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Social aspects of health and illness

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Behavioral Dentistry

Behavioral Dentistry
Second Year

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Social aspects of health and illness Social aspects of health and illness Presentation Transcript

  • Social Aspects of HealthSocial Aspects of Health and Illnessand Illness ByBy Dr.Abdelaziz M. Elfaki ,PhDDr.Abdelaziz M. Elfaki ,PhD
  • Why and What of IllnessWhy and What of Illness QuestionsQuestions why am I sickwhy am I sick?? what could it bewhat could it be?? what can be donewhat can be done?? ??what can I do myselfwhat can I do myself
  • Why and What of IllnessWhy and What of Illness What people do when they feel illWhat people do when they feel ill?? CConsulting with lay peopleonsulting with lay people;; UUndertaking non-medical self-care (includingndertaking non-medical self-care (including lifestyle changes and 'home remedieslifestyle changes and 'home remedies'(;'(; UUndertaking medical self-care (including selfndertaking medical self-care (including self medicationmedication(;(; SSeeking professional careeeking professional care..
  • Common Risk FactorsCommon Risk Factors Major risk factors for chronic diseasesMajor risk factors for chronic diseases:: ––SmokingSmoking ––Poor diet (lot sat. fats/sugar, few fruit/veg/fibrePoor diet (lot sat. fats/sugar, few fruit/veg/fibre(( ––Stress and low controlStress and low control ––High alcohol consumptionHigh alcohol consumption ––Poor hygienePoor hygiene ––InjuriesInjuries ––Sedentary lifestyleSedentary lifestyle
  • Cultural BeliefsCultural Beliefs Behind many client problems are a few coreBehind many client problems are a few core beliefs and a few key attitudes ,many of thembeliefs and a few key attitudes ,many of them originate from the cultures that clients grow uporiginate from the cultures that clients grow up in, that cause most of the damagein, that cause most of the damage..
  • Cultural BeliefsCultural Beliefs  When clients search for an explanations forWhen clients search for an explanations for their own or other's behaviours they usuallytheir own or other's behaviours they usually choose the cultural attribution firstchoose the cultural attribution first..
  • The Sociology of Health andThe Sociology of Health and IllnessIllness TheThe Sociology of Health and IllnessSociology of Health and Illness examinesexamines the interaction between society and healththe interaction between society and health.. to see how social life has an impact onto see how social life has an impact on morbidity and mortality rate, and vice versamorbidity and mortality rate, and vice versa..
  • The Sociology of Health andThe Sociology of Health and IllnessIllness Sociologists have demonstrated that the spreadSociologists have demonstrated that the spread of diseases is heavily influenced by theof diseases is heavily influenced by the socioeconomic status of individuals, ethnicsocioeconomic status of individuals, ethnic traditions or beliefs, and other cultural factorstraditions or beliefs, and other cultural factors..
  • The Sociology of Health andThe Sociology of Health and IllnessIllness There are obvious differences in patterns ofThere are obvious differences in patterns of health and illness across societies, over time,health and illness across societies, over time, and within particular society types. There hasand within particular society types. There has historically been a long-term decline inhistorically been a long-term decline in mortality within industrialized societies, andmortality within industrialized societies, and on average, life-expectancies are considerablyon average, life-expectancies are considerably higher in developed, rather than developing orhigher in developed, rather than developing or undeveloped, societiesundeveloped, societies..
  • Basic social factors and oralBasic social factors and oral healthhealth Well documented that vulnerable groups haveWell documented that vulnerable groups have less access to dental services, worse oralless access to dental services, worse oral health, and bear a disproportionate burden ofhealth, and bear a disproportionate burden of oral diseasesoral diseases..
  • Basic social factors and oralBasic social factors and oral healthhealth  ““A silent epidemic of oral diseases is affectingA silent epidemic of oral diseases is affecting our most vulnerable citizens—poor childrenour most vulnerable citizens—poor children,, the elderly, and many members of racial andthe elderly, and many members of racial and ethnic minority groupsethnic minority groups”” Source: Surgeon General Report, 2000Source: Surgeon General Report, 2000 (U.S.A(U.S.A((
  • Social Aspects of HealthSocial Aspects of Health SocioSocio ––economic status and healtheconomic status and health:: Individuals in the lower socio-economicIndividuals in the lower socio-economic groups report more stressors than those ingroups report more stressors than those in higher and that these stressors are frequentlyhigher and that these stressors are frequently linked directly to their material conditionslinked directly to their material conditions..
  • Social Aspects of HealthSocial Aspects of Health The less well off have less control over theirThe less well off have less control over their environment and fewer personnel resources toenvironment and fewer personnel resources to moderate the impact of such stressors than themoderate the impact of such stressors than the better offbetter off..
  • Social Aspects of HealthSocial Aspects of Health Social isolation and healthSocial isolation and health:: There is substantial evidence hat both menThere is substantial evidence hat both men and women who have small number of socialand women who have small number of social contacts are more likely to die earlier thancontacts are more likely to die earlier than those who have more extended networksthose who have more extended networks..
  • Social Aspects of HealthSocial Aspects of Health Gender and HealthGender and Health:: Women ,on average ,live longer than men doWomen ,on average ,live longer than men do.. The most obvious explanations for theseThe most obvious explanations for these differences are biological .Oestrogen ,fordifferences are biological .Oestrogen ,for example ,delay the onset of CHD by reducingexample ,delay the onset of CHD by reducing the clotting tendency and blood cholesterolthe clotting tendency and blood cholesterol levelslevels
  • Social Aspects of HealthSocial Aspects of Health Minority status healthMinority status health:: There is strong association between ethnicity andThere is strong association between ethnicity and health statushealth status.. some of variations in health outcome may besome of variations in health outcome may be explained by differences in behavior across ethnicexplained by differences in behavior across ethnic groupgroup.. Ethnicity may also confer different sexual norms andEthnicity may also confer different sexual norms and behaviors that may impact on healthbehaviors that may impact on health.. 
  • Social Aspects of HealthSocial Aspects of Health The most common exposure route for HIVThe most common exposure route for HIV infection among white is through sexualinfection among white is through sexual intercourse between men , Black throughintercourse between men , Black through heterosexual , whilst for Asians it is mixed ofheterosexual , whilst for Asians it is mixed of bothboth.. 
  • Social Aspects of HealthSocial Aspects of Health Ethnic minorities experience wider sources ofEthnic minorities experience wider sources of stress than whites as consequences ofstress than whites as consequences of discrimination and racial harassment and thediscrimination and racial harassment and the demand of maintaining or shifting culturedemand of maintaining or shifting culture.. They may also experience more problems inThey may also experience more problems in gaining access to health servicegaining access to health service..
  • Social Aspects of HealthSocial Aspects of Health Work condition and healthWork condition and health:: The demand of the job ,the latitude the workerThe demand of the job ,the latitude the worker has in dealing with these demands, andhas in dealing with these demands, and the support available to themthe support available to them.. 
  •  THE EFFECTS OF RELIGIOUS PRACTICES: A FOCUS ON HEALTH MortalityAnxiety and panicSpiritual experiences Meditation Baroreflex sensitivity HappinessForgivenessPrayer All-cause mortalityAnxietyReligious copingAttendance" CortisolOptimismSpiritual experiences Forgiveness
  • Religious & Mental & PhysicalReligious & Mental & Physical HealthHealth Heart Disease and ReligionHeart Disease and Religion:: CAD vary across different religious groupCAD vary across different religious group.. Diet ,health behavior ,and quality of social andDiet ,health behavior ,and quality of social and family life probably account for much of thisfamily life probably account for much of this differencedifference..
  • Religious & Mental & PhysicalReligious & Mental & Physical HealthHealth Hypertension and ReligionHypertension and Religion:: There is mounting evidence that involvementThere is mounting evidence that involvement in organized religion can provide individualsin organized religion can provide individuals with greater social support, enhancedwith greater social support, enhanced self -esteem ,and reduce the negative effects ofself -esteem ,and reduce the negative effects of stress on blood pressurestress on blood pressure..
  • Religious & Mental & PhysicalReligious & Mental & Physical HealthHealth Religious & MortalityReligious & Mortality:: Frequent religious attendance is associatedFrequent religious attendance is associated with a substantial reduction in the risk of dyingwith a substantial reduction in the risk of dying within a 5- to 28-years follow up periodwithin a 5- to 28-years follow up period..
  • Religious & Mental & PhysicalReligious & Mental & Physical HealthHealth Religious & Health behaviorReligious & Health behavior:: Religious people are less likely to engage inReligious people are less likely to engage in unhealthy behaviors such as ;cigaretteunhealthy behaviors such as ;cigarette smoking, alcohol and drug abuse, premaritalsmoking, alcohol and drug abuse, premarital Sex extramarital affairs, or risk takingSex extramarital affairs, or risk taking behaviorsbehaviors..
  • Religious & Mental & PhysicalReligious & Mental & Physical HealthHealth Religious & depressionReligious & depression:: People that are frequently evolved in religiousPeople that are frequently evolved in religious community and who highly esteemed theircommunity and who highly esteemed their religious faith for intrinsic reasons, may runreligious faith for intrinsic reasons, may run less risk of becoming depressedless risk of becoming depressed..
  • Religious & Mental & PhysicalReligious & Mental & Physical HealthHealth Religious & marital stabilityReligious & marital stability:: Couples that have enjoyed satisfying longCouples that have enjoyed satisfying long term marriages often cite religion as a keyterm marriages often cite religion as a key factor to their successfactor to their success..
  • Religious & Mental & PhysicalReligious & Mental & Physical HealthHealth Religious and Personality traitsReligious and Personality traits:: There is a robust ,positive associationThere is a robust ,positive association betweenbetween high levels of religious or spiritualhigh levels of religious or spiritual involvement and low levels of hostility andinvolvement and low levels of hostility and high level of hopehigh level of hope..
  • Religious & Mental & PhysicalReligious & Mental & Physical HealthHealth Some religious problem-solving styles maySome religious problem-solving styles may allow religious people to maintain an internalallow religious people to maintain an internal locus of control while believing that GOD islocus of control while believing that GOD is also in control. This combination may helpalso in control. This combination may help religious people maintain health and recoverreligious people maintain health and recover more quickly from life stressmore quickly from life stress..