Local Impact, National Influence, Global Reach UC San Diego’s Leadership in Energy Sustainability MAE 124/ESYS 103 April 7, 2011 Byron Washom, Director, Strategic Energy Initiatives
With a daily population of over45,000, UC San Diego is the size and UC San Diego Operates a 42 MWpeak Microgridcomplexity of a small city.As a research and medicalthe energy density ofcommercial buildings Campus Quick Factsinstitution, we have FOUR times12 million sq. ft. of buildings,$200M/yr of building growthSelf generate 82% of annualdemand•30 MW natural gas Cogen plant•2.8 MW of Fuel Cells contracted•1.2 MW of Solar PV installed, additional2 MW planned
Creating a Green Smart MicrogridUCSD’s Microgrid will embody all 7Smart Grid Functions envisioned bythe Energy Independence &Security Act, 2007RESCO $2M program with CAEnergy Commission will deploy:• Advanced master controller formicrogrids• Optimizer re- scheduler platformfor dynamic market signals allowoptimization of storage and supply• Real time data acquisition foranalysis
Energy Dashboard Sample Computer Sciences Engineering Dept• Overall Energy Usage • Individual Circuit Meters Meters • EBU3B Server Room Monitor Panel T1203B• Main Power Meter • EBU3B 4th Floor Lighting • EBU3B 3rd Floor Lighting• Breakdown of Power Usage • EBU3B 2nd Floor Lighting • EBU3B Server Room UPS Minitoring Panel • EBU3B Emergency Lighting Monitoring• CSE Building Sub- Panel E0222A Monitoring Main Mechanical Sub Station Meters • MP0102• Building Machine Room • • Monitoring Panel T1203C in Server Room EBU3B 1st Floor Lighting• Building Overall Lighting • Monitoring Panel T1203A in Server Room• Building Mechanical Load • Monitoring Panel M Server Room Equipment• Building Plug Loads • EBU3B Basement Lighting • EBU3B Main Building Power Sub Station A • EBU3B Main Building Power Sub Station B • EBU3B Elevator Load • Chilled Water Loop Flow
UCSD’s Trade Street Warehouse Request for Proposals for 3 Different Roof Loadings Common SoCal Characteristics Roof Loading Restrictions• Constructed in 1988• 152k sq ft clear roof space• Due to structural loading restrictions, the winning PV will be the system design that meets the loading restrictions indicated in the figure to the right while maximizing PV power generation• Very applicable to high PV strategy 11/18/2010 UC San Diego 35
Los Angeles/Orange County Warehouse Roof Market OntarioLos Angeles Puente Hills Anaheim 36
Governor Designated San Diego as the Latest Innovation Hub San Diego iHub Now Joins California’sInnovation Corridor to Advance State’s Economic Innovation and Global Competitiveness The San Diego iHub wil be focused on the convergence of three clusters: mobile health, biofuels, and solar energy and energy storage
Solar PV plant output variability (partly-cloudy day, 10-second time-step) Potential voltage control and power quality issues due to PV variability Energy storage on distribution PV Generation circuits may be essential21KV Circuit Customer Load Added value – Back up power supply for Energy Storage emergency management
UCSD’s Electric VehicleEnergy Storage Programs
White House Release 3-30-11• Paving the way for advanced vehicles: The President has set an ambitious goal of putting 1 million electric vehicles on the road by 2015. To help us get there, the President’s FY 2012 Budget proposes – a redesigned $7500 tax credit for consumers, – competitive grants for communities that encourage the adoption of electric vehicles, – funding for R&D to drive innovation in advanced battery technology. – calling on Congress to move forward with policies that can help unlock the promise of natural gas vehicles.
Smart City San Diego …A collaborative approach from strategy to execution
UCSD-GE-SDG&E-City of San Diego-CleanTech San Diego Collaborative
3 Proposed Projects …Accelerate EV Infrastructure Build OutDrive Energy Efficiency – Gain Full Utilization of Smart Grid Demand Response ProgramsDevelop Sustainability Index
Electrification of the TransportationSector Is Essential to a Smart Grid Utilize smart technology to enable rapid electric vehicle growth while ensuring safe, reliable and efficient power delivery for consumers. UCSD, SDG&E and GE will demonstrate smart technologies to identify when and where charging will occur, as well as work with electric vehicle owners to better manage charging loads.
Electrification of the TransportationSector Is Essential to a Smart Grid R&D systems to power electric vehicles through clean, renewable energy sources, such as solar and biogas fuel cells. UCSD, GE and SDG&E will test the technical and economic feasibility of achieving zero tailpipe emissions, leveraging UCSD’s extensive solar and fuel cell renewable energy generation infrastructure.
Electrification of the TransportationSector Is Essential to a Smart Grid Study consumer behavior to better understand their decisions and identify additional electric vehicle initiatives. The collaborators plan to enlist a consumer focus group comprised of 50 UCSD students, faculty, and staff who will be offered commercial leases on electric vehicles, charging their vehicles through UCSD’s planned electric vehicle infrastructure.
Additional Mitigation Measure for High PVPenetration is with “Endgame” PV Charging of EV
UCSD’s Legacy Infrastructure Enables Zero Carbon Emissions, DC to DC On Peak Charging• Funded $3.5 of Solar PV • Funded $17M Fuel Cell
Nissan, Mitsubishi, et.al can provide thelast link of the DC-DC Charging Stations Access to DC PowerNeed Zero Sum Reallocation ofDOE funding for DC-DC rectifierand storage equipment &installation costs
Second-Life for PHEV/BEV Batteries• Findings from the UC Davis Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Research Center indicate that PEV batteries— after they are no longer suitable for use in the vehicle—could potentially be repurposed for a second-life use in stationary storage applications, providing valuable services to the grid, the utilities, and electricity customers.• The UC Berkeley study Strategies for Overcoming Battery First‐Cost Hurdles found that revenue streams generated from these second -use applications could be used to significantly reduce the upfront cost of batteries and therefore PEV ownership.
2011 Testing Plans at UCSD• NREL will announce soon that industry and academia are being a led by the CA Center for Sustainable Energy (CCSE) to give batteries from PHEV and BEV a unique comprehensive study of the feasibility, durability, and value of Li-ion batteries for second use applications• The project will begin with a comprehensive techno-economic analysis addressing all aspects of a battery’s lifecycle in search of the best second-use strategies, followed by a comprehensive field test program at UCSD to verify findings, particularly life of batteries.• The batteries will be integrated with PV on UCSD’s microgrid to: – Provide validated tools and life data to industry for battery re-use – Recommendations for PHEV/BEV battery design and manufacturing practices – Identify the necessary regulatory changes to encourage secondary battery use – Assess the economic benefit of second uses
Energy Storage Strategic Vision Goal: “to work with PIER Energy Storage Program Team, industry experts, utility representatives and other leading practitioners to develop specific targets and milestones as well as specific actions necessary for development and deployment of energy storage technologies in California …. The purpose of the targets and milestones is to clearly identify the 2020 Energy Storage vision and goals over time that the RD&D activities must be working toward achieving.”68
Purpose of a vision: • Provide thought leadership to help state’s leaders and regulatory agencies make decisions on energy policy • Offer a framework that consolidates or integrates detailed analyses conducted by other institutions (e.g. E3, EPRI, SNL/DOE, CAISO, FERC, SDG&E, SCE) with an assessment of the technologies and expected rates of innovation • Suggest next steps for CA policymakers, regulators, and for CEC/PIER research69
Approach for California 2020 Energy Storage Vision• Consider several scenarios for deployment of Energy Storage technologies in California • Scenarios may provide different baselines for defining possible targets and milestones, and for projecting the effects of technological developments• Use scenarios to contextualize specific actions • Feasibility, practicality and cost-effectiveness of specific actions may vary under different scenarios • Starting place must be in identifying system and application needs70
Be the World’s… Most efficient Solar Integrated Storage system First “Smart” system discharging and charging based on solar forecasts and market prices First system to mitigate the negative impacts of solar intermittency on distribution circuit Most diverse mix of energy storage applications Largest aggregate capacity installed at a university Most cited published project
“The use of the many complimentarytechnologies and their integration intothe grid is revolutionary, and it candemonstrate Smart Grid concepts areaffordable and secure sources ofenergy … “Petar Ristanovic, CAISO Chief TechnologyOfficer, July 8, 2010
CAISO in July 2010 expressed theirinterest to the CEC in the developmentand demonstration of UCSD’srenewable based microgrids and howit can be integrated with overalloperation of the power grid includingparticipation in CAISO’s ancillaryservices and participating loadmarkets.
Deep Situation Awareness• CAISO recognizes UCSD’s highly integrated microgrid infrastructure with self generation, thermal and electric energy storage, solar forecasting, Demand Response, renewable generation, its own 69 kV substation and extensive metering and monitoring. – Therefore, with CEC funding to UCSD, CAISO has committed to collaborate in real time data management for testing and demonstration of a data intensive, real time anytical software, and how a Smart Grid can participate in the ISOs markets.