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  • Good Afternoon
    I have been invited here today to talk about the JISC national e-book observatory project, however before I do, I would like to provide some background as to how the project came about and talk about the UK vision for e-books in education.
  • Slide 2
    The need for a new vision
    So why the need for a new vision? In 2001 the e-books working group was talking about TEXTBOOKS, in 2003 the e-books mapping exercise said that the primary purchasing area in the future would be TEXTBOOKS and the e-books in FE and HE strategy said that TEXTBOOKS were essential for the future. In 2004 the group was still talking about TEXTBOOKS (you can check the minutes). In 2005 the group held a number of meetings with publishers to talk about TEXTBOOKS to encourage them to push forward with making TEXTBOOKS available and in 2006 the group finally tired of talking about TEXTBOOKS and the uncertainty about what business models and licensing models to apply and commissioned a feasibility study to inform the creation of a new vision.
  • A feasibility study on the acquisition of e-books by HE libraries and the role of JISC
    The study looked at the acquisition of TEXTBOOKS by HE libraries and explored what the role of the JISC might be in a market that has traditionally sold direct to the user. This study is backbone of the e-books vision. It found that although 89 of the 92 survey respondents said there were either ‘very eager’ of ‘fairly eager’ to develop core reading list e-book collections, that demand is not evident enough for publishers and aggregators to justify a serious investment and risk loosing print sales revenue.
    The study highlighted 8 key issues:
    1. Ignorance in the HE sector of what e-books are available
    2. Low awareness within HEIs of the value and relevance of e-books
    3. Poor understanding by library staff and publishers of each others needs
    4. Complexity of access routes to aggregators or publishers platforms
    5. Too few e-books are available
    6. Available e-books are not up to date or relevant to UK users
    7. Pricing models are not appropriate
    8. Publishers are not making the right textbooks electronically available on the right terms
    Taking the findings of the feasibility study into account, the e-books working group devised a vision firmly grounded on the needs of the academic community but one that also took into account the e-book market place and the transitional processes that are required to meet the vision.
  • Slide 3. The UK Academic Vision and the role of JISC Collections
    So what is the Vision?
    The UK education community will have access to quality e-book content that is of high relevance to teaching, learning and research across the broadest range of subject areas. Flexible business and licensing models will support a diversity of needs, allowing users to do what they want when they want and how they want. All e-books will be easily discoverable and consistent standards will allow all content to be fully integrated into library, learning and research environments.
    I am now going to take you through the core elements of the vision from a librarian perspective and explain the steps that JISC Collections and JISC aims to take to realise the vision.
  • Slide 4
    How do I find out whether the books I want are available in e-format, which publishers are offering them and what platforms they are available on?
    The library community needs reliable information about the availability of both freely available and licensed e-books. There is a need for a standard catalogue of e-books to deal with this current paucity of information.
    Steps required:
    To meet this need JISC Collections will take the lead in initiating and establishing the feasibility of such a service. The placement of such a catalogue must be neutral and independent of publishers and aggregators.
  • I am a librarian and the students enrolled at my institution can be part time, full time, distance learners, on campus, off campus, in a partner institution, working in research lab, working on a project with a business or overseas. Isn’t the term remote access irrelevant?
    Yes, the term remote access is becoming obsolete. As Jill Taylor Roe points out in her article ‘Acquiring e-books for academic libraries’ Medical sciences students spend an increasing amount of time based in hospitals as part of their degree programme and the level of library provision and access for students varies enormously. As an academic service, Jill feels she has an obligation to ensure parity of access to key library resources, wherever her students are based and this inevitably leads her to seek digital versions of core medical textbooks.
    Today, it is not about where the user is, but who the user is and they learn. There is a need to define a new vocabulary that is relevant to the digital world and to develop new business models that are not based on where the user is, but who they and what they need to be able to do to learn and research.
    JISC Collections has a role in exploring new models with publishers and aggregators and in creating forums where librarians and the e-books industry can interact to discuss the ever expanding types of users.
  • Slide 5
    If all e-book platforms have different standards and levels of functionality how in the world are we meant to know all this, communicate it to our users and integrate the e-books with library systems and emerging technologies?
    Librarians are facing the Google challenge and in order to facilitate discovery and integrate e-books into library systems they need standards to be consistent. Librarians need robust metadata, accessibility standards to be met, COUNTER compliant statistics, Open URL functionality and so on. Improving access is essential and standards can really help this. The University of Pittsburgh decided to try and tackle to the Google challenge by creating a full text search too for the Health Sciences Library System. By entering a search term the user gets a ‘google-style’ results list with links pointing directly to the relevant sections of the full text. The results are also grouped in categories to help retrieval. There were concerns that the google style queries would not be sufficient for medical users but based on their server logs, 90% of searches using the simple keyword search were successful. The implementation process was tricky and they faced a number of issues that would have been easier to solve had their been common standards. However, they have found that the efficiency of the searching has increased the usage of the books.
    There is a role for JISC Collections in ensuring that the benefits of complying with standards are communicated to publishers and aggregators and that best practice is shared. This will aid discovery and the integration of e-books into library systems. This role is dependent upon not just publishers and aggregators understanding the needs of users but upon librarians understanding the complex process involved in making e-books available.
    Improving e-book access via a library developed full-text search tool
    Foust et al, 2007, J Medical Library Asscoiation 95(1)
  • Slide 6
    If we can’t let more than one student access an e-book at a time, or if a user can’t copy a section of text into an assignment or if a student can’t access the e-book direct from a reading list or course area within a VLE how are we meant to encourage enough use of the books to justify the cost?
    The licensing terms and conditions for e-books vary dramatically and may be more restrictive than necessary due to a lack of understanding about what users needs are and what users do with the content of e-books. In addition, restrictions can stop links being placed in VLEs which are used everyday for distance learners and are becoming core to on campus students. Appleton, in his second case study looked at embedding e-books to large groups of undergraduate students in health studies. He found that by working with the health studies tutors the library was able to facilitate an e-books reading list that was embedded into the WebCT platform. The students access their modules through the VLE and gain seamless access to the a variety of resources for their course. The reading list in the VLE linked directly to the e-book and combined with tutors placing more relevance on them by referring to them and asking students to actively consult them to achieve learning objectives the e-books became well embedded and used.
    There is a high level of value in integrating e-books into VLEs and therefore there is a need for access and licensing models to develop in line with how users actually utilise e-books and the technology used to embed them. For this to be certified a deeper understanding of behaviour is required. Whilst such information is being collated, JISC Collections will continue to highlight why clauses such as the incorporation of text into course assignments and the chapter level linking through a VLE are essential and are in essence the perfect marketing tools as usage justifies spending.
    Using electronic textbooks: Promoting, placing and embedding
    Leo Appleton, Edge Hill University
    April 2003
  • Slide 7
    As format becomes less relevant to users and they simply see it all as stuff that helps their learning and research, how do I as a librarian ensure that it is presented in a way that helps them find what they want when they want it?
    Web 2.0 and Library 2.0 are terms that we just don’t stop hearing about at the moment. Learning is becoming more collaborative; students invest their time in myspace, wikipedia and facebook and they are increasingly becoming adept at using these tools. The online environment is a series of links between content and there is a need for librarians and publishers to work proactively to harness these technologies in the presentation of their content to ensure seamless linking, cross searching and to foster innovative ways of communicating with users.
    JISC Collections, by working with the JISC Executive and its other working groups will explore new ways to harness the skill sets of the digital natives to ensure that academic standards are maintained and that students use not just stuff, but quality stuff.
  • I want flexible e-book agreements that allow me to pick the titles that my institution needs, sometimes I just want to buy a chapter of an e-book.
    These are just some of the challenges that librarians, publishers and aggregators are facing. Libraries represent a completely different route to market for e-book publishers. The book selling chain has suddenly taken a new direction and there is a need for roles to be re-defined, authors to be updated, permissions granted and so on. Making e-books available is not a simple process as it involves a huge range of departments and just like in an institution, not all these departments know how other departments work. Meetings, communications, new working relationships, new policies all need to be formed and this doesn’t even start to take account of the role of the campus bookshop.
    Whilst JISC Collections will always consider the education community first when it comes to license agreements, it will also respect that meeting the needs of users and developing flexible models in the provision of e-books requires company change and new routes to market to be developed. JISC Collections will partner with the e-books industry and the library community to experiment with alternative business models as it has in the Journals industry, to find models that provide the flexibility required and are not based on historical print models.
  • My institution is pushing forward a policy on its own repository and the use of JORUM, what are the implications of this for my e-book licenses and what about archival access?
    JISC will monitor the progress and impact of institutional repositories on e-books use and the requirements of libraries for archival access and incorporate findings into its JISC e-books model licence.
  • If users see content as ‘stuff’ and are used to searching in the online environment and flicking from one link to another selecting content of interest as they go, I worry that they will not reference properly and that plagiarism may increase.
    Maintaining the highest standards in academic work is important to librarians. Institutional policy on plagiarism aims to ensure that all students are fairly asses and that no one receives an unfair advantage by plagiarising someone else's work or using a 'cheat site'.
    The turn-it-in plagiarism detection solution has been adopted by over 90% of all UK universities. By submitting e-book content publishers can ensure that it is correctly cited and reference by students and plagiarism is avoided.
    JISC Collections has a role in raising awareness of the importance of this service and will shortly require content providers to incorporate the submission of content into Turn it in as part of the model licence. This is for the benefit of all.
  • There is a demand for core reading list e-books in my institution but these are not being made available and when I ask publishers why they say that there is no evidence of the demand and thus they are reluctant to make these e-books available. But if they don’t make the core titles available online then users are not as interested and therefore the level of demand seems low.
    This catch 22 situation is the biggest issue that needs to be solved in the e-book market. Libraries want to provide their users with core reading list e-books that are of high relevance but it is exactly these books that are not being made available. It understandable the publishers are reluctant to make these titles available electronically when it is a large percentage of their revenue and the market is established. So how is this situation to be resolved?
  • Steps to realising the vision – The national e-books observatory project
    Well, first of all, the vision and the report identified that there is a need for someone to take the lead in the textbook area and that the education community wanted this to be JISC Collections.
    JISC Collections has taken the first step with the announcement of the National E-books Observatory Project.
    The project aims to
    license for two year only collections of e-books that are highly relevant to UK higher education taught course students in four discipline areas:
    Business and Management studies
    Engineering
    Medicine (not mental health or nursing)
    Media Studies
    To achieve a high level of participation in the project by making the e-books available on as many platforms as possible. This is being requested of the bidder as many of the higher education institutions in the UK already have a preferred aggregator platform thus it is desirable that the e-books are made available on a number of platforms to ensure that students are able to access the titles through their normal methods.
    The project will evaluate the use of the e-books through deep log analysis. The deep log data will provide quantitative information about user behaviours and patterns of use. This will be supplemented by qualitative data from user surveys to explain the patterns of use. Thus we will be able to find out not only the who what when and where but why users did what they did. This data will be used to inform future strategies on the promotion and design of e-books and to asses the impact of ‘free at the point of use’ e-books upon publishers, aggregators and libraries.
    Knowledge acquired in the project will be transferred to publishers, aggregators and libraries to help stimulate an e-books market that has appropriate and flexible business and licensing models.
  • How will the project work?
    1. January 2007: Project Start upThe project commenced at the beginning of January 2007 and will run to the end of March 2009. As the funding is from HEFCE, the e-books included in the project will be made available to all UK higher education institutions that are included on the JISC banding list.
    2. January 2007 to September 2007: e-books selection and licensingThe first section of the project is well under way. Two invitations to tenders have been issued. The first one invited bids from publishers and e-book aggregators. Bidders were required to provide e-books that form part of core reading for taught course students in UK higher education. The second tender was for the deep log analysis study.
    The core reading e-book bids are now in and progressing through the first stage of marking. Following this, successful bidders will pass through to the second stage of marking. This is a UK HE consultation where details of the titles included in the successful bids and other relevant information such as platform functionality and availability will be made available. The aim of the consultation is to collate a priority list of titles for inclusion in the project against HE taught course reading lists in the four subject areas. Therefore the subject collections will not be limited to specific publishers, but will include titles from a variety of publishers. The consultation will start in mid June and run to the end of July.
    The e-books will be licensed for two years; from September 2007 to August 2009 and will be made freely available to higher education institutions.
    3. September 2007 to December 2007: Embedding and promotionAs institutions will require time to integrate the e-books into their catalogues, Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) and reading lists. This period will focus on the promotion and embedding. JISC Collections will carry out road shows and provide promotional tools to help librarians.
    4. January 2008 to December 2008: Deep log analysisIn order to further assess the impacts and the usage of the e-books, the deep log analysis study will start in January 2008 and will run for a full year ending on the 31 December 2008. The study will provide the successful publishers and aggregators and institutions with unique deep log data but will require the cooperation of all libraries.
    5. January 2009 to March 2009: Deep log analysis reportIn 2009 the deep log analysis study team will be allowed three months to analyse the results and write the final report
    6. April 2009 to August 2009: Review of materials licensed and future actionsAs the e-book licences end on the 31st August 2009. The period between April 2009 and August 2009 will allow all parties the opportunity to assess the future licensing options in light of the project and to do this in sufficient time before the licences run out.
  • The project will
    Provide an in-depth understanding of how e-books that support UK higher education taught course students are actually used in teaching and learning
    Enable publishers, libraries and aggregators to assess the demand for core reading list e-books
    Enable all parties to measure the effect of ‘free at the point’ of use e-books on the buying behaviours of students.
    Enable libraries to measure the benefits and potential costs of providing core reading list e-books to students
    Inform the creation of appropriate business and licensing models
    Inform the promotion of e-books within an institution
    Raise awareness generally of e-books throughout the academic community
    And last but not least, it will stimulate the e-books market in order to resolve the catch 22 situation.
  • Slide 16The Future Vision
    This project is the first of many steps towards achieving the UK Vision for e-books in education. It is possible that at some point in the future, users will be able to download all their core textbooks and reading onto an e-book reader and although we might shirk at the thought of having to read online, the digital natives don’t.
    As Win Shih and Martha Allen say in their article ‘Working with Generation-D’, students today are gamers, they are used to instant gratification and have zero tolerance for delays. The Gen – D students are not dominated by printed books and by the time they are of schooling age are more familiar with Google than a library catalogue. They are more used to websites and browsing than going through print and they prefer interactive, hyperlinked content over static text content.
    If the national e-book project is successful and stimulates an e-book market that has appropriate business and licensing models that allows integration into VLEs, if standards are adopted and e-books are easily discoverable, and if users can access all the textbooks that they need then my question to you as librarians, is are you ready? Are you ready to adopt and become adept at the key learning technologies that your students are using, are you ready to learn collaboratively to ensure that they use the e-books effectively?
    Working with Generation-D: adopting and adapting to cultural learning and change
    Win Shih and Martha Allen
    Library Management, Vol 28 No.12, 2007
  • Thank you for listening. The project website is www.jiscebooksproject.org and there are links there to all the reports mentioned and the e-book vision.
  • Transcript

    • 1. JISC Collections July 25, 2014 | UMSLG / UHSL Open Forum | The UK academic vision for e-books
    • 2. JISC Collections July 25, 2014 | UMSLG / UHSL Open Forum | Slide 2 JISC national e-books observatory project Liam Earney Collections Team Manager Caren Milloy JISC Collections Project Manager l.earney@jisc.ac.uk c.milloy@jisc.ac.uk www.jisc-collections.ac.uk www.jiscebooksproject.org
    • 3. JISC Collections July 25, 2014 | UMSLG / UHSL Open Forum | The need for a new vision TEXTBOOKS TEXTBOOKS TEXTBOOKS TEXTBOOKS TEXTBOOKS TEXTBOOKS TEXTBOOKS TEXTBOOKS TEXTBOOKS TEXTBOOKS TEXTBOOKS TEXTBOOKS TEXTBOOKS TEXTBOOKS
    • 4. JISC Collections July 25, 2014 | UMSLG / UHSL Open Forum | A new study A feasibility study on the acquisition of e-books by HE libraries and the role of JISC  Ignorance in the HE sector of what e-books are available  Low awareness within HEIs of the value and relevance of e-books  Poor understanding by library staff and publishers of each others needs  Complexity of access routes to aggregators or publishers platforms  Too few e-books are available  Available e-books are not up to date or relevant to UK users  Pricing models are not appropriate  Publishers are not making the right textbooks electronically available on the right terms
    • 5. JISC Collections July 25, 2014 | UMSLG / UHSL Open Forum | The Vision for e-books in UK education The UK education community will have access to quality e-book content that is of high relevance to teaching, learning and research across the broadest range of subject areas. Flexible business and licensing models will support a diversity of needs, allowing users to do what they want when they want and how they want. All e-books will be easily discoverable and consistent standards will allow all content to be fully integrated into library, learning and research environments.
    • 6. JISC Collections July 25, 2014 | UMSLG / UHSL Open Forum | Discoverability How do I find out whether the books I want are available in e-format, which publishers are offering them and what platforms they are available on? Steps required: Take the lead in initiating and establishing the feasibility of such a catalogue
    • 7. JISC Collections July 25, 2014 | UMSLG / UHSL Open Forum | Users I am a librarian and the students enrolled at my institution can be part time, full time, distance learners, on campus, off campus, in a partner institution, working in research lab, working on a project with a business or overseas. Isn’t the term remote access irrelevant? Steps required: Explore new models with publishers and aggregators and create forums for discussion
    • 8. JISC Collections July 25, 2014 | UMSLG / UHSL Open Forum | Standards If all e-book platforms have different standards and levels of functionality how in the world are we meant to know all this, communicate it to our users and integrate the e-books with library systems and emerging technologies? Steps required: Communicate benefits of standards compliance and monitor emerging standards
    • 9. JISC Collections July 25, 2014 | UMSLG / UHSL Open Forum | Access If we can’t let more than one student access an e-book at a time, or if a user can’t copy a section of text into an assignment or if a student can’t access the e-book direct from a reading list or course area within a VLE how are we meant to encourage enough use of the books to justify the cost? Steps required: Develop access and licensing models in line with how users actually utilise e- books
    • 10. JISC Collections July 25, 2014 | UMSLG / UHSL Open Forum | Web 2.0 As format becomes less relevant to users and they simply see it all as stuff that helps their learning and research, how do I as a librarian ensure that it is presented in a way that helps them find what they want when they want it? Steps required: Explore and harness the skill sets of the future
    • 11. JISC Collections July 25, 2014 | UMSLG / UHSL Open Forum | Business Models I want flexible e-book agreements that allow me to pick the titles that my institution needs, sometimes I just want to buy a chapter of an e-book. Steps required: Partner with the e-books industry and the library community to experiment with alternative business models
    • 12. JISC Collections July 25, 2014 | UMSLG / UHSL Open Forum | Repositories My institution is pushing forward a policy on its own repository and the use of JORUM, what are the implications of this for my e-book licenses and what about archival access? Steps required: Monitor the progress and impact of institutional repositories and national repositories
    • 13. JISC Collections July 25, 2014 | UMSLG / UHSL Open Forum | Plagiarism If users see content as ‘stuff’ and are used to searching in the online environment and flicking from one link to another selecting content of interest as they go, I worry that they will not reference properly and that plagiarism may increase. Steps required: Raise awareness and require content providers to incorporate the submission of content into Turnitin as part of the model licence.
    • 14. JISC Collections July 25, 2014 | UMSLG / UHSL Open Forum | Textbooks! There is a demand for core reading list e-books in my institution but these are not being made available and when I ask publishers why they say that there is no evidence of the demand and thus they are reluctant to make these e- books available. But if they don’t make the core titles available online then users are not as interested and therefore the level of demand seems low. Steps required: The national e-book observatory project
    • 15. JISC Collections July 25, 2014 | UMSLG / UHSL Open Forum | The first step  license collections of e-books that are highly relevant to UK higher education taught course students in four discipline areas: – Business and Management studies – Engineering – Medicine (not mental health or nursing) – Media Studies  achieve a high level of participation in the project by making the e- books available on the publishers own platform (where appropriate) and on a variety of e-book aggregator platforms.  evaluate the use of the e-books through deep log analysis and to asses the impact of the ‘free at the point of use’ e-books upon publishers, aggregators and libraries  transfer knowledge acquired in the project to publishers, aggregators and libraries to help stimulate an e-books market that has appropriate business and licensing models
    • 16. JISC Collections July 25, 2014 | UMSLG / UHSL Open Forum | How will it work?  Tender deadlines – 23rd April 2007 and 10th May 2007  Evaluation and Consultation – May – July 2007  Awarding of bids – 31st July 2007  Signing of two year licenses –September 2007  Delivery of e-books on platforms – September 2007  Promotion and Integration – September 2007 to December 2007  Deep log analysis – 1st January 2008 – 31st December 2008  Analysis and writing up – January - March 2009  Next steps – April 2009 – August 2009
    • 17. JISC Collections July 25, 2014 | UMSLG / UHSL Open Forum | advantages and benefits  Provide an in-depth understanding of how e-books that support UK higher education taught course students are actually used in teaching and learning  Enable publishers, libraries and aggregators to assess the demand for core reading list e-books  Enable all parties to measure the effect of ‘free at the point’ of use e- books on the buying behaviours of students.  Enable libraries to measure the benefits and potential costs of providing core reading list e-books to students  Inform the creation of appropriate business and licensing models  Inform the promotion of e-books within an institution  Raise awareness generally of e-books throughout the academic community  Stimulate the e-books market in a managed environment
    • 18. JISC Collections July 25, 2014 | UMSLG / UHSL Open Forum | The future Collaboration and sharing
    • 19. JISC Collections July 25, 2014 | UMSLG / UHSL Open Forum | Thank you Thank you for listening www.jiscebooksproject.org c.milloy@jisc.ac.uk 02030066003 07817030769

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