health promotion


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Preventive Dentistry
Third Year

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health promotion

  1. 1. ‫بسم ال الرحمن الرحيم‬ Integrating risk and healthpromotion counseling Preventive Dentistry PDS 332
  2. 2. Lecture outline  Patient education  Theories of learning   Behaviorism Cognitivism         Humanism Social learning theory Adult learning Communication   Gestaltism Relativism Nonverbal communication Counseling Educational methods for patient instruction Oral health education in practice
  3. 3. Learning outcomes    Define patient education and counseling strategies appropriate for risk reduction and health promotion. Examine communication techniques for oral health promotion. Discuss issues in selecting patient education materials and methods.
  4. 4.  What is health promotion?  Why is dentistry involved in health promotion and how?
  5. 5. Patient education     Patient education is considered part of comprehensive patient care Health behaviors are mediators of health status Compliance is an issue of power and control Adherence suggests choice and a relationship between the provider and the patient that is based on trust and respect
  6. 6. Patient education  Patient education has four tenets: 1. 2. 3. 4. A necessity for quality health care The patient’s right to receive education and possibly counseling It has the potential to increase the efficacy of the health care delivery system Providers have the responsibility to provide “knowledge” to the patient
  7. 7. Theories of learning Orientation Tenets Application Behaviorism Learning results from reinforcement and can lead to behavioral changes Behavior modification Cognitivism Learning results from reasoning based on subjective values and associated identified action leading to desired outcomes Gestaltism Relativeism Humanism Learning is continuous because of human potential and desire for growth Patient-centered models Motivational interviewing Social Learning Theory Learning occurs in response to modeling and observation of normative social environments Social cognitive theory Self-efficacy
  8. 8. Theories of learning   Behaviorism Learning that results Cognitivism from reinforcements that behaviors Gestaltism In patient education, cause and effect     Relativism Humanism Social learning theory activate desired
  9. 9. Theories of learning   Behaviorism Cognitivism Behavior is determined more as a function of the subjective  Gestaltism value of an outcome and the expectation that a specific action  Relativism will achieve that outcome. Thus, reasoning is required to explain the behavior. Humanism  In patient education, outcomes are used as behavioral Social learning theory objectives which demonstrates a level of patient competency. 
  10. 10. Theories of learning   Behaviorism Cognitivism Gestaltism  Relativism Holistic view  Problem-solving approach, that include insight coupled with  Humanism motivation  Social learning the patient's experiences by In patient education, guide theory promoting an awareness of the present. Metaphors are used here
  11. 11. Theories of learning   Behaviorism Cognitivism Gestaltism  Relativism  Central theme in education  Humanism Present and perceptual realities are emphasized as a  Socialfor learning. motivator learning theory
  12. 12. Theories of learning   Behaviorism Cognitivism Gestaltism  Relativism    Humanism Learning from the perspective of human Social learning theory potential for growth Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
  13. 13. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Self actualization Opportunity for creativity, innovation, challenges, higher level learning Self esteem Recognition of intelligence, prestige, status Social needs Need for safety and security Physical survival needs Love, affection, acceptance Physical safety, economic security, comfort, peace Water, food, sleep, warmth, health
  14. 14. Theories of learning Emphasizes the importance of observing and modeling the  behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others. Behaviorism Human behavior through modeling  Cognitivism In patient education, it brings psychology and health behavior  Gestaltism together in a synergetic fashion    Relativism Humanism Social learning theory
  15. 15. Conceptual model of social cognitive theory and self-efficacy Behavior Personal factors (cognitive, emotional, and biological events) Environmental factors
  16. 16. Theories of learning  Adult learning  When you plan and choose patient education materials and models, you have to consider: The trauma of the disease  The press of time  The freedom of choice  The active participation  Social/psychological setting    Intentional change “a choice to change”
  17. 17. Principles of adult learning        People learn when they perceive a need to learn Learning takes place when the learner is able to relate a previous experience to the present experience Patients learn more effectively when they are actively involved in the learning People learn more when their senses are stimulated People learn the best when they know the goals of learning and perceive they are realistic and attainable Learning takes place when there is an optimal stress level Patients learn best when they are encouraged to take responsibility
  18. 18. Communication   It includes all methods used to convey thoughts, feelings, and attitudes among people A process of sending and receiving messages or transmission of ideas to achieve mutual understanding between a communicator and a listener
  19. 19. Communication   It involves processes of encoding, transmission, decoding and synthesis of information A process of sending and receiving messages or transmission of ideas to achieve mutual understanding between a communicator and a listener
  20. 20. Model of communication Noise Language Physical Psychological Biological Information sender (Source) Message Feedback Target (receiver)
  21. 21. Communication  How can communication skills be tailored to meet the needs of dental clinical settings?  Verbal vs. nonverbal communication Paralanguage  Nonverbal and verbal behaviors have to be consistent 
  22. 22. Counseling  Effective counseling depends on: Skills in communications  Techniques in listening  Establishing rapport   Listening skills and the 3Cs Confirmation  Confrontation  Commitment 
  23. 23. Counseling  Listening is synonymous with Openness  Concentration  Comprehension   Verbal interventions could be helpful Reflecting  Interpreting  paraphrasing 
  24. 24. Educational methods for patient instruction  What are the educational methods that you are aware of?  Learning has different levels:       Recall Understanding Application analysis Synthesis Evaluation
  25. 25. Educational methods for patient instruction  People remember approximately: 30% of what they see  20% of what they hear  10% of what they read   Guidelines The more senses stimulated, the better  Active participation will retain more information  Time restrictions guide the type of method 
  26. 26. Educational methods for patient instruction    Health literacy is composite term used to describe a range of outcomes associated with health education and communication activities It is not only the transfer of information Bidirectional relationship between health and social, economic, and environmental variables
  27. 27. Oral health education in practice       Interdisciplinary approach Anticipatory guidance Time constraints Emphasis on psychological approach Tobacco use Models for oral health education should include:     Risk assessment Tailor education or counseling plan Implementation of the plan Continuous evaluation and follow-up
  28. 28. Summary    Effective of oral health promotion is questionable Chair-side oral health promotion is the most effective among other models The trend in dental health care should be towards prevention