Disease of cells characterized by progressive, abnormal &
uncontrolled proliferation of tissues.
Both normal as well as cancerous cells must pass through the
following phases of cell cycle.
1. G1 phase: Synthesis of enzymes and other cellular components
needed for DNA synthesis.
2. Synthetic phase: DNA synthesis takes place
3. G2 phase: Synthesis of cellular components for mitosis
(proteins and RNA synthesis)
4. M phase: Mitotic cell division takes place
5. G0 phase: Cells stop dividing temporarily or permanently.
Mech of action:
• Converted in cells to 5 fluoro-2-deoxyuridine-5’-
monophosphate (5-dUMP) which inhibits thymidylate
synthase and leads to ‘thymineless’ death of cells.
• Bladder, breast, colon cancers.
Adv effects: GI distress, myelotoxicity, Alopecia
• Non Hodgkin’s lymphoma, breast & ovarian cancers
• As immunosuppressant - Rheumatoid arthritis, nephrotic
syndrome & organ transplantation
• Hemorrhagic cystitis
– prevented by vigorous hydration & MESNA –Sodium mercaptoethane
Uses: Testicular CA & cancers of bladder, lung and ovary
• Vomiting ( prevented by Ondansetron),
Carboplatin is less nephrotoxic, has greater myelotoxicity.
Mech of action :
• Bind to tubulin & prevent its polymerization into microtubules
thereby block the formation of mitotic spindles
• Vincristine: Acute leukemias, lymphomas, Wilm’s tumour,
• Vinblastine: Testicular CA, lymphomas, neuroblastoma,
Adv effects :
• Myelotoxicity (Vinblastine)
• Neurotoxicity (Vincristine )