Personality theories


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  • Comer, Abnormal Psychology 4e Clinical Assessment, Diagnosis, and Treatment Figure 4.01 - An inkblot similar to those used in the Rorschach test
  • Comer, Abnormal Psychology 4e Clinical Assessment, Diagnosis, and Treatment Figure 4.02
  • Personality theories

    1. 1. ‫الفكي‬ ‫محمد‬ ‫د.عبدالعزيز‬ ‫السريري‬ ‫النفس‬ ‫علم‬ ‫استشاري‬ ‫بالخبر‬ ‫الجامعي‬ ‫فهد‬ ‫الملك‬ ‫مستشفي‬ ‫الدمام‬ ‫جامعة‬ Personality Theories and Measurements Dr.Abdelaziz Elfaki,Phd.
    2. 2. The word personality is derived from the Latin term persona, originally representing the theatrical mask used by ancient dramatic players. personality is seen as a complex pattern of deeply embedded psychological characteristics that are expressed automatically in almost every area of psychological functioning.
    3. 3. Personality is often confused with two related terms, character and temperament. Character refers to characteristics acquired during our upbringing and connotes a degree of conformity to virtuous social standards. Temperament, in contrast, refers to a basic biological disposition toward certain behaviors.
    4. 4. Twin Studies MZ twins and DZ twins Suggests heritability estimates of .5 for personality traits Shared environment = what siblings share, parenting practices, neighborhood, family life. Nonshared environment is everything else. More important than shared environment
    5. 5. Environmental stability Three types of person-environment transactions Reactive Different individuals exposed to the same environment, experience it, interpret it, and react to it differently Example: schemas Evocative An individual's personality evokes distinctive responses form others Examples: coercive child, happy child Proactive/Selective Individuals select or create environments of their own
    6. 6. Trait consistency steadily increases with age Consistency peaked at 50-59 age Lowest at ages 0 to 3
    7. 7. Some debate about this (ages 50 to 70 appear to be more stable( Certainly the 20s is an important time to look at for personality development People often gaining independence from families Moving away Going to college and/or joining workforce Getting into committed relationships and having children
    8. 8. Personality TheoryPersonality Theory Main ideasMain ideas Psychoanalytic TheoryPsychoanalytic Theory Emphasizes the importance of early childhood experiences,Emphasizes the importance of early childhood experiences, repressed thoughts, and conflict between conscious andrepressed thoughts, and conflict between conscious and unconscious forcesunconscious forces Behaviorist TheoryBehaviorist Theory Focuses on the way rewards and punishment shape our actionsFocuses on the way rewards and punishment shape our actions.. Social Learning TheorySocial Learning Theory Cognitive-personal factors, our behaviors, and environmentalCognitive-personal factors, our behaviors, and environmental factors interact to shape our personalitiesfactors interact to shape our personalities Cognitive TheoryCognitive Theory Our analysis of our own perceptions, thoughts, and feelings shapeOur analysis of our own perceptions, thoughts, and feelings shape our personalitiesour personalities Humanistic TheoryHumanistic Theory Emphasizes our capacity for personal growth, development of ourEmphasizes our capacity for personal growth, development of our full potential, and freedom to make choicesfull potential, and freedom to make choices Trait TheoryTrait Theory Focus on identifying, measuring, and classifying similarities andFocus on identifying, measuring, and classifying similarities and differences in personality characteristics or traitsdifferences in personality characteristics or traits..
    9. 9. All port's Trait Theory Allport classified the labels according to the degree to which they applied in differing circumstances ,proposing three levels of traits.
    10. 10. Cardinal Trait :a single characteristic that determines behavior in almost all situations. It appears to control almost everything a person does ,unifying and integrating the person`s behavior. .
    11. 11. Central Traits : are not as broad as cardinal traits but are relatively general and apply in many situations. Secondary Traits :less consistent and less generalized ,apply in limited circumstances.
    12. 12. Cattell`s Personality Factors : from a large list of descriptive adjectives Cattell used factor analysis to identify what he called the 16primary or source traits of personality. He developed a test “16-PF” to measure an individual`s expression of each of these traits.
    13. 13. The “Big Five.” A combination of new research and analysis of older work has shown that people in different cultures ,age groups , and occupations consistently tend to use five major categories or traits to describe personality.
    14. 14. There are several different ways to evaluate personality: Self-Report Tests Projective Tests Behavioral Assessments Interviewing
    15. 15. Self-Report Tests Questionnaires containing statements to which the individual can respond with answers such as “yes, may be, no” “true ,false ,can not say”.
    16. 16. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory )MMPI( Most clinically-used personality test 567total questions. Originally designed to assess abnormal behavior
    17. 17. Projective Tests The subject usually is presented with a series of ambiguous stimuli and asked for a description of or a story about each. The theory of these tests is that a person will reveal some personality characteristics By introducing them ( or projecting them onto )the stimulus provided.
    18. 18. Projective Test Rorschach Inkblot Test Presentation and interpretation of a series . of black and white and colored inkblots Personality test that seeks to identify people’s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of 10 inkblots Numerous scoring systems exist
    19. 19. Series of pictures depicting ambiguous scenes Subject is asked to create a story about the scene Answers are scored based on themes, motives, and anxieties of main character
    20. 20. Examiner or test situation may influence individual’s response Scoring is highly subjective Tests fail to produce consistent results )reliability problem( Tests are poor predictors of future behavior )validity problem(