1
Astringents, Keratolytics, Anti-seborrhics
Enzymes
(hyaluronidase, varidase, trypsin & chymotrypsin)
Obtundants, Mummyfy...
2
Astringents
• These are locally applied protein precipitants
• Action limited to cell surface or interspaces
• Membrane ...
3
Astringents (Cont.)
• Metallic astringents:
• Aluminum compounds: Al acetate, Al chloride
• Zinc compounds: Zn oxide, Zn...
4
Keratolytics
• Drugs that facilitate removal of outer layer of skin
(stratum corneum) are called keratolytics
• Salicyli...
5
Anti-seborrhics
• Seborrhea is a chronic skin condition, due to over
activity of epidermis & sebaceous glands
• Greasy c...
6
Enzymes
• Trypsin & chymotrypsin: (proteolytic enzymes)
• In chewing gum & toothpaste to destroy dental plaque
• Varidas...
Obtundents
Agents which are used to either diminish or eliminate the
dentine sensitivity to make the excavation painless.
...
Obtundents
I. Act by destroying the nervous tissue – Absolute alcohol
II. Act by paralysing the sensory nerve endings
• Ph...
9
Fluorides
• Compounds that release fluoride ion:
Monofluorophosphate, Na fluoride, Stannous fluoride
Actions & uses of F...
10
Fluorides
Adv. Effects:
Acute overdose:
•Nausea, vomiting & muscle spasm
Chronic overdose:
•Dental fluorosis: white pat...
11
Mummifying agents
Agents used to harden & dry tissues of the pulp & root canal
so that the tissues are resistant to inf...
Mummifying agents
Paraformaldehyde paste
•These drugs mummify (or fix) coronal and radicular pulp
•Used during “2 stage no...
13
Treatment of common oral diseases
Dental caries : Most common oral condition & dental emergency
• Removal of the soften...
Treatment of common oral diseases (Cont.)
Periodontal abscess:
•Drain abscess & irrigate with 0.2% chlorhexidine
Celluliti...
15
Treatment of common oral diseases (Cont.)
Herpetic labialis: Acyclovir cream 5%
Herpetic gingivo-stomatitis: Acyclovir ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

2. astringents & keratolytics

739

Published on

Pharmacology
Third Year

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
739
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

2. astringents & keratolytics

  1. 1. 1 Astringents, Keratolytics, Anti-seborrhics Enzymes (hyaluronidase, varidase, trypsin & chymotrypsin) Obtundants, Mummyfying agents & fluorides Treatment of common oral diseases
  2. 2. 2 Astringents • These are locally applied protein precipitants • Action limited to cell surface or interspaces • Membrane permeability is reduced, cells remain viable • Actions & uses: • Form a protective layer, prevent irritation & m.o. entry • Control bleeding, local hemostatic action Reduce inflammation, prevent exudation from capillaries ∀ ↓ sweating (anti-perspirant action); block sweat ducts • Promote healing • Adverse effects: • Many astringents are irritants or caustics in high doses • Can cause redness, pain & ulceration
  3. 3. 3 Astringents (Cont.) • Metallic astringents: • Aluminum compounds: Al acetate, Al chloride • Zinc compounds: Zn oxide, Zn chloride • Calamine: Iron oxide with Zn oxide • Others: Silver nitrate, potassium permanganate • Vegetable astringents: Tannic acid
  4. 4. 4 Keratolytics • Drugs that facilitate removal of outer layer of skin (stratum corneum) are called keratolytics • Salicylic acid, benzoyl peroxide, tretinoin • Uses: • Hyperkeratosis • Fungal skin infections (along with anti-fungal drugs) • Acne vulgaris (along with antibacterial drugs)
  5. 5. 5 Anti-seborrhics • Seborrhea is a chronic skin condition, due to over activity of epidermis & sebaceous glands • Greasy crusty scales are formed behind ears, on face, neck. • Dandruff is the commonest complaint. • Accompanied by fungal skin infection or eczema • Treatment: • Selenium sulphide shampoo
  6. 6. 6 Enzymes • Trypsin & chymotrypsin: (proteolytic enzymes) • In chewing gum & toothpaste to destroy dental plaque • Varidase: (Streptokinase & streptodornase) • Breaks down blood clots & dead tissue around wounds • Helps healing of wounds & surgical incision • Use carefully in bleeding disorders, or in patients using NSAIDs, warfarin, or given heparin • Hyaluronidase: • It hydrolyzes hyaluronic acid in connective tissues • Given SC dissolved in saline to facilitates spread of drug solutions & prevention of adhesions • Not used with local anesthetics or if there is infection
  7. 7. Obtundents Agents which are used to either diminish or eliminate the dentine sensitivity to make the excavation painless. • An ideal obtundent should possess the following characteristics – It should remove dentive sensitivity and penetrate the dentine sufficiently. – It should not stain the dentine. – It should be free from any local irritation or pain. 7
  8. 8. Obtundents I. Act by destroying the nervous tissue – Absolute alcohol II. Act by paralysing the sensory nerve endings • Phenol creosote • Benzyl alcohol • Camphor • Thymol • Menthol • Eugenol (clove oil) III. Act by precipitating proteins • Silver nitrate • Zinc chloride 8
  9. 9. 9 Fluorides • Compounds that release fluoride ion: Monofluorophosphate, Na fluoride, Stannous fluoride Actions & uses of Fluorides: • Strengthen the enamel & prevents dental caries Prevent decalcification of the structure of tooth by inhibiting bacterial enzymes which produce lactic acid Modes of use: • Topically: In toothpaste or solution for mouth rinses • Systemically: Via water fluoridation (1 part per million), fluoride tablets & drops, fluorinated table salt or milk
  10. 10. 10 Fluorides Adv. Effects: Acute overdose: •Nausea, vomiting & muscle spasm Chronic overdose: •Dental fluorosis: white patches & hypoplasia of teeth •Increased bone density: in spine, pelvis & long bones
  11. 11. 11 Mummifying agents Agents used to harden & dry tissues of the pulp & root canal so that the tissues are resistant to infection. A combination of various mummifying agents are used in the form of paste or semi-liquid preparation. PARAFORM paste –(zinc oxide or zinc sulphate, glycerine & creosote) IODOFORM paste –(tannic acid, phenol, eugenol, cinnamon oil & glycerine) Tannic acid glycerine,
  12. 12. Mummifying agents Paraformaldehyde paste •These drugs mummify (or fix) coronal and radicular pulp •Used during “2 stage non-vital pulpotomy technique •Place paraformaldehyde over exposed pulp, formaldehyde released fixes pulp, seal cavity with thin layer of ZnO & eugenol paste •After 1-2 weeks remove non-vital pulp, give antiseptic dressing & seal cavity with hard setting cement 12
  13. 13. 13 Treatment of common oral diseases Dental caries : Most common oral condition & dental emergency • Removal of the softened & infected hard tissues, sealing of exposed dentines and restoration of the lost tooth structure with porcelain, silver, amalgam, composite plastic, gold, etc. Dental hypersensitivity: Exposure of dentine to oral environment •Toothpastes containing strontium chloride & formaldehyde Acute puplitis: Inflammation of the pulp as a result of caries •Apply 1% triamcenolone + 3% demeclocycline paste •Root canal therapy (RCT) for irreversible pulpitis Periapical abscess: • Incision & drainage or RCT or extraction – With Amoxicillin + Metronidazole+ NSAlDs.
  14. 14. Treatment of common oral diseases (Cont.) Periodontal abscess: •Drain abscess & irrigate with 0.2% chlorhexidine Cellulitis & Ludwig’s angina: Usually streptococcal infection •Drainage and, if necessary, treachostomy •Amoxicillin + Metronidazole IV & NSAIDs Pericoronitis: Localized pericoronitis: – hot saline mouthwashes & irrigation under the flap Severe cases with cellulitis: – Amoxicillin + Metronidazole IV & NSAIDs 14
  15. 15. 15 Treatment of common oral diseases (Cont.) Herpetic labialis: Acyclovir cream 5% Herpetic gingivo-stomatitis: Acyclovir 200 mg orally & chlorhexidine 0.2 % mouth wash, both 4-5 times/d Candidiasis: (oral thrush & angular cheilitis) •Topical nystatin, amphoterricin B, miconazole Recurrent aphthous ulcer: Due to sharp edge of tooth •Treat cause, chlorhexidine & benzydamine mouth wash Dry socket: Infection of tooth socket after extraction •Clean with warm saline, dressing with guaze soaked with iodoform, euginol & butyl-paraminobenzoate

×