THE EFFECTS OF GENDER IN
SPEAKING AND USING LANGUAGE
OF ELESP STUDENTS IN
SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY
By :
Prabarini Dwi Pang...
Literature Review
Introduction
Methodology
Result and Discussion
Conclusion
Appendices
Introduction
Cameron (1996, in
Eckert and
McConnel,2003)
stated that women and
men categorically said to
be different.
It ...
Cont.
• Language is a medium of expressing and
reflecting gender identity (Talbot, 1998, in
Eckert and McConnel, 2003).
Ac...
Cont.
Aim
To analyze whether gender still affects a person to
speak in daily conversation or not
• Research question
How d...
Literature Review
• The forming of gender (West and Zimmerman, 1987, in
Eckert and McConnel, 2003)
• The special vocabular...
Cont.
• The theory of women’s powerlessness
(Tannen,1990 and Holmes, 1995 in
Kuntjara, 2003)
• Theory of politeness which ...
Methodology
1. Subject
• The 6th semester students of ELESP, Sanata
Dharma University
• There are 12 students : 6 males an...
Cont.
3. Setting
• Place : Sanata Dharma University
• Time : May 2012
4. Data Gathering
• Questionnaire  Close-ended ques...
Result and Discussion
• What is gender?
Gender is not something we are born with, and not
something we have but something ...
Question 1 : When you are angry you tend to use word
Damn  Showing anger
• Avoidance of strong swear words
0%
10%
20%
30%...
Question 2 : When you are happy you prefer to show
your happiness by saying “I am very happy!” 
Showing Happiness
0%
5%
1...
Question 3 : When you are sad, you always complain by saying
“Oh God. How could this happen to me?”  Expressing
sadness
0...
Question 4 : Even though with your friends, to request
something you’ll still say “Could you open the window
for me please...
Cont.
Leech (1983, in
Kuntjara, 2003) stated that
indirect request is more polite
than direct one
Blum Kulka (1987, in Kun...
Question 5 : When someone makes mistake and asks
for apology, you easily forgive him/her by saying “Never
mind. It’s okay”...
Question 6 : When you ask for apology, you tend to beg to be
forgiven and say word “Sorry” for many times  Asking for
apo...
Question 7 : To interrupt 2 friends who are arguing, you tend to say
“Excuse me, may I interrupt you two?” before interrup...
Question 8 : In order to give compliment to someone else, you use
lively words such as lovely, adorable, cute, or fantasti...
Question 9 : To respond a compliment from someone
else you just say thank you  Responding compliment
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25...
Question 10 : When you are uncertain about something, you
tend to use question tag, for example “Next week, we are going
t...
Conclusion
• Men and women speak differently
• Time has changed but the gender’s term for
speaking does not
• Gender does ...
Appendices
• Questionnaire
• Result
References
• Bergvall, Victoria L. (Ed.), Janet M. Bing, Alice F. Fred.
Rethinking Language and Gender : Research Theory a...
The Effects Of Gender In Speaking And Using Language Of Elesp Students In
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The Effects Of Gender In Speaking And Using Language Of Elesp Students In

  1. 1. THE EFFECTS OF GENDER IN SPEAKING AND USING LANGUAGE OF ELESP STUDENTS IN SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY By : Prabarini Dwi Pangestu 091214065
  2. 2. Literature Review Introduction Methodology Result and Discussion Conclusion Appendices
  3. 3. Introduction Cameron (1996, in Eckert and McConnel,2003) stated that women and men categorically said to be different. It is now widely accepted that women and men talk differently, women and men make differential use of the linguistic resources available to them (Thorne and Henley, 1975, in Mills 1995).
  4. 4. Cont. • Language is a medium of expressing and reflecting gender identity (Talbot, 1998, in Eckert and McConnel, 2003). According to Ige and de Kadt (2002, in Boakye, 2007) women’s and men’s language serve as an important factor in the construction of their identities and is used to maintain relation of power.
  5. 5. Cont. Aim To analyze whether gender still affects a person to speak in daily conversation or not • Research question How does gender affect ELESP (English Language Education Study Program) students semester 6 of Sanata Dharma University in speaking in daily conversation?
  6. 6. Literature Review • The forming of gender (West and Zimmerman, 1987, in Eckert and McConnel, 2003) • The special vocabulary of women (Lakoff, 1973) • The paradox theory about standard grammar for women (Labov, 1991, 2001, Eckert and McConnel, 2003) • Nonstandard grammar for men (Peter Trudgill, 1972, in Eckert and McConnel, 2003) • The theory why women use standard language and men use non standard language (Bourhis 1975, J. Edwards 1982, in Bergval, Bing, and Freed, 1996).
  7. 7. Cont. • The theory of women’s powerlessness (Tannen,1990 and Holmes, 1995 in Kuntjara, 2003) • Theory of politeness which focuses on informal context (Brown and Levinson, 1987, in Boakye, 2005) • Theories on gender and language suggest that females use language that is passive, indicating shyness and lower self-confidence (Lakoff's ,1973, in Eckert & McConnell-Ginet, 2003).
  8. 8. Methodology 1. Subject • The 6th semester students of ELESP, Sanata Dharma University • There are 12 students : 6 males and 6 females 2. Types of Research • Qualitative  Questionnaire • Library study
  9. 9. Cont. 3. Setting • Place : Sanata Dharma University • Time : May 2012 4. Data Gathering • Questionnaire  Close-ended questions with scaled response
  10. 10. Result and Discussion • What is gender? Gender is not something we are born with, and not something we have but something we do (West and Zimmerman, 1987, in Eckert and McConnel, 2003). • Empty Adjectives (Lakoff, 1973) - Avoidance of strong swear words - Hypercorrect grammar - Super polite form - Empty adjective - Question tag
  11. 11. Question 1 : When you are angry you tend to use word Damn  Showing anger • Avoidance of strong swear words 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Male Female Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree Women are more likely said as powerless because they always use more standard language rather than men. Brown and Levinson (1987, in Boakye, 2007) stated women’s use of language as a face-saving device (Politeness strategy) is a result of their powerlessness
  12. 12. Question 2 : When you are happy you prefer to show your happiness by saying “I am very happy!”  Showing Happiness 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% Male Female Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree
  13. 13. Question 3 : When you are sad, you always complain by saying “Oh God. How could this happen to me?”  Expressing sadness 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Male Female Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree
  14. 14. Question 4 : Even though with your friends, to request something you’ll still say “Could you open the window for me please?”  Requesting • Hypercorrect grammar According to Labov (1991, 2001, in Eckert and McConnel 2003) women’s grammar is more standard then men. On the other hand, Trudgill (1972, in Eckert and McConnel, 2003), men are more likely use non standard language because of their association with working-class masculinity 0.00% 5.00% 10.00% 15.00% 20.00% 25.00% 30.00% Male Female Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree
  15. 15. Cont. Leech (1983, in Kuntjara, 2003) stated that indirect request is more polite than direct one Blum Kulka (1987, in Kuntjara, 2003) disagreed with Leech’s statement. According to him, politeness in asking request cannot be guaranteed by direct or indirect request, because he thought that indirect request is ambiguous and not clear, it makes less polite.
  16. 16. Question 5 : When someone makes mistake and asks for apology, you easily forgive him/her by saying “Never mind. It’s okay”  Giving apology 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% Male Female Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree
  17. 17. Question 6 : When you ask for apology, you tend to beg to be forgiven and say word “Sorry” for many times  Asking for apology 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Male Female Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree By saying sorry, sometimes it’s always considered as powerless, Tannen (1990, in Kuntjara, 2003) and Holmes (1995, in Kuntjara, 2003) stated that someone who says sorry can take a one-down position and also it can be concluded as admission of powerless
  18. 18. Question 7 : To interrupt 2 friends who are arguing, you tend to say “Excuse me, may I interrupt you two?” before interrupting  Interrupting • Super polite form Brown and Levinson (1987, in Boakye, 2007) stated that women show their politeness in order to show their deference. The theory has stated that women are more polite and do not use swearing words. 0.00% 5.00% 10.00% 15.00% 20.00% 25.00% 30.00% Male Female Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree
  19. 19. Question 8 : In order to give compliment to someone else, you use lively words such as lovely, adorable, cute, or fantastic  Giving compliment • Empty adjective According to Lakoff (1973), women have their own vocabulary when they speak. He claimed that women tend to use empty adjectives such as, adorable, charming, divine, lovely, etc to show their feeling rather than men . 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Male Female Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree
  20. 20. Question 9 : To respond a compliment from someone else you just say thank you  Responding compliment 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% Male Female Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree
  21. 21. Question 10 : When you are uncertain about something, you tend to use question tag, for example “Next week, we are going to have Structure test, aren’t we?”  Showing uncertainty • Question tag 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% Male Female Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree
  22. 22. Conclusion • Men and women speak differently • Time has changed but the gender’s term for speaking does not • Gender does affect someone when he or she speaks in daily conversation
  23. 23. Appendices • Questionnaire • Result
  24. 24. References • Bergvall, Victoria L. (Ed.), Janet M. Bing, Alice F. Fred. Rethinking Language and Gender : Research Theory and Practice. (1996). London and New York : Longman • Boakye, Naomi Adjoa. (2007). Gender Aspects of Vague Language Use : Formal and Informal Context. University of South Africa • Eckert, Penelope & Sally McConnell-Ginet. (2003). Language and Gender. UK : Cambridge University Press. • Kuntjara, Esther. (2003). Gender : Bahasa dan Kekuasaan. Jakarta : Gunung Mulia. • Lakoff, Robin. 1973. Language and Woman’s place. Source from : Language in Society, Vol 2, pp 45-80. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved April 13th, 2012, from: http://www.stanford.edu/class/linguist156/Lakoff_1973.pdf • Wardaugh, Ronald. (1986). An Introduction of Sociolinguistics. Oxford and New York : Blackwell Publisher, Ltd. Pp 312-325
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