Aberrant/Ectopic Salivary Glands: Develops at a site
where it is not normally found. Usually in the cervical region
near Parotid gland / body of mandible.
Hypoplasia: Defect in Saliv. glands themselves or by
atrophy secondary to a neurologic defect.
Accessory ducts: Mostly seen superior and anterior to
stenson’s duct orifice.
Diverticuli : Small pouches of the salivary gland ductal
system, and their presence leads to repeated episodes of
parotitis. Diagnosis - Sialogram
Sialoliths – Calcified organic matter either in the salivary
80 – 90 % occur in Submandibular gland /duct due to:
- Wharton’s duct contains sharp curves, likely to trap mucin
- Calcium levels are higher in saliva from submandibular
- Dependent position of submandibular gland increases the
chance of stones.
Painful intermitted swelling in the area of major
Worsens during eating & resolves after meals.
Pain originates due to pooling of saliva behind the stone.
Leads to infection and eventual fibrosis and atrophy.
Swelling in the gland area due to Sialolith Sialolith - radiograph
Clinical term used to describe swelling caused by the pooling of
saliva at the site of a severed or obstructed minor salivary gland
Common in the Lower lip.
2 types: - Mucous extravasation type
- Mucous retention type
Mucous extravasation type: Common type. Caused by laceration
of minor salivary gland duct by trauma. Thin walled bluish lesions
that rupture easily. Usually in lower lip, where trauma is common.
Mucous retention type: Less common. Due to obstruction of minor
salivary gland duct, which causes a back up of saliva. This
continual pressure dilates the duct and forms a cyst like lesion.
Common in palate and floor of the mouth.
Special type of mucocele , occurs on the floor of the mouth
from trauma of a sublingual/submandibular gland duct.
Resemblance to the belly of a frog .
Seen superficial / deep to the mylohyoid muscle.
Inflammatory lesion of unknown etiology.
- Trauma causing ischemia of the minor salivary glands.
- Males – 5th & 6th decades of life.
- Seen as an ulcer on the palate.
Painful swelling of the affected glands.
As a result of Bact’l / Viral infections; allergic infections.
Parotid gland is mostly affected.
Mumps (Epidemic Parotitis):
- Paramyxo virus.
- Both parotid glands may be simultaneously involved.
- Involved glands continue to enlarge for 2-3 days and return to
normal size in 7 days.
- Enlarged glands are tender and pain is experienced when eating
- Associated edema of the skin over the glands and inflammation
around Stensen’s / Wharton’s duct.
Herpes virus infection.
Common in patients whose cellular immunity is compromised by
cancer chemotherapy, immunosuppressive drugs.
Acute / Chronic.
Parotid – frequently affected.
Acute bacterial sialadenitis (Acute suppurative parotitis)
- Usually in adults.
- Usually unilateral. Sudden onset of pain, which worsens when the
mouth is opened.
- Tender, enlarged gland.
- Diagnosis is confirmed when purulent material is expressed from
Stensen’s duct orifice by pressure over the gland.
Enlargement related to allergic reactions to drugs or other
Self limiting disease.
A systemic granulomatous disease.
Uveoparotid fever – a special form of disease, characterized by
inflammation of the uveal tract of the eye, parotid swelling and
3rd or 4th decade of life.
Bilateral, firm painless enlargement.
Decreased/ absent salivation of the affected gland.
Treatment - Symptomatic
Non neoplastic, non inflammatory enlargement of the salivary
- Usually bilateral.
- Seen as recurrent, painless enlargement of the glands.
- Parotid usually affected.
- Cause unknown. May be due to -
An autoimmune disorder of exocrine
May be assoc: with other conn: tissue
disease, lymphoproliferative disorders.
- Primary type – affects exocrine glands
only esp- lacrimal & saliv glands.
- Secondary type - affects exocrine
glands with assoc: conn: tissue disorders.
To reduce sec: effects of reduced exocrine secretion – use saliva
- Lack of saliva dental caries
- Daily home use of topical fluoride and freq: oral hygiene
- Antifungal agents for candidiasis.
- Precaution against infection before oral surgical procedures.
Benign & malignant.
Usually involve parotid gland.
Majority are benign – mixed tumors (Pleomorphic
Appear as a mass with an associated ulceration
Neurologic involvement discomfort and in parotid
tumors facial paralysis due to facial nerve