From eBooks to Learning Books<br />Dr. Boris Goldowsky & Lisa Spitz<br />Center for Applied Special Technology <br />
About CAST<br />Nonprofit research and development organization <br />Works to expand learning opportunities for all indiv...
Abstract<br />Current state of technology, books versus eBooks<br />How people learn<br />Universal Design for Learning<br...
Introduction<br />4<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
Introduction<br />Joe&apos;s Non-Netbook<br />5<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Skh...
Introduction<br />Skiff Reader<br />Amazon, Kindle<br />Barnes & Noble, Nook<br />Apple, iPad<br />6<br />From eBooks to L...
Introduction<br />7<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
Introduction<br />8<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
Introduction<br />Reading for Learning<br />How can we transform eBooks into Learning Books?<br />9<br />From eBooks to Le...
How people learn<br />10<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
How people learn<br />Old model of learning: Stimulus, Response, and Reinforcement. <br />11<br />From eBooks to Learning ...
How people learn<br />New model of learning: Contextual, Distributed, Variable<br />12<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<...
How people learn<br />Learning is: Contextual<br />If the balloons popped, the sound would not be able to carry since ever...
How people learn<br />14<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />If the balloons popped, the sound would not be able to ca...
How people learn<br />Learning is: Distributed<br />15<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
How people learn<br />Learning is: Variable<br />16<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
Universal Design for Learning<br />17<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
Universal Design for Learning<br />Three networks of the brain<br />18<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />Enabling in...
Universal Design for Learning<br />UDL Guidelines have three primary principles:<br />WHAT? (Recognition)<br />HOW? (Strat...
Universal Design for Learning<br />20<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />http://www.udlcenter.org/aboutudl/udlguideli...
Features for Learning Books<br />21<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
Features for Learning Books<br />What does UDL suggest could be added to current eBook interfaces to make them better for ...
Access to Content<br />23<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
Access to Content<br />Multiple Means of Representation<br />http://bookbuilder.cast.org<br />http://www.udlcenter.org/abo...
Access to Content<br />Increased font sizes (Handled by most e-readers already)<br />http://www.udlcenter.org/aboutudl/udl...
Access to Content<br />Image – Descriptions, alt text, captions, etc… <br />26<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
Access to Content<br />Video and Audio – Descriptions, Captions, Transcripts<br />27<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
Access to Content<br />Translation – Single Word<br />http://sciencewriter.cast.org<br />28<br />From eBooks to Learning B...
Access to Content<br />Translation – Whole Document<br />http://www.udlcenter.org/aboutudl/udlguidelines/downloads<br />29...
Access to Content<br />Linking – Multimedia glossary<br />http://udleditions.cast.org<br />30<br />From eBooks to Learning...
Access to Content<br />Linking – Background knowledge<br />http://udleditions.cast.org<br />31<br />From eBooks to Learnin...
Access to Content<br />Linking – Geographical<br />http://udleditions.cast.org<br />32<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<...
Access to Content<br />Linking – Character lists, family trees…<br />http://xkcd.com/657/<br />33<br />From eBooks to Lear...
Access to Content<br />Narration – Good: a text to speech option (like Kindle)<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H3bv0C8...
Access to Content<br />Narration – Better: real human voice reading, synchronized with the text (DAISY).<br />35<br />From...
Navigation Features<br />36<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
Navigation Features<br />TOC – expand for subsections; collapse for overview <br />37<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<b...
Navigation Features<br />Alternate Views of TOC – Graphic Organizers <br />http://www.cast.org/teachingeverystudent/ideas/...
Navigation Features<br />Alternate Views of TOC – Summary<br />http://www.cast.org/teachingeverystudent/ideas/tes/chapter1...
Navigation Features<br />Search<br />40<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
Navigation Features<br />Site Map<br />41<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
Action and Expression Features<br />42<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
Action and Expression Features<br />Highlighting<br />43<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
Action and Expression Features<br />Annotating<br />44<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
Action and Expression Features<br />Note-taking / Journaling<br />45<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
Action and Expression Features<br />Asking for responses<br />46<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
Action and Expression Features<br />Options for expression - Write<br />47<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
Action and Expression Features<br />Options for expression - Draw<br />48<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
Action and Expression Features<br />Options for expression - Record<br />49<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
Action and Expression Features<br />Options for expression - Upload<br />50<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
Action and Expression Features<br />Checks for comprehension<br />http://udleditions.cast.org<br />51<br />From eBooks to ...
Action and Expression Features<br />Checks for comprehension<br />http://udleditions.cast.org<br />52<br />From eBooks to ...
Action and Expression Features<br />Ability to organize concepts<br />53<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
Affect Features<br />54<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
Affect Features<br />Choice<br />55<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
Action and Expression Features<br />Checking In<br />56<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
Affect Features<br />Teacher and classroom discussion<br />57<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
Affect Features<br />Collaboration and community<br />58<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
Future Directions<br />59<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
Future Directions<br />Extending ideas from supported text to supported:<br />Images<br />Video<br />Audio<br />Extending ...
Conclusion<br />61<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
Conclusion<br />Let&apos;s not just port the book to a new technology.<br />Think about how people learn, create knowledge...
Questions and Discussion<br />63<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
Resources<br />CAST: www.cast.org<br />CAST Learning Tools: http://cast.org/learningtools<br />National Center on Universa...
Thank You!<br />BORIS GOLDOWSKY<br />Director of Technology<br />bgoldowsky@cast.org<br />LISA SPITZDirector of Designlspi...
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From eBook to Learning Book

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This talk will cover the basics of Universal Design for Learning and show how applying principles of UDL to the design of electronic books can transform plain text documents into learning tools. We will show a examples from CAST’s digital learning environments and compare to current trends in eBook interface design.

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  • I’m Boris, Position, CASTI’m Lisa, Position, CAST
  • Boris and I work at CAST.CAST is a non-profit research and development organization in Wakefield MA. Our work is primarily centered around expanding learning opportunities for all individuals through Universal Design for Learning – be that through R&D grant projects, Professional Development, Publications, etc.
  • In today’s talk wewill cover the basics of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and show how applying principles of UDL to the design of electronic books can transform plain text documents into learning tools. We’ll take a quick look at today’s current technology around eReaders and eBooks and talk about the advantages over printed books.Then we’ll dive into a discussion on how people learn and the Universal Design for Learning principles which stem from that research.Finally, we’ll spend the majority of our time showing examples from CAST’s digital learning environments and talking about why they would add value for someone using a book for learning purposes.
  • As an introduction, let’s take a look at how teens currently view technology in schools – otherwise known as the printed book.So how do we fix Joe’s problem?
  • Here is a sampling of current electronic reading devices.Things seem to be moving in the right direction for Joe.They enable greater access to more content, by more people, and are good for general reading.
  • For instance – looking at the Kindle, some of the Affordances that eBooks have, and print does not include the ability to:Click on words to get a definitionAdd notes directly to the page, while you are readingEdit preferences for font size, text to speech, etcAnd Navigate in multiple waysThese helpful features may be all you need for basic leisure reading.
  • But what if you’re reading something a bit further out of your comfort zone…In an area where maybe you don’t know the content very well…Or perhaps it’s in a language that you are just learning. Think textbooks, scholarly journals, newspapers, or historical primary sources…Or children’s learn to read books, or something in Spanish if you’re trying to learn a new language.Those are all inherently more difficult to read than say Stephen King’s latest novel.Some may be more difficult for a particular person at a particular time. But the more difficulty you have reading something, the less able you are to learn from the material.In such cases even current eBook features may not be enough. This is a opportunity - where the power of technology holds great promise and potential.
  • This brings us to the main point of this talk. How can we transform eBooks into learning books?
  • From eBook to Learning Book

    1. 1. From eBooks to Learning Books<br />Dr. Boris Goldowsky & Lisa Spitz<br />Center for Applied Special Technology <br />
    2. 2. About CAST<br />Nonprofit research and development organization <br />Works to expand learning opportunities for all individuals, especially those with disabilities, through Universal Design for Learning. <br />“Founded in 1984 as the Center for Applied Special Technology, CAST has earned international recognition for its innovative contributions to educational products, classroom practices, and policies. Its staff includes specialists in education research and policy, neuropsychology, clinical/school psychology, technology, engineering, curriculum development, K-12 professional development, and more.”<br />More information:http://www.cast.org<br />2<br />Universal Design Elements for Websites<br />
    3. 3. Abstract<br />Current state of technology, books versus eBooks<br />How people learn<br />Universal Design for Learning<br />Features of a Learning Book<br />Future directions and conclusions<br />Q & A<br />3<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    4. 4. Introduction<br />4<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    5. 5. Introduction<br />Joe&apos;s Non-Netbook<br />5<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SkhpmEZWuRQ<br />
    6. 6. Introduction<br />Skiff Reader<br />Amazon, Kindle<br />Barnes & Noble, Nook<br />Apple, iPad<br />6<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    7. 7. Introduction<br />7<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    8. 8. Introduction<br />8<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    9. 9. Introduction<br />Reading for Learning<br />How can we transform eBooks into Learning Books?<br />9<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />?<br />
    10. 10. How people learn<br />10<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    11. 11. How people learn<br />Old model of learning: Stimulus, Response, and Reinforcement. <br />11<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    12. 12. How people learn<br />New model of learning: Contextual, Distributed, Variable<br />12<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    13. 13. How people learn<br />Learning is: Contextual<br />If the balloons popped, the sound would not be able to carry since everything would be too far away from the correct floor. A closed window would also prevent the sound from carrying since most buildings tend to be well insulated. Since the whole operation depends on a steady flow of electricity, a break in the middle of the wire would also cause problems. Of course the fellow could shout, but the human voice is not loud enough to carry that far. An additional problem would be no accompaniment to the message. It is clear that the best situation would involve less distance. Then there would be fewer potential problems. With face-to-face contact, the least number of things could go wrong. <br />13<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    14. 14. How people learn<br />14<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />If the balloons popped, the sound would not be able to carry since everything would be too far away from the correct floor. A closed window would also prevent the sound from carrying since most buildings tend to be well insulated. Since the whole operation depends on a steady flow of electricity, a break in the middle of the wire would also cause problems. Of course the fellow could shout, but the human voice is not loud enough to carry that far. An additional problem would be no accompaniment to the message. It is clear that the best situation would involve less distance. Then there would be fewer potential problems. With face-to-face contact, the least number of things could go wrong. <br />(from Bransford and Johnson, 1972).<br />
    15. 15. How people learn<br />Learning is: Distributed<br />15<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    16. 16. How people learn<br />Learning is: Variable<br />16<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    17. 17. Universal Design for Learning<br />17<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    18. 18. Universal Design for Learning<br />Three networks of the brain<br />18<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />Enabling individuals to identify and understand information, ideas, and concepts<br />Enabling individuals to plan, execute, and monitor actions and skills<br />Enabling individuals to engage with tasks and learning and with the world<br />http://udlonline.cast.org/<br />
    19. 19. Universal Design for Learning<br />UDL Guidelines have three primary principles:<br />WHAT? (Recognition)<br />HOW? (Strategic)<br />WHY? (Affective)<br />http://www.udlcenter.org/aboutudl/udlguidelines<br />19<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    20. 20. Universal Design for Learning<br />20<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />http://www.udlcenter.org/aboutudl/udlguidelines<br />
    21. 21. Features for Learning Books<br />21<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    22. 22. Features for Learning Books<br />What does UDL suggest could be added to current eBook interfaces to make them better for learning?<br />Access to Content<br />Navigation Features<br />Action and Expression Features<br />Affect Features<br />22<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    23. 23. Access to Content<br />23<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    24. 24. Access to Content<br />Multiple Means of Representation<br />http://bookbuilder.cast.org<br />http://www.udlcenter.org/aboutudl/udlguidelines/<br />http://udlspotlight.wordpress.com<br />24<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    25. 25. Access to Content<br />Increased font sizes (Handled by most e-readers already)<br />http://www.udlcenter.org/aboutudl/udlguidelines/<br />25<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    26. 26. Access to Content<br />Image – Descriptions, alt text, captions, etc… <br />26<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    27. 27. Access to Content<br />Video and Audio – Descriptions, Captions, Transcripts<br />27<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    28. 28. Access to Content<br />Translation – Single Word<br />http://sciencewriter.cast.org<br />28<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    29. 29. Access to Content<br />Translation – Whole Document<br />http://www.udlcenter.org/aboutudl/udlguidelines/downloads<br />29<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    30. 30. Access to Content<br />Linking – Multimedia glossary<br />http://udleditions.cast.org<br />30<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    31. 31. Access to Content<br />Linking – Background knowledge<br />http://udleditions.cast.org<br />31<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    32. 32. Access to Content<br />Linking – Geographical<br />http://udleditions.cast.org<br />32<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    33. 33. Access to Content<br />Linking – Character lists, family trees…<br />http://xkcd.com/657/<br />33<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    34. 34. Access to Content<br />Narration – Good: a text to speech option (like Kindle)<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H3bv0C8IS-I<br />34<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    35. 35. Access to Content<br />Narration – Better: real human voice reading, synchronized with the text (DAISY).<br />35<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    36. 36. Navigation Features<br />36<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    37. 37. Navigation Features<br />TOC – expand for subsections; collapse for overview <br />37<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    38. 38. Navigation Features<br />Alternate Views of TOC – Graphic Organizers <br />http://www.cast.org/teachingeverystudent/ideas/tes/<br />38<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    39. 39. Navigation Features<br />Alternate Views of TOC – Summary<br />http://www.cast.org/teachingeverystudent/ideas/tes/chapter1.cfm<br />39<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    40. 40. Navigation Features<br />Search<br />40<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    41. 41. Navigation Features<br />Site Map<br />41<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    42. 42. Action and Expression Features<br />42<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    43. 43. Action and Expression Features<br />Highlighting<br />43<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    44. 44. Action and Expression Features<br />Annotating<br />44<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    45. 45. Action and Expression Features<br />Note-taking / Journaling<br />45<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    46. 46. Action and Expression Features<br />Asking for responses<br />46<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    47. 47. Action and Expression Features<br />Options for expression - Write<br />47<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    48. 48. Action and Expression Features<br />Options for expression - Draw<br />48<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    49. 49. Action and Expression Features<br />Options for expression - Record<br />49<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    50. 50. Action and Expression Features<br />Options for expression - Upload<br />50<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    51. 51. Action and Expression Features<br />Checks for comprehension<br />http://udleditions.cast.org<br />51<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    52. 52. Action and Expression Features<br />Checks for comprehension<br />http://udleditions.cast.org<br />52<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    53. 53. Action and Expression Features<br />Ability to organize concepts<br />53<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    54. 54. Affect Features<br />54<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    55. 55. Affect Features<br />Choice<br />55<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    56. 56. Action and Expression Features<br />Checking In<br />56<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    57. 57. Affect Features<br />Teacher and classroom discussion<br />57<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    58. 58. Affect Features<br />Collaboration and community<br />58<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    59. 59. Future Directions<br />59<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    60. 60. Future Directions<br />Extending ideas from supported text to supported:<br />Images<br />Video<br />Audio<br />Extending thinking to more interactive materials:<br />Simulations<br />Discussions<br />Living Documents<br />60<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    61. 61. Conclusion<br />61<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    62. 62. Conclusion<br />Let&apos;s not just port the book to a new technology.<br />Think about how people learn, create knowledge, & enjoy exploring and build something new and better for doing that.<br />You don&apos;t need to be an expert in cognition to do this - but do think about variability/diversity of people.<br />Many creative ideas come from starting by considering the people &quot;in the margins&quot;, then making those features available universally.<br />This UDL design process can be applied to almost anything. <br />62<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    63. 63. Questions and Discussion<br />63<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    64. 64. Resources<br />CAST: www.cast.org<br />CAST Learning Tools: http://cast.org/learningtools<br />National Center on Universal Design for Learning (UDL): http://www.udlcenter.org/<br />National Center on Accessible Instructional Materials (AIM):http://aim.cast.org/<br />DAISY:http://www.daisy.org/<br />Boris:bgoldowsky@cast.org<br />Lisa:lspitz@cast.org<br />64<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
    65. 65. Thank You!<br />BORIS GOLDOWSKY<br />Director of Technology<br />bgoldowsky@cast.org<br />LISA SPITZDirector of Designlspitz@cast.org<br />65<br />From eBooks to Learning Books<br />
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