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PHEV/EV Li-Ion Battery                                 Second-Use Project                                                 ...
NREL: News - NREL Team Investigates Secondary Uses for Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries                                   ...
PHEV/EV Adoption• Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles  (PHEVs) and full electric vehicles  (EVs) have massive potential to  r...
Battery Reuse Strategies         Manufactured & Installed      • PHEV/EV batteries degraded to             in Automobile  ...
Some Second Use Applications                                           • Grid-Based Stationary                            ...
Second Use History   • General second use of automotive traction batteries has been studied     before:          – Pinsky,...
Renewed Interest in Second Use Programs    • New opportunities and dynamics for second use of      PHEV/EV batteries are d...
Present Second Use & Related Activities   •     AEP & EPRI… developing a Community Energy Storage (CES) appliance,        ...
NREL: Uniquely Positioned to Investigate Second Use                                       Li-Ion Batteries                ...
DOE - NREL’s Second Use Project  • Objective: Identify, assess, and verify profitable    applications for the second use o...
Phase 1: Assess the Merit                                of Second Use Applications                                      a...
Application Identification  • All applications are    considered, but high-value /    high-impact ones are most    desirab...
Application Identification  • For each application, consider…         – How does a battery retired from automotive service...
Tool Development & Use   • Must consider value and performance in both automotive     and secondary use environments to ca...
Tool Development & Use• First, model performance through automotive use       – Consider multiple automotive scenarios, su...
Tool Development & Use  • Next, select a second use application (or aggregation    thereof) and model performance in the s...
Tool Development & Use• Third, calculate the net  present value of each                                        Scenario 2:...
Tool Development & Use                                                Scenario 2: $16479• Some things to consider         ...
Tool Development & Use                      • Repeat for multiple (aggregations of)                        second use appl...
Tool Development & Use  • Questions the tool will be asked to answer…         – How do different automotive use profiles, ...
Optimizing Use Strategies              What design and                                                                    ...
Optimizing Use Strategies • Example timeline …                                   Decision to remove /                     ...
Selecting the Best Applications & Strategies           • Maximum total lifetime value of the battery (biggest             ...
Phase 2: Verify Performance                                   In Second Use Applications                 Phase 1:         ...
Acquire Aged Li-Ion Batteries• Prefer field-tested                                              Courtesy chevrolet.com    ...
Conduct Long-Term Testing• Subject the aged batteries to the expected use profile and  conditions of the second use applic...
Phase 3: Facilitate Implementation of Second Use Programs                    – Disseminate study findings to inform the ma...
DOE-NREL’s Second Use Program Status         Where we are now                Phase 1:                Phase 2:       Phase ...
What’s Next?       • NREL is currently seeking partners to investigate the reuse of retired         PHEV/EV traction batte...
Acknowledgements      • This activity is funded by the DOE Vehicle Technologies        Program, Energy Storage Technology ...
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UCSD to test 2nd Life EV Batteries for NREL & CCSE

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The project will begin with a comprehensive technical and economic analysis addressing all aspects of a
battery’s lifecycle in search of the best second-use strategies, followed by a comprehensive test program to
verify findings, particularly battery lifetimes. For the field test, researchers will deploy aged EV batteries at
the University of California (UC), San Diego’s campus-wide electric power grid. The results of the study will:
Provide validated tools and data on battery life to industry for battery reuse
Recommendations for EV battery design and manufacturing practices
Identify the necessary regulatory changes to encourage secondary battery use
Assess the economic benefit of second uses

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Transcript of "UCSD to test 2nd Life EV Batteries for NREL & CCSE"

  1. 1. PHEV/EV Li-Ion Battery Second-Use Project Jeremy Neubauer Ahmad Pesaran April 2010 NREL/PR-540-48018NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC.
  2. 2. NREL: News - NREL Team Investigates Secondary Uses for Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries More Search Options Site Map NREL Newsroom Home Printable Version Feature News News Releases News Release NR-1411 Science & Technology News Events NREL Team Investigates Secondary Uses for Electric Drive Vehicle Research Support Facility Batteries Construction Update April 5, 2011 The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), industry and academia are teaming to give batteries from electric drive vehicles (EV) a “second life.” NREL’s partner is an industry-academia team led by the California Center for Sustainable Energy (CCSE). Possible secondary uses for lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries include residential and commercial electric power management, power grid stabilization to help provide reliable electricity to users, and renewable energy system firming — which in this case involves using batteries to make power provided to the grid by variable resources such as wind and solar energy more useable. To date, no one has comprehensively studied the feasibility, durability, and value of Li-ion batteries for second-use applications. The project will begin with a comprehensive technical and economic analysis addressing all aspects of a battery’s lifecycle in search of the best second-use strategies, followed by a comprehensive test program to verify findings, particularly battery lifetimes. For the field test, researchers will deploy aged EV batteries at the University of California (UC), San Diego’s campus-wide electric power grid. The results of the study will: Provide validated tools and data on battery life to industry for battery reuse Recommendations for EV battery design and manufacturing practices Identify the necessary regulatory changes to encourage secondary battery use Assess the economic benefit of second uses The cost of Li-ion batteries also currently affects the affordability of EVs for consumers. Researchers will do a technical and economic investigation to see if the potential for reusing Li-ion batteries could lead to consumers obtaining a cost credit for the remaining value of a used battery, potentially offsetting a portion of the initial cost to the EV buyer. It might be the case that while a battery no longer has sufficient power for an EV, it still has the capability to meet the needs of other less demanding applications. Allocating used electric vehicle batteries to second-use applications also could benefit the environment by delaying the recycling or disposing of batteries, and by supplying a service that improves the efficiency and cleanliness of other industries. Team Members The CCSE project team includes the UC Davis’s Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Research Center, the UC Berkeley, Transportation Sustainability Research Center (TSRC), UC San Diego Strategic Energy Initiatives, San Diego Gas & Electric, and AeroVironment. The NREL award to the CCSE team leverages an ongoing UC Davis-CCSE-TSRC study funded by the California Energy Commission on the repurposing of used EV batteries for home energy storage. The total budget for the NREL-CCSE second use battery project is approximately $1.3 million with 51 percent of the funding coming from CCSE and its partners. This activity is sponsored by DOE’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. NREL’s cross-cutting capabilities and expertise in energy storage, advanced vehicles, grid interfaces, system analysis, and solar and wind energy will provide overall project direction and critical assessment. NREL is the Department of Energy’s primary national laboratory for renewable energy and energy efficiency research and development. NREL is operated for DOE by The Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. ### Visit NREL online at www.nrel.gov For further information contact NREL Public Relations at 303-275-4090 . Subscribe to receive new NREL releases by e-mail. Subscribe to RSS feed. About RSS. Printable Version Content Last Updated: April 05, 2011http://www.nrel.gov/news/press/2011/959.html[5/13/2011 5:23:42 AM]
  3. 3. PHEV/EV Adoption• Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and full electric vehicles (EVs) have massive potential to reduce U.S. dependence on foreign oil and emissions…• …but their high initial battery costs inhibit rapid proliferation – EV packs can cost more than $30,000!• One option to reduce initial battery cost: reuse it in a second application following its retirement from automotive service and obtain a cost credit for its residual value Becker, “Electric Cars in the United States: A New Model with Forecasts to 2030”National Renewable Energy Laboratory 2 Innovation for Our Energy Future
  4. 4. Battery Reuse Strategies Manufactured & Installed • PHEV/EV batteries degraded to in Automobile 70%-80% of their original power/capacity are insufficient for Employed in Automotive automotive use Application • These “retired” batteries may still Refurbished & Installed in Second Use Application be highly useful and could be reused in other applications Employed in Second Use Application • “Second-use” applications could significantly increase the total lifetime value of the battery, and Recycled thus reduce its cost to the automotive userNational Renewable Energy Laboratory 3 Innovation for Our Energy Future
  5. 5. Some Second Use Applications • Grid-Based Stationary – Energy Time Shifting – Renewables Firming – Service Reliability / Quality • Off-Grid Stationary – Backup Power – Remote Installations • Mobile – Commercial Idle Off – Utility & Rec. Vehicles – Public TransportationNational Renewable Energy Laboratory 4 Innovation for Our Energy Future
  6. 6. Second Use History • General second use of automotive traction batteries has been studied before: – Pinsky, et al., “Electric Vehicle Battery 2nd Use Study” – EPRI, “Market Feasibility for Nickel Metal Hydride and Other Advanced Electric Vehicle Batteries in Selected Stationary Applications” – Cready, et al. “Technical and Economic Feasibility of Applying Used EV Batteries in Stationary Applications” • Results showed some promise, but highlighted several barriers: – Sensitivity to uncertain degradation rates in second use – High cost of battery refurbishment and integration – Low cost of alternative energy storage solutions – Lack of market mechanisms and presence of regulation – Perception of used batteries • Due in part to the limited market of PHEV/EVs at the time, no second use programs have been implemented yetNational Renewable Energy Laboratory 5 Innovation for Our Energy Future
  7. 7. Renewed Interest in Second Use Programs • New opportunities and dynamics for second use of PHEV/EV batteries are driven by… – Recent strong interest in PHEV/EVs for reducing emissions and dependence on imported oil – Increased need for grid-integrated energy storage to address peak load reduction, grid stabilization / reliability, energy efficiency, etc. – Envisioned growth of renewable solar and wind electricity further increasing the value of grid-integrated energy storage – Large investment in battery manufacturing for green economy – Advances in Li-ion batteries with longer life, but still high costNational Renewable Energy Laboratory 6 Innovation for Our Energy Future
  8. 8. Present Second Use & Related Activities • AEP & EPRI… developing a Community Energy Storage (CES) appliance, which they’ve stated is “the ideal secondary market we have been seeking for used PHEV batteries” • UC Davis… has released an RFP titled “Second Life Applications and Value of Traction Lithium Batteries” to investigate profitable second use strategies and develop a Home Energy Storage Appliance (HESA) • UC Berkeley/CEC… investigated strategies to overcome the battery cost of plug-in vehicles by the value of integrating post-vehicle battery to grid • Rochester Institute of Technology… funded by NYSERDA to investigate the second use of lithium ion batteries • Nissan… has partnered with Sumitomo to initiate a business plan centered on recovering and reselling used automotive batteries • Enerdel … is working with Itochu to develop energy storage systems for apartment buildings to “help develop a secondary market” for used batteries • Better Place… is “evaluating … second life applications for used batteries” in partnership with Renault-Nissan • DOE / NREL… funded to investigate reducing initial PHEV/EV battery cost via the second use of automotive lithium ion batteriesNational Renewable Energy Laboratory 7 Innovation for Our Energy Future
  9. 9. NREL: Uniquely Positioned to Investigate Second Use Li-Ion Batteries Energy Analysis Utilities & Grids Solar Energy Wind Energy Hybrid & Electric Vehicles Energy Efficient Commercial & Residential BuildingsNational Renewable Energy Laboratory 8 Innovation for Our Energy Future
  10. 10. DOE - NREL’s Second Use Project • Objective: Identify, assess, and verify profitable applications for the second use of PHEV/EV Li-ion traction batteries to reduce the cost and accelerate adoption of PHEV/EVs • Strategy: Phase 1: Phase 2: Phase 3: Assess Verify Facilitate Merit Performance ImplementationNational Renewable Energy Laboratory 9 Innovation for Our Energy Future
  11. 11. Phase 1: Assess the Merit of Second Use Applications and Strategies Phase 1: Phase 2: Phase 3: Assess Verify Facilitate Merit Performance ImplementationNational Renewable Energy Laboratory 10 Innovation for Our Energy Future
  12. 12. Application Identification • All applications are considered, but high-value / high-impact ones are most desirable Numerous grid-connected applications at consumer to power plant levels, ranging from T&D support to energy • Accurate use profiles and time shifting economic data are needed Secondary mobile applications may also prove valuable • Application value and impact will be estimated before progressing to a detailed investigationNational Renewable Energy Laboratory 11 Innovation for Our Energy Future
  13. 13. Application Identification • For each application, consider… – How does a battery retired from automotive service perform when subjected to the second use profile? – What are the projected revenues and costs? – What are the safety concerns and liabilities? – How do the performance, life, and cost of a second use battery compare with those of competing technologies? – What are the regulatory issues or other barriers specific to this application? – Is the scale of this application well suited to the expected availability of retired PHEV/EV batteries?National Renewable Energy Laboratory 12 Innovation for Our Energy Future
  14. 14. Tool Development & Use • Must consider value and performance in both automotive and secondary use environments to calculate total lifetime battery value Second Use Automotive Use Eyer, “Energy Storage for the Electricity Grid: Benefits and Market Potential Assessment Guide”National Renewable Energy Laboratory 13 Innovation for Our Energy Future
  15. 15. Tool Development & Use• First, model performance through automotive use – Consider multiple automotive scenarios, such as various climates, use profiles, initial sizing strategies, retirement dates, etc. Scenario 2: Standard auto use, retired early Scenario 1: Standard auto use, retired @ 70% Scenario 3: Aggressive auto use, retired @ 70%National Renewable Energy Laboratory 14 Innovation for Our Energy Future
  16. 16. Tool Development & Use • Next, select a second use application (or aggregation thereof) and model performance in the second life – Consider appropriate second use application variables These example second use apps retired @ 60%National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15 Innovation for Our Energy Future
  17. 17. Tool Development & Use• Third, calculate the net present value of each Scenario 2: $16479 scenario and select the Scenario 1: $15333 optimum use strategy – Apply a $/mile valuation to automotive life? Scenario 3: $8030 – Include both a discount rate for future revenue and anticipated increase / decrease in future second use revenue – Account for costs, including reconfiguration, shipping, maintenance, etc.National Renewable Energy Laboratory 16 Innovation for Our Energy Future
  18. 18. Tool Development & Use Scenario 2: $16479• Some things to consider Early retirement sounds good here… but under these assumptions the in a proper analysis… battery is most cost-effective when never installed in an automobile! Scenario 1: $15333 – Every time a battery is replaced in a car, a cost is incurred to the owner – Linear battery degradation may not be a good Scenario 3: $8030 Looks really bad, but assumption remember the initial battery cost is assumed to be much lower! – If the second use application is too valuable, operators may choose new batteries over used onesNational Renewable Energy Laboratory 17 Innovation for Our Energy Future
  19. 19. Tool Development & Use • Repeat for multiple (aggregations of) second use applications, identify the best ones, and calculate an initial battery price discountNational Renewable Energy Laboratory 18 Innovation for Our Energy Future
  20. 20. Tool Development & Use • Questions the tool will be asked to answer… – How do different automotive use profiles, environmental conditions, and lifetimes affect performance in the second use application? – What is the total lifetime value of the battery, in both its automotive and second use applications? – What is the sensitivity of total lifetime value to use history and other parameters? – What is the uncertainty in the complete analysis?National Renewable Energy Laboratory 19 Innovation for Our Energy Future
  21. 21. Optimizing Use Strategies What design and manufacturing practices should be employed? • For a given second use Manufactured & Installed application, there can be many in Automobiles How should the different ways to implement it battery be used and retired? Employed in Automotive • Changing these variables can Applications have a significant impact on How do you collect, screen, refurbish, certify, total lifetime value and general & distribute the batteries? feasibility Refurbished for Second Use Applications How do you manage ancillary systems, the • In this segment, the use use of multiple packs, and servicing needs? strategy of the battery is Employed in optimized via the developed Second Use Applications tools and practical considerations Who owns the battery at each stage? RecycleNational Renewable Energy Laboratory 20 Innovation for Our Energy Future
  22. 22. Optimizing Use Strategies • Example timeline … Decision to remove / replace battery in auto Battery manufactured based on… & installed in auto • In-car performance? Decision to retire / replace • Second use value? battery based on… • Replacement cost? • Safety concerns? • Cont’d second use value? • Replacement cost? • Recycled value? Auto continues with new battery… Regular performance checks to support Second use service retirement election continues with battery replacement Regular performance checks to support Retired auto battery retirement election tested, certified, and Battery recycled reconfigured Battery shipped and installed for second useNational Renewable Energy Laboratory 21 Innovation for Our Energy Future
  23. 23. Selecting the Best Applications & Strategies • Maximum total lifetime value of the battery (biggest initial cost reduction) • High feasibility of implementation • Matched well to the size of the PHEV/EV marketNational Renewable Energy Laboratory 22 Innovation for Our Energy Future
  24. 24. Phase 2: Verify Performance In Second Use Applications Phase 1: Phase 2: Phase 3: Assess Verify Facilitate Merit Performance ImplementationNational Renewable Energy Laboratory 23 Innovation for Our Energy Future
  25. 25. Acquire Aged Li-Ion Batteries• Prefer field-tested Courtesy chevrolet.com Courtesy fiskerautomotive.com batteries from (pre) production PHEV/EVs• Accelerated aging via Courtesy nissanusa.com Courtesy thinkev.com lab testing is also an option, but may not ensure correlation with actual field use Courtesy miniusa.com• Mass-produced cell Courtesy teslamotors.com and pack designs are requiredNational Renewable Energy Laboratory 24 Innovation for Our Energy Future
  26. 26. Conduct Long-Term Testing• Subject the aged batteries to the expected use profile and conditions of the second use application to verify performance and degradation predictions and lifetime valuations• Lab testing for precise control of conditions• Field testing for final demonstration NREL’s Distributed Energy Resources Test Facility could serve as a venue for this phaseNational Renewable Energy Laboratory 25 Innovation for Our Energy Future
  27. 27. Phase 3: Facilitate Implementation of Second Use Programs – Disseminate study findings to inform the market of the potential profitability of the second use of traction batteries – Provide validated tools and data to industry – Develop design and manufacture standards for PHEV/EV batteries that facilitate their reuse – Propose regulatory changes to encourage the reuse of retired traction batteries in other applications Phase 1: Phase 2: Phase 3: Assess Verify Facilitate Merit Performance ImplementationNational Renewable Energy Laboratory 26 Innovation for Our Energy Future
  28. 28. DOE-NREL’s Second Use Program Status Where we are now Phase 1: Phase 2: Phase 3: Assess Verify Facilitate Merit Performance Implementation • High-level objectives and strategies have been formulated • Work has begun on researching possible second use applications and on tools to forecast performance / degradation • Discussions with possible partners are under wayNational Renewable Energy Laboratory 27 Innovation for Our Energy Future
  29. 29. What’s Next? • NREL is currently seeking partners to investigate the reuse of retired PHEV/EV traction batteries to reduce vehicle cost and emissions as well as our dependence on foreign oil • A Request for Proposal (RFP) will be issued in April 2010 seeking subcontractors to support all aspects of this effort • A workshop to solicit industry feedback on the entire process is also being plannedNational Renewable Energy Laboratory 28 Innovation for Our Energy Future
  30. 30. Acknowledgements • This activity is funded by the DOE Vehicle Technologies Program, Energy Storage Technology • We appreciate the support provided by DOE program managers – David Howell – Steve Goguen • Technical questions regarding Battery Second Use should be directed to Jeremy Neubauer at 303-275- 3084 or jeremy.neubauer@nrel.gov • Questions regarding the request for proposals should be directed to Kathee Roque at kathee.roque@nrel.govNational Renewable Energy Laboratory 29 Innovation for Our Energy Future
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