Pests of vegetables

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Pests of vegetables

  1. 1. BHENDI
  2. 2. BORERS
  3. 3. Distribution South Europe, India, China, North Australia, South East Asia and Africa Host range Cotton, Bhendi, Holly hock, Hibiscus cannabinus , Abutilon indicum and other malvaceous plants Biology of E. vitella Egg period: 2 – 4 days Eggs: Singly – plant parts Crown shaped, sculptured Larval: 10 – 12 days Brownish without finger shaped processes Longitudinal white stripes – dorsal sidePupal:7-10 days Pupation: outside the bolls Adult: Forewing with a green wedge
  4. 4. Biology of E. insulana Egg period: 3 days Sky blue colour Larva: 9 – 20 days Brownish with finger shaped processes – orange dots on prothorax Pupal: 7 – 21 days, boat shaped Pupation: plants, fallen buds and bolls or in soil Adult: Complete green forewings Longivity: 8-25
  5. 5. Management Collect and destroy the infested shoots, buds, flowers and fruits Avoid cultivation of alternate weed hosts: Hibiscus cannabinus, H. abelmoschus and Abutilon indicum Light trap @ 1/ ha Pheromone traps @ 12/ ha Egg parasitoid: Trichogramma chilonis @ 1,00,000/ha Egg larval parasitoid: Chelonus blackburni @ 10,000/ha Insecticides: Monocrotophos 36 WSC @ 650 ml/ha
  6. 6. Stem weevil: Pempherulus affinis, Curculionidae: Coleoptera Distribution India, Myanmar, Thailand and Philippines Host range Cotton, Jute, Abutilon indicum, Hibiscus rosasinesnsis and H. cannabinus Jatropha spp. Biology Egg period: 6-10 days Eggs: 50 – 121/ female Grub: 35 – 37 days Pupa: 10-15 days Pupation: pupal chamber Adult: Dirty brown weevil Longevity: 25 – 30 days * 5 generations/ year
  7. 7. Neem cake @ 500 kg / ha at the time of last ploughing Carbofuran 3G @ 30Kg or phorate 10 G @ 10 kg / ha Management
  8. 8. LEAF FEEDERS
  9. 9. Leaf roller: Sylepta derogata Pyraustidae: Lepidoptera Distribution India, Africa, Myanmar, Srilanka, China, East Siberia, Japan and JavaTTTTT Host range Cotton, Bhendi, Abutilon indicum and other Malvaceous crops Biology Egg period: 2-4 days Eggs: singly – undersurface of the leaves Larval Period: 14 – 21days Shiny green and transparent, Dark head with prothoracic shield Adult: 3-5 generations / year Yellow wings – brown Wavy marks Pupal Period: 6-12 days Pupation: Leaf rolls * Larval hibernation
  10. 10. Leaf roller: Sylepta derogata Larva Adult
  11. 11. Management Collect and destroy the rolled leaves Egg parasitoid: Trichogramma spp. Larval Parasitoids: Brachymeria tachardiae Trichospilus pupivora Insecticides: Phosalone 35 EC @ 500 ml / ha
  12. 12. Distribution India, Africa, Asia and Australia Host range Cotton, Tomato, Bhendi and other malvaceous plants Biology – A. flava Egg period: 4-5 days Eggs: singly – undersurface of the leaves Larval Period: 18 – 20 days 4 -5 instars Green – 5 longitudinal stripes Pupal period: 5-7 days Pupation: inside the leaf mine Adult: Minute, pale yellow in colour Semiloopers: Anomis flava Xanthodes graellsi Tarache nitidula, Noctuidae: Lepidoptera
  13. 13. Semilooper: Anomis flava Larva Adult
  14. 14. Biology – X. graellsi Eggs: singly on tender leaves Larval : Green – horse shoe and black warts Pupation: Soil cocoon – dry leaves Adult: Yellowish with black markings Biology – T. nitidula Egg period: 3-4 day Eggs: singly on tender leaves Adult: Bright white wing with dark markings Larval period: 20 –22 days Dark brown colour Pupal Period: 10 – 12 days Pupation:: Soil
  15. 15. Anomis flava – ( Heavy rainfall – larva occurs epidemically) Xanthodes graellsi – (Continuous wet weather – more common in occurrence) Tarache nitidula – (Occurs occasionally coincides with monsoon showers) Management Egg parasitoid: Trichogramma minutum Larval parasitoid: Carcelia kockiana Pupal parasitoid: Tetrastichus ayyari Dichlorvos 76 WSC 1000 ml /ha or Endosulfan 35 EC @ 1000 ml/ha
  16. 16. SAP FEEDING INSECTS
  17. 17. Green leafhopper: Amrasca devastans, Cicadellidae: Hemiptera Distribution All over inidia Host range: Cotton, Potato, Bhendi, Brinjal, Castor, Tomato and Sunflower Biology Nymphal period: 7 days Egg period: 4 – 11 days Eggs - singly within leaf vein Adult: Greenish yellow in colour TLC: 15 – 46 days
  18. 18. Management Seed treatment : Imidacloprid 70 WS 7 g / kg of seeds or Thiamethaxam 70 WS 4 g/ kg of seeds Light trap to attract the broods of leafhopper Predators: Chrysoperla spp. ETL: 50 nymphs / 50 leaves Botanical insecticides: Margocide 0.5 % or neem oil 3% thrice at 15 days interval Chemical insecticides: Acephate 75 SP 650 /ha or imidacloprid 200 SL 100 ml / ha
  19. 19. Red spider mite: Tetranychus telarius Tetranychidae:Acarina Distribution Africa, Pakistan, India, Srilanka, South East Asia and Japan Host range: Tomato, Brinjal, Bhendi,Castor, Gourds, Jute, Tea, Citrus, Grapes, Rose, Jasmine and Marigold Biology Egg period: 3-5 days Nymphal:6-10 days Adult: Ovate, reddish brown
  20. 20. Management Wettable sulhpur 50 WP @ 1500 g/ ha or dicofol 18 EC 1500 ml/ha
  21. 21. Other pests Shoot weevil: Alcidodes affaber, Curculionidae: Coleoptera Pod fly: Melanagromyza obtusa, Agromyzidae: Diptera Gram pod borer: Helicoverpa armigera, Noctuidae: Lepidoptera Cut worm: Spodoptera litura, Noctuidae: Lepidoptera Leaf weevil: Myllocerus spp., Curculionidae: coleoptera Leaf miner: Trachys herilla, Buprestidea, Coleoptera Grasshoppers: Poekilocerus pictus, Acrididae:Orthoptera Oxya japonica, Acrididae:Orthoptera
  22. 22. Contd.., . Aphid: Aphis gossypii, Aphididae: Hemiptera Whitefly: Bemisia tabaci, Aleyrodidae: Hemiptera Red cotton bug: Dysdercus koenigii, Pyrrhocoridae: Hemiptera Dusky cotton bug: Oxycarenus hyalinipennis, Lygaeidae: Hemiptera Mealy bug: Ferrisia virgata, Pseudococcidae: Hemiptera Scales: Saissetia coffeae, Diaspididae: Hemiptera Parasaissetia nigra, Diaspididae: Hemiptera Thrips: Thrips tabaci, Thripidae, Thysanoptera Chaffer beetle: Oxycetonia versicolor, Cetonidae: Coleopteras Blister beetle: Mylabris pustulatus, Meloidae: Coleoptera
  23. 23. BORERS
  24. 24. Distribution East Africa, Northan Australia, Taiwan, Japan, South China, South East Asia and India Host range Musk Melon, Melon, Bitter Gourd, and Snake Gourd Biology Egg period: 1 day 1-26 eggs/ days/ female Maggot: 3-21 days Dirty white apodous maggot Pupal: 3-9days Pupation: soil Adult: Reddish brown fly with lemon yellow curved vertical markings - thorax
  25. 25. Management Grow resistant varieties: Arka – tinda ( round gourd); Arka-saryamakhia (pumpkin) Change the sowing dates as the fly population is low in hot dry conditions and its peak during rainy season Ribbed gourd as trap crop – malathion 50 EC 2 ml/ lit of water on congregating adult flies- undersurface of leaves Use attractants – citronella oil, eucalyptus oil, vinegar oil (acetic acid), destrose and lactic acid Collect and destroy all fallen and damaged fruits Rake up soil under vines or plough infested field to destroy puparia and endosulfan 4% @ 25 kg/ha on soil Polythene sachet methyl eugenol lure trap @ 25/ ha or
  26. 26. Prepare methyl eugenol and malathion 50 EC mixture @ 1:1 and take 10 ml/ polythene bag with six holes and place 12 traps/ ha or Keep 5 g wet fish meal in a polythene bag with six holes and add 0.1 of dichlorvos – 12 traps/ha Use bait spray: molasses or jaggery 10 g/lit + fenthion 100 EC 1ml/ lit or malathion 50 EC 2ml/lit or dimethoate 30 EC 1ml/lit, tow rounds at fortnight interval before ripening of the fruits Spray neem oil 2% to prevent the oviposition by adult flies Neem seed kernel extract 5% to deter the flies against egg laying Do not use DDT, Lindane, 1.3% dust, copper fungicides and sulphur dusts - phytotoxic
  27. 27. Stem borer or clear winged moth: Melittia eurytion Aegeriidae: Lepidoptera Distribution All over India Host range Snake gourd Biology Egg period: Eggs laid – lower surface of leaves Larval: White in colour Adult: Clear winged with fan – like tufts of hairs on legs Pupal: 20-24 days Pupation: earthen cocoon in the soil
  28. 28. Management Collect and destroy the damaged plant parts with larvae Encourage activity of parasitoid: Apanteles spp. Insecticides: Malathion 50 EC @ 500 ml or dimethoate 30 EC 500 ml and methyl demeton 25 EC@ 500 ml/ ha
  29. 29. LEAF FEEDERS
  30. 30. Pumpkin semilooper: Plusia signata, P. peponis Noctuidae: Lepidoptera Distribution All over India Host range Snake gourd Biology Egg period: 4 -5 days White spherical eggs laid singly – tender leaves Larva: 28 days Green in colour with longitudinal white stripe, humped last abdominal segmentsPupal: 5-7 days Pupation: inside leaf fold Adult: Brown moth with shiny brown forewings
  31. 31. Management Collect and destroy the caterpillars Encourage activity of Apanteles taragamae A. plusiae Insecticides: Malathion 50EC @ 500 ml/ ha or dimethoate 30 EC @ 500ml/ha or methyl demeton 25 EC @ 500ml/ha
  32. 32. Pumpking beetle: Aulacophora foveicollis A.cincta, A. intermedia Galerucidae: Coleoptera Distribution India, Asia, Australia, Africa and Southern Europe Host range Pumpkin, Ash gourd, Melon and Cucumber Biology Egg period:6-15 days 300 eggs/female Eggs laid singly or groups in soil Grub: 13-25 days Pupal: 7-17 days Pupation: soil Adult: A.foveicollis – red coloured beetle A.cincta- grey coloured beetle A. Intermedia – blue coloured beetle *Adult hibernation
  33. 33. Management Deep plough the cucurbits fields just after harvesting to minimize the beetles Collect and destroy adult beetles Sow cucumber in April – May to escape from the pest attack Carbofuran 3 G @ 50 kg /ha at sowing, vining and flowering stages Dust: Endosulfan 4% D @ 25kg/ha Malathion 50 EC @ 500 ml or dimethoate 30 EC 500 ml and methyl demeton 25 EC@ 500 ml/ ha
  34. 34. Distribution All over India Host range Cucurbitaceous plants Biology Egg period: 3-6 days Eggs laid singly or in groups –lower surface of leaves Larval: 9-14 days Bright green with a pair of white mid dorsal lines Pupal: 5-13 days Pupation: inside a cocoon among the leaves Adult: Whitish wings with broad and dark marginal patches Pumpkin caterpillar: Diaphania indica Pyraustidae: Lepidoptera
  35. 35. Management Collect and destroy early stage caterpillars Encourage activity of parasioid: Apanteles spp. Insecticides: Malathion 50 EC @ 500 ml or dimethoate 30 EC 500 ml and methyl demeton 25 EC@ 500 ml/ ha
  36. 36. Distribution India, South and East Africa, Japan, Indonesia and Philippines Host range Bottle gourd Bottle gourd plume moth: Sphenarches caffer Pterophoridae:Lepidoptera Biology Egg period: Eggs laid singly – buds and leaves Larval: Yellowish green with spines all over body Pupal: Greenish – brown pupa Adult: Tiny plume moth
  37. 37. Management Collect and destroy larvae and pupae Insecticides: Malathion 50 EC @ 500 ml or dimethoate 30 EC 500 ml and methyl demeton 25 EC@ 500 ml/ ha
  38. 38. Other pests Snake gourd stem weevil: Baris trichosanthis, Curculionidae: Coleoptera Bitter gourd stem gall fly: Neolasioptera falcata, Cecidomyiidae: Diptera Leaf miner: Liriomyza trifolii, Agromyzidae: Diptera Spotted leaf beetles: Epilachna dodecastimga, Coccinellidae, Coleoptera E. vigintioctopunctata, Snake gourd stem boring beetle: Apomecyna saltator, Cerambycidae: Coleoptera Blister beetle: Mylabris pustulata, Meloidae: Coleoptera Aphid: Aphis gossypii, Aphididae: Hemiptera Stink bug: Cordius janus, Pentatomidae: Hemiptera Leaf footed bug: Fabrictilis australis, Coreidae: Hemiptera Mealy bug: Ferrisia virgata, Pseudococcidae: Hemiptera

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