Vitamins water

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Biochemistry
Second Year

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Vitamins water

  1. 1. SourcesDeficiency manifestation Causes of deficiencyFunctionActivationstructureVitamins Unpolishied rice , cereals and whole wheat (brown) Beri-beri Wet , dry and infantile Diet , presence of enzyme thiaminase in raw fish Energy releasing reaction of carbohydrate metabolism Coenzyme thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP ) IN liver A Pyrimidine ring and a thiazole ring Thiamine B1 All type of food Glossitis ,dermatitis and cheilosis Pototherapy , chronic alcoholics Oxidation Reduction reaction and electron transport chain FMN :flavin mononucleotide . FAD: flavin adenine dinucleotide IN liver ,intestine Isoalloxazine ring attached to ribitol Riboflavin B2 Cereals, nuts, milk, meat, fish ( Synthesized endogenously from Tryptophan) Pellagra is characterized 3 D’s: DermatitisDiarrhea Dementia Inadequate Diet Vitamin B6 deficiency: Chronic Alcoholics Oxidation Reduction reaction in carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolisms NAD+ = Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. NADP+ = Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate in liver Niacin B3 Meat, Fish, Poultry, Cereals, non- citrus fruits, Potatoes etc. Neurologica Dermatologica Hematological Isoniazid inhibitspyridoxal phosphate formation. Oral Contraceptive Pills: Binds to pyridoxal phosphate and inactivate it . B6 is closely associated with the metabolism of Amino acid Transamination.Decarboxylation. Heme synthesis. Deamination. Production of Niacin Pyridoxal Phosphate (PLP)in the intestine from all the three forms. used to collectively represent pyridoxine, pyridoxal and pyridoxamine. they are pyridine derivatives Pyridoxine (B6)
  2. 2. Citrus Fruits (Lemon and Oranges) Scurvy which is characterized by: Hemorrhages under the skin, bone fragility, joint pain.Poor wound healing, frequent infections.Spongy and bleeding gums, loosened teeth Collagen formation Antioxidant Role Fights infection. Reduces the risk of cancer and coronary artery disease. Immunological Function Does not have any active coenzyme form but acts as a strong reducing agent. C resembles a carbohydrate (hexose). Ascorbic Acid (Vit. C) Green Leafy Vegetables 1-Macrocytic Anemia 2-Neural Tube Defects B12 deficiency Drugs: Methotrexate (anti-cancer drug) involved in One Carbon Metabolism. THF serves as acceptor or donor of one carbon units (formyl, methyl etc.) in a variety of reactions involving amino acid and nucleotide metabolism It is then attached to glutamate to form Folic Acid. Active form is Tetrahydrofolic Acid (THF) It is composed of three constituents. Pteridine linked with para- aminobenzoic acid (PABA) is called Pteroic acid. Folic Acid Meat and Meat Products. Megaloblastic Anemia Nervous Manifestation Vegetarians Decreased AbsorptionPernicious Anemia 1. Synthesis of Methionine from Homocysteine 2. Isomerization of Methyl malonyl CoA DeoxadenosylCobalamin Methylcobalamin corrin ring with four pyrolle rings and COBALT at the centre. Vitamin B12 Cobalamin

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