Southampton Institutional
Research Repository
University Medical School Librarians Group (UMSLG)
7-8 July 2005
University ...
National Oceanography Centre,
Southampton
NOC is one of the world’s leading centres
for research and education in marine a...
Multidisciplinary University
(20 schools)
• Engineering, Science and Mathematics
• Law, Arts and Social Sciences
• Medicin...
Faculty of Medicine,
Health and Life Sciences
• School of Biological Sciences
• School of Health Professions and Rehab
Sci...
Outline
• Open Access Context
• OA Routes : publishing and repositories
• Southampton case study
Open Access
• Open-access (OA) literature is digital, online, free of charge, and
free of most copyright and licensing res...
Historical Context:
Subversive Proposal (1994)
• 27 Jun 1994 Stevan Harnad’s ‘Subversive Proposal’ leading to
the open acc...
But journals become more
and more expensive (serials crisis)
• journals are the primary research publication channel
• jou...
The Global Journals Problem
-20%
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
120%
140%
160%
91-92 92-93 93-94 94-95 95-96 96-97 97-98 98-99 99...
PROJECTED
PERIODICAL
PRICE
INCREASES
TO
2020
(Blixrud 2002)
1774 %
1986-2000
Journal price
inflation +291%
Retail price in...
The Situation Today –
Dissatisfaction at All Levels
• Authors
• Their work is not seen by all their peers – they do not
ge...
Solution –
alter the research landscape
Open Access to Research
freely accessible, more visible, immediately available,
fr...
Open Access –
gaining high level support
Political Interest:
– UK Science and Technology Committee Inquiry:
Scientific Pub...
Open Access –
gaining high level support
US Congress working with National Institutes of Health (NIH) to develop
new acces...
Open Access –
gaining high level support
• The Wellcome Trust announced (May 2005) that
from 1st October 2005, all papers ...
Reflects the view of 8 research councils (28 Jun 2005)
Mandate
• Research Grants awarded from 1 October 2005 will require
...
RCUK
Next steps
RCUK Position Statement published on the RCUK
website on 28 June 2005
Remains a consultative document unti...
Open access –
gaining high level support
Funders indicate commitment to open access through
endorsement
• Howard Hughes & ...
Open Access –
gaining high level support
• Organisation for Economic Co-operation and
Development (OECD)
‘Promoting Access...
Declarations on Open Access
• Peter Suber - Timeline of the Open Access Movement -
http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/time...
Budapest Open Access Initiative
2002
Open Society Institute (George Soros) offered funding to achieve
Two complementary st...
Open Access Journals
Ideally
• Peer reviewed articles
• Accessed online without charge
• No author/page charges
• Publishe...
Theory Into Practice -
Open Access Journals
• PLoS Biology (launched October 2003)
and PLoS Medicine (launched October 200...
The alternative :
Repositories (open archives, e-Print archives)
JISC Report ‘Delivery, Management and Access Model for e-...
Repository benefits
• For the Individual
Provide a central archive of their work
Increase the dissemination and impact of ...
Repository Choices
• Institutions
• Departments
• Disciplines
• Long term projects
• Funding Agencies
• Conferences
• Publ...
Discipline based repositories
• Early e-Print services subject based and hosted by a
single institution. Rely on distribut...
Institutional Repositories
contents of these archives are created and stored locally in an archive
specific to and limited...
National Repositories
• Service Provider (national aggregator)
• EPrints UK – harvesting from all UK
repositories (enhanci...
Centralised: regionally- or nationally-organised, or
subject-based contents are created in individual
member institutions ...
OAI Gateway Specification –
Static Repository
• Institutions that do not have an OAI repository can utilise the newly
deve...
Repositories:
a truly global movement
• Australian National University ARROW Project - Au$12
million
• Canada – CARL Proje...
UK Context
• HEFCE / JISC Focus on Access to Institutional
Resources (FAIR) 2002 - 2005
– To support the disclosure of ins...
? why INSTITUTIONAL
Repositories
• Subject or project repositories often linked to an individual or a group
– can be trans...
UK Context - FAIR
JISC FAIR Programme August 2002 -
• £3 million on 14 projects
• Clusters:
• Museums and Images
• e-Print...
FAIR - ePrints Cluster
• Sharing experiences :
• SHERPA: broader - Consortium of University Research Libraries – filling
a...
TARDis built on Southampton
visions
• EPrints software had been created at School of Electronics and
Computer Science (ECS...
TARDis : Targeting Academic Resources
for Deposit and Dissemination – activities
Investigating practical ways in which uni...
TARDis evolution to e-Prints Soton
• Original intent to provide secure storage for the full
text of Southampton research o...
e-Prints Soton evolution: aiming
for full moon at midnight
•Target – academ ic research
•Creation of e-Prints Soton
•Initi...
Environmental Audit - assessing
current practice
Department
Total number
of publications
listed on Web
Full text on
Web
Pe...
Institutional Repository –
Advocacy
• Advocacy needs to be intensive, constant : enthusiast
with network and presentation ...
Institutional Repositories –
author surveys
• JISC/OSI Journal Authors Survey (3000 researchers)
– 69% would deposit in IR...
Institutional Repository –
Copyright (incl IPR)
Rapidly changing publishers attitudes - moving goalposts!
• Traditionally ...
Policy into Practice (1)
• The Name!
• Mandatory Use – dovetailing with present working practices
• Scope - What to deposi...
Policy into Practice (2)
• Value Added – e-journal URL and abstract
• Full Text v Record – policy linked to Southampton ne...
Legal Issues
• Deposit Agreement and User Agreement
Legal documents?
Acceptance by click or proceeding through
- Withdrawa...
Policy into Practice - lessons
• Choose optimum time to introduce
- Southampton restructuring
• Interface aesthetics - loo...
Institutional Repository –
support
• Staff Support / Maintenance (2-3 FTE)
- Technical
• Upgrades, interface, functionalit...
Feedback: Perceived benefits to University,
Schools and Researchers
• University profile
• School and
discipline visibilit...
Achieving a slower but more
sustainable model – the TARDis road
•Target– academicresearch
•Creationofe-PrintsSoton
•Initia...
Southampton Press Release 15
Dec 2004
University funded service managed by the
University Library
'We see our Institutiona...
Researchers want to provide
one record
• For many purposes …..
• External and internal visibility
Showing benefit of high profile
Global Web Search Engines -
indexed by Google and Google Scholar and SCOPUS …
Global repository search –
OAIster now partnered with Yahoo
Link to personal web pages –
auto update
Share the glory (interdisciplinary
papers) and sell your book too
Secure storage and visibility –
branding for a research group
Adding more functionality with ‘Latest
feeds’ – by web site and screen at entrance
Screen in foyer – is my paper
there?
Hot off the screen
RAE management potential
Simpson,PaulineandHey,Jessie(2005)Forwardintime:TARDisandtheRAE.JISCInform,No.8,p.16.
http://epri...
Select your Research Assessment
Exercise choices
Add measures of esteem
Data available to Head of School
New JISC Project to design RAE
module for use within EPrints
and DSpace software
Then (2002) and Now (2005)
• Open Access little known
–High level support
–Open access publishing
–Open access repositorie...
Scholarly knowledge cycle –
a national vision - today:
Learning&
Teaching
workflows
Research&
e-Science
workflows
Aggregat...
Next phase includes building
on TARDis (sequel)
•TARDis completed its transition to invisibility early in
2005
–PRESERV (P...
THANK YOU
Pauline Simpson
TARDis Project Manager
(ps @noc.soton.ac.uk)
Simpson2005
Simpson2005
Simpson2005
Simpson2005
Simpson2005
Simpson2005
Simpson2005
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Simpson2005

  1. 1. Southampton Institutional Research Repository University Medical School Librarians Group (UMSLG) 7-8 July 2005 University of Edinburgh Pauline Simpson
  2. 2. National Oceanography Centre, Southampton NOC is one of the world’s leading centres for research and education in marine and earth sciences, for the development of marine technology and for the provision of large scale infrastructure and support for the marine research community Joint Venture between Natural Environment Research Council and the University of Southampton Research-led multidisciplinary university: 20,000 students 5000 staff (3000 researchers)
  3. 3. Multidisciplinary University (20 schools) • Engineering, Science and Mathematics • Law, Arts and Social Sciences • Medicine, Health and Life Sciences • Centres/Institutes • Joint Ventures • Professional Services
  4. 4. Faculty of Medicine, Health and Life Sciences • School of Biological Sciences • School of Health Professions and Rehab Sciences • School of Medicine • School of Nursing and Midwifery • School of Psychology • Health Care Innovation Unit.
  5. 5. Outline • Open Access Context • OA Routes : publishing and repositories • Southampton case study
  6. 6. Open Access • Open-access (OA) literature is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. • OA should be immediate, rather than delayed, and OA should apply to the full-text, not just to abstracts or summaries. • OA removes price barriers (subscriptions, licensing fees, pay-per- view fees) and permission barriers (most copyright and licensing restrictions). See JISC briefing paper on Open Access April 2005 http://www.jisc.ac.uk/index.cfm?name=pub_openaccess
  7. 7. Historical Context: Subversive Proposal (1994) • 27 Jun 1994 Stevan Harnad’s ‘Subversive Proposal’ leading to the open access vision for scholarly material ( “Faustian Bargain” with publishers – a price tag barrier to research) – Harnad, S. (1995) A Subversive Proposal. In: Ann Okerson & James O'Donnell (Eds.) Scholarly Journals at the Crossroads: a Subversive Proposal for Electronic Publishing. Washington, DC., Association of Research Libraries, June 1995. http://www.ecs.soton.ac.uk/~harnad/subvert.html http://www.arl.org/scomm/subversive/toc.html – In an ideal world of scholarly communication – all research should be freely available
  8. 8. But journals become more and more expensive (serials crisis) • journals are the primary research publication channel • journal publishing is dominated by commercial ventures • Researchers write papers for journals (free or page charges!) • Researchers transfer copyright to publishers (free) • Researchers on Editorial Board (free) • Researchers review papers (free) BUT • Libraries pay huge subscriptions to publishers to access the paper(and electronic) and universities pay more than once: subscription, photocopying license and for study packs • Or possibly they cannot afford the subscription
  9. 9. The Global Journals Problem -20% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120% 140% 160% 91-92 92-93 93-94 94-95 95-96 96-97 97-98 98-99 99-00 00-01 Journal price index Current serials Journal expenditure Book price index Books acquired Book expenditure Retail Price index • Dissatisfaction with the current scholarly communication model • Even the wealthiest institution cannot purchase access to all the information that all of its researchers require • Site-licenses and consortia deals have helped, but mainly in the richest countries; though good examples of deals for developing countries (INASP) • Many commercial publishers charge extra for online access – so causing more pressure on budgets
  10. 10. PROJECTED PERIODICAL PRICE INCREASES TO 2020 (Blixrud 2002) 1774 % 1986-2000 Journal price inflation +291% Retail price index + 70% 1986-2000 Journal price inflation +291% Retail price index + 70%
  11. 11. The Situation Today – Dissatisfaction at All Levels • Authors • Their work is not seen by all their peers – they do not get the recognition they desire • Despite subscriptions, they often have to pay page charges, colour figure charges, reprint charges, etc. • Often the rights they have given up in exchange for publication mean there are things that they cannot do with their own work • Readers • They cannot view all the research literature they need – they are less effective • Libraries • Cannot satisfy the information needs of their users • Society • We all lose out if the communication channels are not optimal.
  12. 12. Solution – alter the research landscape Open Access to Research freely accessible, more visible, immediately available, free at the point of use 2 complementary routes – Open access journals • No payment by author = open access or subscription • Publishing model – author pays = OA – Open access archives or repositories • Author deposit of full text of articles, conference papers, reports, theses, learning objects, multimedia etc. - Scoped by need
  13. 13. Open Access – gaining high level support Political Interest: – UK Science and Technology Committee Inquiry: Scientific Publications: Free for all? Jun 2004 (82 recommendations) • Require that authors deposit a copy of their articles in their institution’s repository within one month of publication. • Review copyright and, provided it does not have a negative impact make it a condition of grant that authors retain copyright in their papers. • Provide as part of research grants, monies to allow payment of charges for publication in Open Access journals Institutional Repositories – UK HEIs to set up IRs – Response – up to institutions – British Library to be supported to provide digital preservation http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm/cmsctech.htm
  14. 14. Open Access – gaining high level support US Congress working with National Institutes of Health (NIH) to develop new access policy (Feb 2005) – Copies of all papers reporting research funded by NIH ($28 billion) will be deposited in PubMed Central by date specified by the author as soon as possible after acceptance of final peer reviewed manuscript (and within 12 months of the publisher's official date of final publication) Approximately 60,000 papers each year will be made freely available http://grants1.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/NOT-OD-04-064.html
  15. 15. Open Access – gaining high level support • The Wellcome Trust announced (May 2005) that from 1st October 2005, all papers from new research projects must be deposited in PubMed Central or a UK PubMed Central – once it has been formed - within 6 months of publication. • Looking for partners to set up UK PubMed Central • £400 million producing 3500 papers per year • (PubMed Central Feb 2000 - )
  16. 16. Reflects the view of 8 research councils (28 Jun 2005) Mandate • Research Grants awarded from 1 October 2005 will require grant holders to copy any resultant published journal articles or conference proceedings in an appropriate e-print repository either institutional or thematic • Subject to copyright and licensing arrangements • Wherever possible at or around the time of publication • No obligation to set up a repository where none exists at present • Will allow applicants to include predicted cost of publication in author-pays journals in fEC project costings
  17. 17. RCUK Next steps RCUK Position Statement published on the RCUK website on 28 June 2005 Remains a consultative document until 31 August 2005 while: • The remaining HEI responses are collected • Formal comments from the British Library are awaited • RCUK engages in detailed dialogue with the Learned Societies on a possible future role for them in the peer review process • Continue in a wider grouping to address other concerns eg Preservation
  18. 18. Open access – gaining high level support Funders indicate commitment to open access through endorsement • Howard Hughes & Andrew Mellon Foundations in USA fund OA/IR Projects – Berlin Declaration in Support of Open Access 2003 Germany: Fraunhofer Society, Wissenschaftsrat, HRK, Max Planck Society, Leibniz Association, Helmholtz Association, German Research Foundation, Deutscher Bibliotheksverband France: CNRS, INSERM Austria: FWF Der Wissenschaftsfonds Belgium: Fonds voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek – Vlaanderen) Greece: National Hellenic Research Foundation
  19. 19. Open Access – gaining high level support • Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) ‘Promoting Access to Public Research Data for Scientific, Economic, and Social Development ‘ ‘…an optimum international exchange of data, information and knowledge contributes decisively to the advancement of scientific research and innovation’ and ‘…open access will maximise the value derived from public investment in data collection efforts.’ http://dataaccess.ucsd.edu/Final_Report_2003.pdf *** 30+ nations have signed
  20. 20. Declarations on Open Access • Peter Suber - Timeline of the Open Access Movement - http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/timeline.htm • The IFLA Statement on Open Access to Scholarly Literature and Research Documentation http://www.ifla.org/V/cdoc/open-access04.html • Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities (Max Planck) (Oct 2003) Now nearly 50 signatories • Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing (Jun 2003) • Buenos Aires • British Columbia • Scotland (2005) 16 Universities and Research Orgs • Russell Group (UK Universities) 2005 • Budapest Open Access Initiative Feb 2002 (Soros Open Society)
  21. 21. Budapest Open Access Initiative 2002 Open Society Institute (George Soros) offered funding to achieve Two complementary strategies: • Self-Archiving: Scholars should be able to deposit their refereed journal articles in open electronic archives which conform to Open Archives Initiative standards - OAI Metadata Harvesting Protocol which creates potential for interoperability between Repositories by enabling metadata from a number of archives to be collected together in one searchable database. • Open-Access Journals: Journals will not charge subscriptions or fees for online access. Instead, they should look to other sources to fund peer-review and publication (e.g., publication charges)
  22. 22. Open Access Journals Ideally • Peer reviewed articles • Accessed online without charge • No author/page charges • Publisher’s model – No Author payment = subscription (‘toll’) access – Author pays – open access • BioMed Central - $500 per article • Public Library of Science - $1500 • National Academy Of Sciences - $1000 • American Institute of Physics - $2000 • European Geosciences Union - $20 per page
  23. 23. Theory Into Practice - Open Access Journals • PLoS Biology (launched October 2003) and PLoS Medicine (launched October 2004) • BioMed Central (published 4500+ papers) and now cited in ISI journals building Impact Factors • New Journal of Physics • Indian Academy of Sciences (Learned Society) has made their 11 journals available free online • Lund Directory of Open Access Journals – over 1641 peer review open access journals (http://www.doaj.org/)
  24. 24. The alternative : Repositories (open archives, e-Print archives) JISC Report ‘Delivery, Management and Access Model for e-Prints and open access journals … (Jul 2004) makes distinction - e-Print Archives = material in journals; e-Print Repositories = grey literature and other data as well as published journal materials • Digital collections of research output placed there by their authors, either before or after publication: What are the essential elements? • Institutionally , subject or nationally defined: Content generated by the community • Scholarly content:, published articles, books, book sections, preprints and working papers, conference papers, enduring teaching materials, student theses, data-sets, etc. • Cumulative & perpetual: preserve ongoing access to material • Interoperable & open access: free, online, global
  25. 25. Repository benefits • For the Individual Provide a central archive of their work Increase the dissemination and impact of their research Acts as a full CV and research reporting tool • For the Institution Increases visibility and prestige Acts as an advertisement to funding sources, potential new faculty and students, etc. • For Society Provide access to the world’s research Ensures long-term preservation of institutes’ academic output
  26. 26. Repository Choices • Institutions • Departments • Disciplines • Long term projects • Funding Agencies • Conferences • Publishers • Personal • National • International (Internet Archive – ‘Universal’ ) • Data Archives Institutional Archives Registry http://archives.eprints.org/ Directory of Open Access Repositories – Lund University and Nottingham University UK
  27. 27. Discipline based repositories • Early e-Print services subject based and hosted by a single institution. Rely on distributed researchers remotely depositing their papers using the self archiving protocol – ArXiv (Los Alamos now at Cornell) (1991) set up by Paul Ginsparg and Richard Luce for high energy physics community ( now physics incl Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, Math, Computing Science and nonlinear science). • Despite success of Los Alamos and others - RePec (Economics), Cogprints (Cognitive Psychology), Mathematics, etc – varying success by other subject communities (Chemistry Preprints Server finished)
  28. 28. Institutional Repositories contents of these archives are created and stored locally in an archive specific to and limited to one institution. • 2000 - Complementary model - Offering both self archiving and mediated archiving to researchers – Institutions can provide the supporting technical, organisational and cultural infrastructure – Direct interest in exposing their research output – Promote the institutions research profile
  29. 29. National Repositories • Service Provider (national aggregator) • EPrints UK – harvesting from all UK repositories (enhancing metadata using OCLC Automated Subject Classification protocol and name authority service)
  30. 30. Centralised: regionally- or nationally-organised, or subject-based contents are created in individual member institutions which upload to one centralised one • DARE, the Dutch Digital Academic Archives This is a collaborative venture between all Dutch universities (http://www.surf.nl). • ODINPubAfrica = National, Subject repository for the ocean data and information community in Africa. Deposits to one central repository https://doclib.luc.ac.be/odin )
  31. 31. OAI Gateway Specification – Static Repository • Institutions that do not have an OAI repository can utilise the newly developed OAI gateway specification. • This development is intended to lower the barriers to making metadata available through the OAI. It works on the basic principle that metadata can be encoded in an XML file (conforming to a specific schema) and mounted of a standard web site, e.g. an author’s or institution’s home page. This file is known as a static repository. • The URL of the static repository can be registered with an entity known as a ‘static repository gateway’. The gateway reads the metadata file and incorporates it into a fully compliant OAI-PMH service that can subsequently respond to OAI requests. • The idea is that metadata can be made available from standard web sites and Incorporated into an OAI environment.
  32. 32. Repositories: a truly global movement • Australian National University ARROW Project - Au$12 million • Canada – CARL Project (DEST) • Netherlands – DARE Project (SURF) • Hong Kong University • Humboldt University in Berlin • Max Planck Society • Utrecht, Lund, • MIT, CalTech, Library of Congress • UK – JISC FAIR Project - UK – Glasgow, Nottingham, Edinburgh, Southampton, Oxford, Cambridge, Bristol ….. nb. Led by Librarians
  33. 33. UK Context • HEFCE / JISC Focus on Access to Institutional Resources (FAIR) 2002 - 2005 – To support the disclosure of institutional assets: To support access to and sharing of institutional content within Higher Education and Further Education and to allow intelligence to be gathered about the technical, organisational and cultural challenges of these processes… Inspired by the vision of the Open Archives Initiative (OAI) that digital resources can be shared between organisations based on a simple mechanism allowing metadata about these resources to be harvested into services
  34. 34. ? why INSTITUTIONAL Repositories • Subject or project repositories often linked to an individual or a group – can be transitory - collection at risk eg. Paul Ginsparg to Cornell • Institutions take responsibility for – Centralising a distributed activity – Framework and Infrastructure – Permanence that can sustain changes – Stewardship of digital assets – Preservation – Provide central digital showcase for the research, teaching and scholarship of the institution
  35. 35. UK Context - FAIR JISC FAIR Programme August 2002 - • £3 million on 14 projects • Clusters: • Museums and Images • e-Prints • e-theses • IPR • Institutional portals (New Call for Digital Repositories Proposals in Feb & Jun 2005)
  36. 36. FAIR - ePrints Cluster • Sharing experiences : • SHERPA: broader - Consortium of University Research Libraries – filling archives and joint infrastructure ( some 20 universities led by Nottingham University) • HaIRST: A testbed for Scotland for harvesting Institutional resources led by Strathclyde University (includes 10 FE colleges) • Daedalus : Glasgow University • ePrints-UK :harvesting UK e-Print archives • (E-Theses led by Robert Gordon University & Theses Alive led by Edinburgh University and RoMEo worked within this cluster) • TARDis: Targeting Academic Resources for Deposit and Dissemination
  37. 37. TARDis built on Southampton visions • EPrints software had been created at School of Electronics and Computer Science (ECS), Southampton to enable the self archive vision • ECS already used the software for a publications database – now a sustainable repository • National Oceanography Centre was an early adopter of e-Prints culture • Resulting TARDis Project is the collaboration of The University Library, School of Electronics and Computer Science, and Information Systems Services alongside academics as one institution
  38. 38. TARDis : Targeting Academic Resources for Deposit and Dissemination – activities Investigating practical ways in which university research output can be made more freely available - more accessible, more rapidly – as a fundamental building block of e-Research • Creating an IR model - Southampton University Research e-Prints (e-Prints Soton) http://eprints.soton.ac.uk • Refining Software - feeding back into pioneering EPrints software, good citation and information management practice experimenting with best balance of assisted deposit and fast track (functionality, fields, interface) • Supporting ease of use for depositors of different backgrounds with a wide variety of research output – essential ingredient, working closely with ‘schools’(found that depends so much on publication culture and working practices ) – identifying barriers
  39. 39. TARDis evolution to e-Prints Soton • Original intent to provide secure storage for the full text of Southampton research output (including post refereed pre published versions of papers deposited by researchers) • Feedback: from our advocacy, pilot and full service was that e-Prints Soton would provide maximum benefit if the service also assisted researchers with time consuming research metrics • Evolved to ‘hybrid’ publications database for all research output with full text where available
  40. 40. e-Prints Soton evolution: aiming for full moon at midnight •Target – academ ic research •Creation of e-Prints Soton •Initial Advocacy •Environm ental audit •Softw are redesign for IR •M ediation offered •Project cluster collaboration Institutional Research Repository Full text only Institutional Research R epository with full text where possible Institutional Research Repository with RAE m anagem ent Full Text e-Print Research Archives •Pilot and Feedback: One record – m any outputs Saving academ ics’ tim e •Policy and strategy change •Redirection to Southam pton University Publications Database •Targeted Advocacy Open Access Vision EPrints Software JISC FAIR Program m e Research Policy Com m ittees University, Faculty and Schools Pilot Schools Research Reporting Requirem ents: University, National, International •Dem onstrate potential of IR as RAE tool •Im port existing m etadata •Collaborate w ith researchers to encourage proactive input •Address authentication and branding issues •Develop extra functionality •M oving tow ards sustainable open access institutional repository •Proactive open access culture •Integrated research discovery – enriched resources: m ultim edia, datasets Open Access Paradigm Shift Other Institutional Repositories e-Research 3 4 1 2
  41. 41. Environmental Audit - assessing current practice Department Total number of publications listed on Web Full text on Web Percentage of Publications with full text Faculty of Law, Arts and Social Sciences Archaeology 252 2 1% English 243 3 1% Modern Languages 160 0 0% Music 280 5 2% Politics 138 6 4% Economics 357 89 25% Maths Education 170 34 20% Faculty of Medicine, Health and Life Sciences Biology 796 24 3% Medicine 1603 247 15% Health Professions and Rehabilitation Sciences 332 0 0% Nursing and Midwifery 439 0 0% Faculty of Engineering, Science and Mathematics Chemistry 1128 111 10% Electronics and Computer Science 7008 866 12% Mathematical Studies 849 310 37% Ocean Circulation and Climate Group, SOES 286 9 3% James Rennell Division, SOC 792 68 9%
  42. 42. Institutional Repository – Advocacy • Advocacy needs to be intensive, constant : enthusiast with network and presentation and debating skills, sensitive to organization/school culture • Medicine – Already use web pages – Already use PubMed – Already have their own publications database – Download – Require sophistication of software before depositing • Authentication, versioning – Only refereed articles • Open access journal article discussion (BioMed) – RAE driver • Nursing and Midwifery – Keyed in 4 years data within a month
  43. 43. Institutional Repositories – author surveys • JISC/OSI Journal Authors Survey (3000 researchers) – 69% would deposit in IR if required by employer – 3% would not be prepared to do so – 66% thought archiving in IR important – 60% thought publishers should allow it – 75% authors not familiar with IRs – advocacy needed! SOUTHAMPTON SURVEY – 93% prefer mediated deposit!! • Researchers have many concerns : • Discipline differences • workload, status quo; content quality control; authentication, versioning control and of course Copyright
  44. 44. Institutional Repository – Copyright (incl IPR) Rapidly changing publishers attitudes - moving goalposts! • Traditionally authors sign over copyright, whether they own it or not! • As a guide traditional copyright agreements have not allowed authors to: – Reuse an article as a chapter in a book – Revise or adapt an article – Distribute an article to colleagues – Reproduce copies of an article for teaching purposes – Self archive/make available an article in an repository – But now 76% of journals allow deposit in institutional repositories – places to check • Publishers Copyright policies database http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo.php – Publishers who permit self archiving – dynamic search http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo.php?colour=green • Journals Copyright Policies http://romeo.eprints.org/stats.php.
  45. 45. Policy into Practice (1) • The Name! • Mandatory Use – dovetailing with present working practices • Scope - What to deposit - all Research Output, excluding learning objects or administrative documents (at present). Current research or legacy? • Who can Deposit – what size of footprint? • Database- one for ease of maintenance (Nottingham x 2; Glasgow x 3) • Software – multiple choices - OSI Directory of IR Software Essential technical support : customization, functionality • Deposit Options– we offer choice : self, assisted and fast track deposit • Mandatory Metadata fields– document dependent - sufficient for citation but too many = barrier to deposit • Metadata quality– all data is validated. Institutional responsibility requires quality data. QA is labour intensive – what level? Submitted data often poor
  46. 46. Policy into Practice (2) • Value Added – e-journal URL and abstract • Full Text v Record – policy linked to Southampton needs, requests for copies • Import Records – from subject repositories - arXiv, PubMed Central • - from in house publication databases • File Formats – accept a variety – discipline specific, but thinking about easy dissemination versus preservation. • File Conversion - Word into pdf, but wish to add conversion tools to interface with guidance for depositors • Digitization – offer scanning for illustrations not held electronically if text deposited • Preservation - secure storage is offered.
  47. 47. Legal Issues • Deposit Agreement and User Agreement Legal documents? Acceptance by click or proceeding through - Withdrawal of records - Quality assurance - not of content appoint editors within research groups - IPR • Important to link with your Legal Affairs Office
  48. 48. Policy into Practice - lessons • Choose optimum time to introduce - Southampton restructuring • Interface aesthetics - look and feel is important • Metadata quality is a huge issue • Assisted deposit is time consuming • Sophisticated software functionality expectations by researchers • Need Champions within your organization ….. • Dedicated Technical, Advocacy & Admin support
  49. 49. Institutional Repository – support • Staff Support / Maintenance (2-3 FTE) - Technical • Upgrades, interface, functionality – Information Managers • Advocacy, copyright advice, metadata guidance (School Liaison Librarians) – Administrative • Metadata validation, workflows, documentation, quality assurance ( Institutional Repository implies guarantee of quality) Nb. Researcher self deposit is the goal
  50. 50. Feedback: Perceived benefits to University, Schools and Researchers • University profile • School and discipline visibility • Researcher profile • Full text content freely accessible • link to learning and teaching • Increased citations • Secure storage of publications – including also theses and dissertations, technical reports • Links to projects and web pages • Research reporting • Interdisciplinary research Articles freely available online are more highly cited. For greater impact and faster scientific progress, authors and publishers should aim to make research easy to access Nature, Volume 411, Number 6837, p. 521, 2001 Steve Lawrence “Online or Invisible?”
  51. 51. Achieving a slower but more sustainable model – the TARDis road •Target– academicresearch •Creationofe-PrintsSoton •InitialAdvocacy •Environmentalaudit •SoftwareredesignforIR •Mediationoffered •Projectcluster collaboration InstitutionalResearch Repository Full textonly Institutional ResearchRepository withfull text wherepossible Institutional Research Repository withRAEmanagement FullText e-PrintResearchArchives •PilotandFeedback: Onerecord–manyoutputs Savingacademics’time •Policyandstrategychange •Redirectionto SouthamptonUniversity PublicationsDatabase •TargetedAdvocacy OpenAccessVision EPrintsSoftware JISCFAIRProgramme ResearchPolicyCommittees University,FacultyandSchools PilotSchools ResearchReporting Requirements: University,National,International •Demonstratepotentialof IRas RAEtool •Importexistingmetadata •Collaboratewithresearchers toencourageproactiveinput •Addressauthenticationand brandingissues •Developextrafunctionality •Movingtowardssustainable openaccessinstitutional repository •Proactiveopenaccess culture •Integratedresearch discovery – enrichedresources: multimedia,datasets OpenAccessParadigmShift OtherInstitutionalRepositories e-Research 3 4 1 2 •To achieve the original vision we are moving around the clock face •Collaborating with academics to provide tailored valued services for different disciplines (needing extra functionality) •Aided by a fast moving shared international movement All rising to great place is by a winding stair Francis Bacon
  52. 52. Southampton Press Release 15 Dec 2004 University funded service managed by the University Library 'We see our Institutional Repository as a key tool for the stewardship of the University's digital research assets,' said Professor Paul Curran, Deputy Vice-Chancellor of the University. 'It will provide greater access to our research, as well as offering a valuable mechanism for reporting and recording it.’
  53. 53. Researchers want to provide one record • For many purposes ….. • External and internal visibility
  54. 54. Showing benefit of high profile Global Web Search Engines - indexed by Google and Google Scholar and SCOPUS …
  55. 55. Global repository search – OAIster now partnered with Yahoo
  56. 56. Link to personal web pages – auto update
  57. 57. Share the glory (interdisciplinary papers) and sell your book too
  58. 58. Secure storage and visibility – branding for a research group
  59. 59. Adding more functionality with ‘Latest feeds’ – by web site and screen at entrance
  60. 60. Screen in foyer – is my paper there?
  61. 61. Hot off the screen
  62. 62. RAE management potential Simpson,PaulineandHey,Jessie(2005)Forwardintime:TARDisandtheRAE.JISCInform,No.8,p.16. http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/14522/ Simpson, Pauline and Hey, Jessie (2005) Forward in time: TARDis and the RAE. JISC Inform, No. 8, p.16. http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/14522/
  63. 63. Select your Research Assessment Exercise choices
  64. 64. Add measures of esteem
  65. 65. Data available to Head of School New JISC Project to design RAE module for use within EPrints and DSpace software
  66. 66. Then (2002) and Now (2005) • Open Access little known –High level support –Open access publishing –Open access repositories • Authors non acceptance –surveys • Copyright transfer –License to Publish • Publishers –Changing policies –New publishing models • Software, few options –Multiple, open source • Funders no support –Mandate deposit
  67. 67. Scholarly knowledge cycle – a national vision - today: Learning& Teaching workflows Research& e-Science workflows Aggregator services: national, commercial Repositories: institutional, e-prints, subject, data, learningobjects Datacuration: databases&databanks Institutional presentation services: portals, Learning Management Systems, u/g, p/g courses, modules Validation Harvesting metadata Datacreation/ capture/ gathering: laboratory experiments, Grids, fieldwork, surveys, media Resource discovery, linking, embedding Deposit / self- archiving Peer-reviewed publications: journals, conferenceproceedings Publication Validation Dataanalysis, transformation, mining, modelling Resource discovery, linking, embedding Deposit / self- archiving Learningobject creation, re-use Searching, harvesting, embedding Quality assurance bodies Validation Presentationservices: subject, media-specific, data, commercial portals Resource discovery, linking, embedding Linking e-Prints + data + e-learning When data and documents will be linked automatically and easily accessible They will be an integral part of the academic work space just as the World Wide Web is today The Web will acquire meaning and become the Semantic Web Open Archive protocols and metadata standards are a part of this journey
  68. 68. Next phase includes building on TARDis (sequel) •TARDis completed its transition to invisibility early in 2005 –PRESERV (Preservation Services for EPrints) - partnering with National Archives File Format Registry (PRONOM) and the British Library –CLADDIER (Citation, Location and Deposition in Discipline and Institutional Repositories) Linking e-Research. – partnering CCLRC, Reading, NERC –GRADE (Geospatial Repositories …) – partnering EDINA Back to the Future !! •
  69. 69. THANK YOU Pauline Simpson TARDis Project Manager (ps @noc.soton.ac.uk)
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