To prevent further irritation of the
dento-pulpal tissues as well as to
improve the defensive capability of the
Serve as a barrier against thermal
changes, chemicals (irritants within
the material), leakage (bacterial
Condition of the tooth to be restored.
conﬁguration of cavity preparation, amount
of the remaining dentin thickness (RDT).
type of restoration to be used.
High strength bases
Resin in a solvent
Calcium hydroxide, Zinc
Glass ionomers, Resin-
modiﬁed glass ionomers,
Re-inforsed zinc oxide-
eugenol, Zinc phosphate,
1.should be capable an impervious layer on
cut vital dentin, with thickness not
compromising the bulk of the overlying
restoration or its mechanical properties.
2.biologically compatible dento/pulpal
3.chemically compatible with both the dento/
pulpal tissues and the restoration.
4.the material should not discolor
neither the restoration nor the
5.should harden quick enough to allow
subsequent insertion of the
6.should withstand (without change in
shape or location) the condensation
forces involve with the placement of
the over laying restoration.
7. stabilize or further diminish dentin
8.easily manipulated during
preparation or insertion.
ZOE , GI, Calcium Hydroxide, Z
Polycarboxilate falls within the range of
minimal thickness 0.75mm
Calcium hydroxide and ZOE provide an
effective barriers against the penetration
GIC and Z-polycarboxilate can also be used
as chemical insulators.
Z-phosphate acidity is a concern.
The ability to with stand the occlusal
stresses and to support the restoration is
affected by the modulus of elasticity.
Strength must be developed quickly.
Fluid and water absorption: the more
porous the material the greater will be
the chance for ﬂuid uptake.
Calcium hydroxide is the most soluble
followed by ZOE then ZPC. GIC least
Coefﬁcient of thermal expansion, ZOE
is the closest to the tooth structure.
viscosity: calcium hydroxide followed
by ZOE had the highest ﬂow. ZPC the
• the least irritant to the pulp
• when placed within an effective depth +
healthy pulp = reparative reaction.
• when in direct contact with the pulp:
- healthy and sound pulp slight inﬂammation
will take place that might remain conﬁned
or may progress to involve all the pulp or
may exacerbate to acute inﬂammation.
- if placed in direct contact with acute
inﬂamed pulp the acute inﬂammation
will subside then chronic
inﬂammation takes place, further
prognosis is similar to the healthy
• it can be irritant
• if placed at 100 micron or more
healthy reparative reaction will
• if placed at less than 100 micron an
unhealthy reparative reaction occur.
• if placed in contact with the pulp
- if healthy pulp, pulp will deposit
organic matrix which will mineralize
within 4-6 weeks.
- if degenerative pulp, the degeneration
will convert to calciﬁc degeneration,
RCT is indicated before complete
obliteration of the pulp space.
• the most irritant base used:
- acidity during setting (PH 3-4 at ﬁrst)
can be reduced by increasing the P/L
- Microleakage as its soluble.
- exothermic reaction.
• at 2.5 mm depth ZP can induce healthy
• at 1.5-2 mm depth an unhealthy
reparative reaction will occur.
• at depth < 1.5 mm there will be
distraction in the pulp tissue.
• at 1 mm depth healthy reparative
• at depth < 1 mm unhealthy reparative
reaction or further distruction can
• when come in contact with the pulp
distractive reaction occurs.
LINERS: relatively thin layers of material
used primarily to provide a barrier to
protect the dentin from residual reactants
diffusing out of the restoration or from
the oral ﬂuids that may penetrate the
They provide electrical insulation, some
some materials can provide pulpal
indicated in with the pulpally extended
metallic restorations that are not well
bonded to tooth structure and not
insulating ( amalgam, cast gold and other
BASE: applied in thicker layers to
provide thermal protection for the
pulp and to supplement mechanical
support for the restoration by
distributing local stresses from the
restoration to the underlying dentin.
provide support during condensation
of amalgam in case of thin dentin
A natural gum (copal), rosin, or
synthetic resin dissolved in organic
Reduce leakage around the margins and
walls of the cavity, prevent penetration
of corrosive products of amalgam into
Not to be used under composite
restorations(interfere with the setting
reaction) or glass ionomer restorations
(prevent ﬂuoride release).
Varnish is applied using a small
Dispersed calcium hydroxide in aqueous or
resin carrier solution.
Calcium hydroxide formation of
PH = 11
only on dentin.
Powder/Liquid Light cured GIC
serve as an intermediate bonding
material between dentin/composite
Thicker protective layers of cement that
are placed under restorations, encouraging
the recovery of the pulp
and to protect the pulp
from further insults.
Zinc Oxide- Eugenol
Contain eugenol oil sedative
Powder/liquid or two pastes.
Setting reaction mainly wetting of the
ZO particles by the oil, chelating
Retard penetration of acids and
reduce any possible discomfort.
Thin layer little thermal insolation.
Strength and modulus of elasticity are low.
Used in less stress bearing area, but can
withstand the application of restorations.
High strength base is often placed over.
contra indicated under composite
restorations( interfere with the setting
MIX ON TREATED PAPER PAD
START WITH A LARGE AMOUNT FIRST
CONTINUE ADDING SMALL AMOUNTS
UNTIL DESIRED CONSTITUENCY
WATER WILL ACCELERATE SETTING TIME.
Used for direct & indirect pulp caping
beneath composite restorations.
Two pasts, the reaction result in the
formation of amorphous calcium
Contain radiopaque ﬁllers.
Light cured product Urethane
dimethacrylate & calcium hydroxide + low-
LOW COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH
Thin layer little thermal insolation.
Stimulate the formation of reparative
Setting time 2 to 7 min
Water based cement.
Powder/Liquid: powder oxide mixed (ZO &
MO) & sol. of phosphoric acid.
Exothermic reaction hydrated
amorphous network of z-phosphate
surrounds incompletely dissolved
Setting time 5-9 min.
High mechanical properties.
Low acidity of the set cement.
Mixing over a large area in a cold
high acidity (pulp irritation)
Water based cement
Powder/liquid: ZO/ viscous sol. of
forms amorphous network of Z-
polyacrylate surrounding the
unreacted ZO particles.
Not as strong as the Z-phosphate but
less irritating to the pulp.
Moderate viscosity, moderate
Bond to enamel, mildly acidic.
Histologic reaction similar to ZO-
Short working time 3 min.
Mix over a small area with a stiff
Glass Ionomer Cements
Water based cement.
Powder/Liquid or pre-packed capsules:
liquid(aquas solution of polycarboxilate
slow acid base reaction result in the
formation of amorphous silicate network
surrounding the unreacted particles.
chelating effect on tooth surface
resulting in bonding to enamel and dentin.
SLOW RELEASE OF FLUORIDE AIDS IN
INHIBITING RECURRENT CARIES.
LESS TRAUMATIC TO THE PULP.
HAS VERY LOW SOLUBILITY.
ADHERES TO A SLIGHtly MOIST
HAS A THIN FILM THICKNESS.
Very sensitive to water exposure.
Type I: Cementation of indirect
restoration and orthodontic brackets.
Type II: Restoring areas near the
gingival tissue ( class V)
Type III: used as liner and dental
Resin Modiﬁed GIC
Were introduced to over come the
problim of water sensitivity of GIC.
and to improve the mechanical
properties of GIC.
(ﬂouroaluminosilicate), liquid (aquas
solution of polycarboxilate acid
modiﬁed with pendant methacrylate
liner base cement advantage Limitation
varnish X low cost
long history of use
washes out at
long history of use most effective
eugenol x x x
long history of use
x x long history of use
seating of cast
glass ionomer x x ﬂuoride release moisture
resin x x strength sensetive
Maintain the position of the prepared
Seal, insulate the preparation and protect
Establish proper vertical dimension.
Aid in diagnosis and treatment planning.
Aid to evaluate candidate for esthetic
Protection of the dentin-pulp organ.
Sedation of the irritated pulp.
Restoration & protection of normal
occlusion by preventing over eruption and
tilting of teeth.
Protection of periodontium.
Restoration of tooth
Have enough strength and retention
to withstand forces to which it will
Easily handled, contoured, polished
Short setting time.
Doesn’t interfere chemically with
Types of Temporary