The Tailpipe Endgame:Charging of Electric Vehicles with Secure, Domestic, Renewable Energy Resources
The goal of the University of California, San Diego’s Zero Emission Vehicle Project named ‘TailpipeEndgame” is to eliminat...
renewable charging) and outreach to business and fleet owners.” CleanTech San Diego, CONNECT, GE, SanDiego Regional Econom...
The CA South Coast Air Quality Management District identified as one of the priority projects in 2011 toincentivize five m...
cluster in the world and the CA Center for Sustainable Energy. In June 2010, Governor Schwarzenegger namedthe San Diego re...
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True Zero Tailpipe Emissions with "Tailpipe Endgame" at UC San Diego June 2011

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Overview of the efforts globally to utilize renewable energy resources to charge growing deployments of electric vehicles. Particularly focus on UC San Diego program entitled 'Tailpiple Endgame" in collaboration with the Smart City San Diego collaborative.

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True Zero Tailpipe Emissions with "Tailpipe Endgame" at UC San Diego June 2011

  1. 1. The Tailpipe Endgame:Charging of Electric Vehicles with Secure, Domestic, Renewable Energy Resources
  2. 2. The goal of the University of California, San Diego’s Zero Emission Vehicle Project named ‘TailpipeEndgame” is to eliminate greenhouse gases and local air pollutants from the tailpipes of the transportationsector by using secure, domestic, renewable energy resources to charge a variety of new models of electricvehicles from twelve international manufacturers. The Tailpipe Endgame project was announced on January 31,2011 as one of five key electric vehicle initiatives by a bold, new Smart City San Diego Collaborative amongthe City of San Diego, San Diego Gas & Electric (SDG&E), GE, UC San Diego and CleanTECH San Diego.Electric vehicles (EV) achieve four-times the efficiency of internal-combustion engines, but the long term goalsof an 80% reduction in green house gas emissions will not be met due to the carbon intensity of the generatingsources of the electricity that supplies California’s and our nation’s grids. The California Energy Commission’s2012 Investment Plan for the Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program CommitteeDraft Report in support of AB118 recently recommended, “Encourage workplace and fleet charging, the EnergyCommission will consider grants to support charging infrastructure (with emphasis on battery storage and
  3. 3. renewable charging) and outreach to business and fleet owners.” CleanTech San Diego, CONNECT, GE, SanDiego Regional Economic Development Council and UCSD submitted for the record support for thisrecommendation.The concept of using “grid connected”Photovoltaics to charge EVs in a carportconfiguration was very prevalent in the news in May2011 with separate press releases by GE, Nissan andHitachi. GE commissioned in Plainville CT(pictured above) a 100 kW PV carport to fullycharge up to 13 electric vehicles per day via sixLevel 2 GE EV Charging Stations and to power theoverhead lighting in the parking lot.Nissan North America began installation of 30 solarassisted charging stations at the Smyrna Plan inFranklin, TN with a scheduled operation in July2011. Hitachi announced plans for various types of rapid chargers will be installed on Maui HI by 2014,including flexible power supply type, Photovoltaic DC to DC Power supply type and DC power supply typewith battery power at EV charging stations, and demonstrate their effectiveness at controlling EV chargers sothey do not overload distribution facilities.Above: On September 22, 2010 the Executive Team from the State Grid China Corporation, the world’s largest utility, visited UC SanDiego’s initial site for the renewable energy charging of electric vehicles.
  4. 4. The CA South Coast Air Quality Management District identified as one of the priority projects in 2011 toincentivize five megawatts of in-basin renewable distributed electricity generation and storage to supportelectric technology applications such as plug-in hybrid vehicles. This priority goal was highlighted asparticularly important in achieving AQMD’s mission and goals. A Request For Proposals was released in May2011 for 5+ Megawatts with a budget of $30+M. The Agency also stated that the use of renewable feedstocksfor energy production is a necessary transition to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and provide for domesticenergy diversity. Renewable distributed generation and time-shifting of electricity purchases benefit theenvironment by conserving fossil fuel, reducing emissions from power plants and reducing operation of powerplants during peak demand periods when air pollutants are at highest levels.The international implication of the zero tailpipe emissions concept utilizing renewable resources wasstrengthened when LBL’s China Energy Group published ”China’s Energy and Carbon Emissions Outlook to2050” which emphasized that decarbonization has important effects on the CO2 emissions mitigation potentialof switching to electric vehicle technology, but in the absence of any concurrent decarbonization of the powersector, EVs will actually increase CO2 emissions. China’s largest EV manufacturer, BYD, announced a similarstrategic goal of utilizing Renewable Energy for charging of EVs in October 2010.Uniquely, UC San Diego serves its population of 45,000 with an internationally acclaimed microgrid that has agrowing portfolio of 1.2 MW of solar Photovolatics, 2.8MW of fuel cells utilizing renewable waste methanegas, and 27 MW of an EPA Energy Star Award combined cooling, heating and natural gas power plant. UCSDcurrently self generates 82% of its needs and will achieve 90% by the end of 2011. A recognized prototype tothe Smart Grid of the future, UCSD proposes to divert a portion of its solar and biogas resources to charging afleet of approximately fifty new electric automobiles that will be road tested by a control group of students,faculty and staff with a diversity of demographics, driving ranges and patterns.This quantum advancement will establish the technical feasibility of using renewable energy to electrify thetransportation sectors while inciting the global competitive forces to leapfrog to the one solution that providesthe greatest sustainable, secure supply of energy and reduces the largest global source of greenhouse gasemissions and local air pollutants.The Project Director is UCSD’s Director of Strategic Energy Initiatives, Byron Washom who held the world’sefficiency record for sunlight to grid electricity for 24 years, received R&D magazine’s award for one of themost innovative products in 1984 and was named in 2010 to Fast Company magazine’s 100 Most CreativePeople in Business for his pioneering research and leadership at UCSD. Mr. Washom is the principalinvestigator on the top ranked research proposal funded by the US Department of Energy and the CA EnergyCommission for $2.5M for modeling techniques to mitigate negative impacts from high penetrations of solarsystems on a distribution grid. In 2010, the American College & University Presidents Climate CommitmentGroup awarded UCSD the 1st Annual Climate Leadership Award for Institutional Excellence, and UCSD inMay, 2011 was the first CA university and 10th in the nation to receive a Gold STARS Rating from AASHE.The university is a pillar in the dynamic CleanTech San Diego region which is one of five awarded by the USDepartment of Energy to deploy 1000 all-electric Nissan Leafs and a companion 2300 charging infrastructure inSDG&E’s service territory through 2011. Collaborative partner GE recently made the largest single purchasecommitment of 25,000 EVs worldwide by 2015. The region won 19% of the total, or $154M, of the USTreasury’s 2009 Allotments of Clean Renewable Energy Bonds. The City of San Diego is a Solar AmericanCity and host to numerous economic incubators including CleanTech San Diego, rated the 7th Best CleanTech
  5. 5. cluster in the world and the CA Center for Sustainable Energy. In June 2010, Governor Schwarzenegger namedthe San Diego region as the California iHub for bio-algae fuels and solar energy storage. The CA EnergyCommission has designated UCSD as the co-lead of the CA Solar Collaborative, and the local utility, SanDiego Gas & Electric, was rated the #1 Intelligent Utility in the US for the second year in a row.The blue ribbon Electrification Coalition published in November its FleetElectrification Roadmap. UCSD’s planned fleet deployment, moreover, hasalready initiated unprecedented partnerships and coordination among regulators,vehicle manufacturers, electric utilities, research organizations, governmentplanners, and consumer advocacy groups. UCSD with its installed or fundedinfrastructure is poised at the leading edge to demonstrate ultra clean vehicleelectrification by the utilization of a diversity of secure, distributed andrenewable energy resources.The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), TVA and Oakridge NationalLaboratory are currently testing a solar assisted EV charging station whichutilizes a battery storage system to assess the impact on reliability, analyzeelectric vehicle supply equipment, and test advance metering infrastructure.The CEC in May 2011 approved approximately $200,000 towards the project,and DOE is amending its High PV Penetration CY2011 grant by ~$50,000 toinclude the Tailpipe Endgame Project. The required new funding is only for the incremental cost of the leasing and integration of the EVs and charging stations since the preexisting or under contract renewable solar and biogas energy resources have been funded by other private, state and federal sources. The schedule would be to complete the scoping studies based upon the EPRI Base Design Report and conclude the global competitive solicitation within 15 months after the receipt of the initial grant funding. The 24 month test plan for each chargingstation and EV deployed at UCSD will produce widely circulated reports and lead to hosting numerousinternational visitors and conferences.

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