverage issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protecting analogue services during transition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consumer issues – information & acceptance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>COST (new receivers, receiving antennas, etc) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical information must be available (i.e. DTT coverage areas) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Receiver issues – consumer confidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulties for certain population groups to adopt new technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital refusniks – do not want a government imposition </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. And in the future... <ul><li>ASO </li></ul><ul><li>Launch of HD/DTT services? </li></ul><ul><li>Conversion to MPEG-4 AVC? </li></ul><ul><li>Conversion to DVB-T2? </li></ul><ul><li>Will there be further switchovers? </li></ul>
    25. 25. DigiTAG ASO Handbook For more information download the DigiTAG 2008 handbook on analogue switch-off at