Social Marketing with Social Media by Suzanne Teran

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  • CAMPAIGN GOALS Transform the perception of domestic work. Support safe, dignified jobs for domestic workers. Promote use of non-toxic cleaning products. TARGET AUDIENCE Employers Domestic workers STRATEGY Promote the strength and dignity of domestic workers themselves. Highlight the mutual benefits of safe jobs for employers and workers. Position La Colectiva as a resource.
  • We are a worker-run cleaning collective committed to bettering your life, and ours. We pride ourselves on being green cleaning experts and a voice for immigrant workers in our community. So you can get the peace of mind that a healthy, clean home brings, and the satisfaction of knowing you are providing dignified work and a living wage.
  • Formats
  • OTHER CAMPAIGN ELEMENTS Guided by Women’s Leadership Group Worker training in media, green cleaning Employer handbook and sample contract Photo exhibit featuring workers’ personal stories (later used
  • Marked increase in number of jobs – doubled in months after campaign. 74% of employer survey respondents recalled seeing the ads. Most at transit stations. Very positive reactions to the ads – 70% of employers “liked them a lot.” Marked increase in number of Colectiva members. Positive reaction among women to ads and message. Women’s sense of pride seeing themselves pictured so visibly – theme of increased confidence. Leadership and media skills developed by women.
  • Background: Heat is a common hazard for outdoor workers – and if the proper precautions aren’t in place can lead to heat illness – range of symptoms from heat cramps to the deadly heat stroke. Heat-related fatalities are tragic, especially since most cases of heat stroke are preventable. In CA, occ. heat illness has been an issue of special emphasis for several years. The most serious cases of heat illness, including fatalities, tend to occur among some of the most vulnerable worker populations – such as non-English speaking farm workers and construction workers. We know we may not understand full impact of heat illness among these workers, as many fail to report injuries. In the past years, Cal/OSHA has been carrying out extensive outreach, inspections, trainings for employers – and this year we have partnered on developing a prevention campaign that has an emphasis on reaching workers. The target audience for this campaign? low-wage, non-English speaking workers who work outdoors – focusing on those in agriculture, construction and landscaping work. in agriculture, aim to fill gaps, and have developed resources for Mixteco and Punjabi workers, and Hmong farmers In the summer of 2010, an ambitious heat illness prevention campaign was conducted in California to reduce heat-related fatalities and illness among low-wage, non-English speaking outdoor workers. This campaign was the result of a mandate from the California State Legislature to the Department of Industrial Relations (DIR) to conduct a targeted public education and outreach effort. The campaign strategy involved working at multiple levels to: 1) educate workers, employers and the community as a whole about needed prevention measures both during work and outside of work; 2) develop a “community norm” that views heat illness as a serious issue which requires action in the workplace and community; and, 3) increase the visibility of the Division of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH) as an agency responsive to workers’ needs. Background for questions: CA data from 2005-2006 shows industries impacted by most severe cases of heat stress were ag. and construction Greater number of serious cases among Latino males. Cal/OSHA has seen increase in compliance after a lot of outreach, esp. to employers ---- but now focus is also on the workers and extending the message of prevention fatalities: 2005 12; 2006 8; 2007 1; 2008 6; 2009 1 increase rate of compliance year after year – shut down 13 in 2009; GOALS: 1) Reduce heat-related fatalities and illnesses by educating workers, employers and community as a whole about needed prevention measures 2) Create a community “norm” – action for prevention needed in workplace and community 3) Improve ways in which non-English speakers can report problems to Cal/OSHA
  • California’s Heat Law In 2005, CA was the first state to issue an emergency standard, which was then enacted in 2006 as the Heat Illness Prevention Standard that includes well-defined requirements for employers of outdoor workers. Must provide: water, shade, rest, training, emergency plan The requirements of the Heat Illness Prevention Standard are linked to the prevention steps just described: Employers are responsible for providing: Water – easily accessible, sufficient amounts of cool drinking water at all times; at least one quart (4 cups) per employee per hour for the entire shift; provided at no cost to workers. Shade –once temperature is over 85 degrees, employers must have shaded areas ready. If temperature is less than this, they must have it on-hand if a worker asks to rest. Permit access to shade at all times. Rest – Cool down rest in the shade, for at least 5 minutes as needed. Training –All workers and supervisors must be trained before working outdoors. Emergency plans – linked to training, what they’ll do if someone gets sick: steps to follow, who to call for medical help, how they’ll call, etc. Period of time for workers to get used to the heat – Have a plan for providing new workers with a two-week “break-in” period to get used to the heat. Also a plan for protecting all workers when there is a sudden increase in temperature.
  • Key focus of our strategy: Social marketing – using advertising and marketing strategies to influence attitudes, and therefore behaviors Benefits to audience – does push our communication strategies in order to figure out how to frame our message in ways that will resonate – and be motivating. We carried out interviews and focus groups to do this. Not perhaps, how we would phrase it, but what calls their attention and is motivating. So not just the facts and resources, but how to use advertising to frame our message more effectively. Lack of worker knowledge about prevention measures is not primary reasons farm workers are at risk – workers are aware of risk, know basics of prevention. real-life barriers forefront on minds Marketing goals : cross over for workers/employers – crew leaders are often right there with them A. Shift the culture of heat safety -- it’s simply part of the job; Normalize heat illness B. To create an environment supportive of prevention increase workers’ confidence and ability to take steps to prevent heat illness encourage employers and crew leaders to create safer conditions 2) Since messages are heard or seen throughout the community, and the supervisors are listening to the same media as the workers – this allows us to work towards a workplace norm, and also community norm, as action is needed at both the worksite and community. To support the preventive behaviors, but also remind supervisors that Cal/OSHA is paying attention. 3) Media – good medium to reach these audiences, not only because of low literacy levels but because it’s a popular format – workers listen to radio, etc. Radio and media are emphasized as effective ways to reach these workers. ALTERNATIVE promotional items that reinforce the message seen and heard in the media. If needed for questions: marketing as opposed to education -education is for those who are prone to follow a certain behavior -marketing strategy when target is unable or unwilling to follow behavior Understand their view of the world and how to accommodate these to reach our goals.... Theory for this – immigrant workers risk of injury and illness is compounded by factors such as fear of speaking up, lack of information in their language, lack of adequate training, among others. When working with vulnerable populations it’s a challenge to think about how to support action in the workplace. Use of ediated…social marketing techniques, particularly broad media visibility of the campaign …is useful in building self-efficacy in the sence that we are reaching workers’social and interpersonal networks. In a sense, this type of communication is socially mediated…so that information is communicated to the workers directly and to their social networks, so that these other networks are also reinforcing the message.
  • Suzanne (10 min. slides 19 – 28) Development of media campaign Effective messaging was developed and tested with input from representative workers, employers and community organizations. As we developed the campaign, we carried out interviews with many groups, and also carried out a series of focus groups directly with workers. The main point of the focus groups was to pilot test various possible campaign themes and materials. We facilitated seven groups with the audiences you see on the slide. Look at what calls their attention and is motivating. What would resonate with the audience. So not just the facts and resources, but how to use advertising to frame our message more effectively. What made it easy in the end, is that all the groups selected one concept among their top favorites and this is the one we built on to develop the campaign. Media placed near worksites, seen by both workers and supervisors or employers. All know that Cal/OSHA is paying attention. In our campaign, we are using: OUTDOOR advertising, in three formats: Billboards Wallgraphics – large ads installed in stores, check cashing locations and other places frequented by our target groups Ads on vans and lunch trucks RADIO Radio Suzanne This was the selected concept – everyone wanted to see photographs that represented them, photos of workers. Here you see the three main billboards in English. They all have the red part but I just deleted for this presentation. The main strategy is to position heat safety as simply part of the job. Water. Rest. Shade – the work can’t get done without them. This is a message that is relevant to workers and employers. We also aim to create an environment supportive of prevention Creating positive associations with prevention steps – And through placement and message encouraging employers and crew leaders to create safe conditions And, workers favored messages that gave a “why” – how does this behavior help them. Since their main reported priority was about being productive, we are showing headlines that emphasize that by taking these steps you can feel stronger, and stay healthy. After our formative research, have selected this concept – drafts, stock photos, we are taking photographs of real workers. (Photo shoot details if time) Key: water, rest, shade. The work can’t get done without them. Positions it as a new norm being adopted. The phone number – implied stick “ if your employer isn’t doing the right thing, call us.” -- placement, employers see it -- confidence concept – workers feel confident practicing these behavior – sense of authority primary, they know their rights and exercise them proudly. Pride and dignity. Resonant photography of workers on the job. They want to see themselves. Want to see pictures of themselves, sweaty dirty….but portrays them reveling in the rightness of their behavior. Heat safety behavior is positive, has positive outcomes, positive image. Message Clear messages that use context of work Like sayings Like seeing prevention tips linked to a benefit “Yes, that’s true!” Visuals Photographs of real workers – seeing themselves reflected is a source of pride Images should reinforce the copy – images tell the story Like vibrant colors Emphasize: self intrest, group norms Key informant interviews – what do they already know? what steps do they take? why/why not? understanding the influences on the decision. Radio complement: tell powerful stores about workers that speak directly to the challenges they face in avoiding heat ilness, help them overcome these barriers and reinforce what’s needed on the job. The top line message of the campaign relates to strong, confident individuals doing what's right for their health. During testing, workers and supervisors commented that they wanted to see the images of workers – people like themselves represented in the billboards. The campaign images show confident workers taking proper safety precautions. The key message emphasized in all campaign materials (“Water. Rest. Shade. The work can’t get done without them”) reinforces how essential these are to doing the work and is a message that is relevant to workers as well as their supervisors and employers. The phone number (877-99-CALOR) is a direct resource for workers and Cal/OSHA’s logo is a reminder to all that Cal/OSHA is paying attention to this issue.
  • Here is the series in Spanish – over 90% of the outdoor advertising is in Spanish. There was significant media coverage in the targeted, hottest regions of the state, and the media mix included billboards, large format posters, ads on lunch trucks and vans and radio ads. Media was developed in five languages: Print ads: Spanish, English, Hmong and Punjabi Radio ads: Spanish, Hmong and Mixteco The top line message of the campaign relates to strong, confident individuals doing what's right for their health. The images show confident workers, doing what’s right for their health taking proper safety precautions. The phone number is a direct resource for workers, and we’ll discuss this more a little later.
  • We developed ads that are installed in stores and other local places frequented by the community.
  • We created these ads in Hmong and Punjabi as well – and these are installed in the Fresno and Yuba City area.
  • The last component of outdoor are ads – Here you see ads in construction lunch trucks in Southern California. And on vans that take farm workers to work in the fields – this one is part of the KART vanpool network in Kings County.
  • Shifting to radio – another key component of the media strategy. We have ads in Spanish and Hmong radio – selected for early morning times – prioritizing 4 – 7 AM when workers are driving to work. And afternoon times when they head back from work. We also have ads in Mixteco through Radio Bilingue. Let’s take a moment to hear one of the ads – we created a series of 6 in Spanish, all feature the same two characters to create recognition throughout the summer. Click on radio spot in content.
  • Finally, we designed a variety of promotional items that Cal/OSHA will be using in outreach efforts this summer – these link to the campaign and reinforce the message. Many of these are items useful at work and include…. Bandanas and caps Stickers that can be placed on igloos and other places in the worksite Thermometer key chains For community fairs as well – lip balm with SPF and playing cards A clipboard that has a printed supervisor’s daily checklist – what they need for the worksite each day
  • Suzanne…. The overall campaign has a multi-level approach – In addition to all the media we have just described, we have developed materials for effective outreach and education. There is also a hotline and website. And, Cal/OSHA will be involved in community outreach through health fairs and other events. Strength of partnership: combining technical know-how / enforcement with experience in education/communication -Not only that it’s not just about providing information, but still keep pushing employers; data found that severity of heat case was less (non-fatal) if supervisors were trained -Cal/OSHA: access to employers – conducting a series of employer workshops; attedance huge – over 500 FLCs attended kick-off + how to be more effective in responsiveness to immigrant workers – improve exisiting hotline; in-service for DOSH staff -Building community-level resources as important and trusted sources of occ health info. and support – develop resources among organizations that are likely to be the first places workers would turn for assistance -In some cases, such as with indigenous communities, we’re working on developing collaborative relationships with existing indigenous organizations... -e-alert network in case of heat waves -messagng where workers gather, local bankis,,etc.; build on our exisiting relationships with organizations – Cal/OSHA for instance with Catholic Diocese (distribute materials; make brief presentation at service or gathering; etc.), CRLA; UC promotora networks, community groups There is also a hotline and website. To extend this campaign throughout the state and in local communities, we are seeking support from organizations like yours, so that we can work together to reach workers. There are many ways to participate, big and small. posting or showing some of the campaign materials at your offices Distributing materials in your community, such as the posters and fact sheets Holding short discussions, showing the DVD or sponsoring workshops Being part of a “heat alert” network – in which you’d receive an email when there is a predicted heat wave or spike in temperature, and help us increase efforts to get that message out to workers and employers in your area Finally, you can also be involved in helping workers file complaints with Cal/OSHA> A broad outreach component reached 178 community organizations, a large portion of which extended the campaign’s efforts by distributing materials and providing trainings in their communities. There was a very positive response to all the supporting educational materials which included highly graphic training materials and promotional items.
  • Suzanne I will now show you some of the materials that have been developed, and which you can access to include in your work. We created a fact sheet that is designed to be easy-to-read for low literacy audiences and has a heavy emphasis on illustrations to convey the key concepts. This is available in English, Spanish, Hmong and Punjabi. A wide range of educational materials were developed, some for workers and others for employers and community organizations to use for training. All materials were developed in Spanish and English, and some in Hmong and Punjabi. Materials included: a low literacy illustrated fact sheet, community posters, DVD with facilitator’s guide, fact sheet on reporting problems to Cal/OSHA, flipchart training guide, employer training posters, employer training guide, supervisor’s daily checklist. The materials were produced in large quantities and distributed throughout the state at DOSH outreach events, through community organizations, through trainings and outreach carried out by campaign staff. There was an enthusiastic response to all materials, particularly regarding their simplicity, vivid imagery and effectiveness.
  • There is a series of community posters – we’d love help distributing these throughout communities. They are 11 X 17, and again, match images of the campaign, reinforce the headlines and provide some key tips. Available in Eng., Spa., Hmong and Punjabi.
  • As part of our effort to reach people with limited literacy, we developed a DVD which can be used in trainings and also shown in waiting rooms – hopefully in clinics, consulates and nonprofits throughout the state. The DVD has audio options in the four languages already mentioned as well as Mixteco. It comes with a DVD discussion guide, which you see pictured here, so that you can facilitate a short discussion after people watch the video – in this way reinforcing key concepts. So far we have talked about what’s needed for prevention, and what we created for the campaign. I am now going to turn it over once again to Len Welsh. Eight “Train-the-Trainer” (TOT) programs were carried out in various regions of the state, and a total of 125 people from 66 organizations participated. TOTs were able to engage a number of organizations that don’t typically address work-related issues. TOT participants in turn carried out educational and outreach activities with workers, reaching an estimated 5,900 – 7,600 workers.
  • Len – though the media campaign also reaches supervisors with the messages, we continue efforts to provide resources to employers. A few of the activities related to this include: 1) We have been doing a series of trainings with employer associations since April  reaching farm labor contractors and other supervisors. 2) Providing training materials so they can train workers. As part of this year’s effort, have created training kits that include visuals, the easy-to-read fact sheets, and a training guide supervisors can follow. 3) In addition, we have been carrying out inspections of worksites….. Turn back to Suzanne……
  • Len One thing we heard in needs assessment is that workers fear calling a government agency, and don’t want to call a recorded hotline. So we have set up a special collaboration this summer with a hotline in So. Cal, EMPLEO, which will take all CALOR calls statewide. With this, workers will: -be able to talk to someone in Spanish -reach someone in person -get information in an accessible way, and help figuring out next step. Our goal through this effort is to make Cal/OSHA more accessible for non-English speaking workers. Cal/OSHA staff will also be visible in the community at health fairs and other events, in an effort to increase our access to workers. As part of the campaign, there is now a fact sheet that describes steps to report a problem to Cal/OSHA and the type of information that is helpful for us to have in a complaint. Another resource for workers who need help is to call CRLA – California Rural Legal Assistance. We have established a relationship with them to funnel complaints to us……..etc.
  • Intercept interviews with workers (247) Survey of employers (36) + interviews (10) Survey of community organizations (66) + interviews (11) Main message recall: 2/3 drinking water on the job ½ mentioned taking breaks or stopping to rest 1/3 mentioned resting or taking break in shade
  • Many workers expressed thanks and gratitude for advertisements, reflected concern for their welfare. Statistically significant change re. behaviors reported this summer as opposed to before – however, reported percentages were quite high … so we recognize the limitations of self-reported behavior. However, there was an increase in the percentage of behaviors shows that there is likely a positive trend…. What to do when a case occurs is still something to be pursued – workers did not always report symptoms to their supervisors when interviewed, and employers are expressing confusion still about when to call for medical help, when to triage on the field. Employers mixed on effectiveness – some mentioned more media, TV, others said ads mentioned Cal/OSHA not so great. Evaluation also identified some constraints in workers ability to adopt heat illness measures: -some said supervisors did not take adverstisements seriously or hcange conditions in the field -others mentioned being afraid to speak up -one said he was fired for helping a coworker who was having symptoms Indicates need for continued efforts to employers and enforcement partnership. 9% of workers interviewed had called number, and 6% of cbo’s had called hotline themselves or knew a worker who called that number.
  • Q: After seeing or hearing these ads, please tell us about your actions. A. Have you been <…> this summer? B. Have you ever done this before? Many workers expressed thanks and gratitude for advertisements, reflected concern for their welfare. Statistically significant change re. behaviors reported this summer as opposed to before – however, reported percentages were quite high … so we recognize the limitations of self-reported behavior. However, there was an increase in the percentage of behaviors shows that there is likely a positive trend…. What to do when a case occurs is still something to be pursued – workers did not always report symptoms to their supervisors when interviewed, and employers are expressing confusion still about when to call for medical help, when to triage on the field. Employers mixed on effectiveness – some mentioned more media, TV, others said ads mentioned Cal/OSHA not so great. Evaluation also identified some constraints in workers ability to adopt heat illness measures: -some said supervisors did not take adverstisements seriously or hcange conditions in the field -others mentioned being afraid to speak up -one said he was fired for helping a coworker who was having symptoms Indicates need for continued efforts to employers and enforcement partnership. 9% of workers interviewed had called number, and 6% of cbo’s had called hotline themselves or knew a worker who called that number.
  • Many workers expressed thanks and gratitude for advertisements, reflected concern for their welfare. Statistically significant change re. behaviors reported this summer as opposed to before – however, reported percentages were quite high … so we recognize the limitations of self-reported behavior. However, there was an increase in the percentage of behaviors shows that there is likely a positive trend…. What to do when a case occurs is still something to be pursued – workers did not always report symptoms to their supervisors when interviewed, and employers are expressing confusion still about when to call for medical help, when to triage on the field. Employers mixed on effectiveness – some mentioned more media, TV, others said ads mentioned Cal/OSHA not so great. Evaluation also identified some constraints in workers ability to adopt heat illness measures: -some said supervisors did not take adverstisements seriously or hcange conditions in the field -others mentioned being afraid to speak up -one said he was fired for helping a coworker who was having symptoms Indicates need for continued efforts to employers and enforcement partnership. 9% of workers interviewed had called number, and 6% of cbo’s had called hotline themselves or knew a worker who called that number.
  • Many workers expressed thanks and gratitude for advertisements, reflected concern for their welfare. Statistically significant change re. behaviors reported this summer as opposed to before – however, reported percentages were quite high … so we recognize the limitations of self-reported behavior. However, there was an increase in the percentage of behaviors shows that there is likely a positive trend…. What to do when a case occurs is still something to be pursued – workers did not always report symptoms to their supervisors when interviewed, and employers are expressing confusion still about when to call for medical help, when to triage on the field. Employers mixed on effectiveness – some mentioned more media, TV, others said ads mentioned Cal/OSHA not so great. Evaluation also identified some constraints in workers ability to adopt heat illness measures: -some said supervisors did not take adverstisements seriously or hcange conditions in the field -others mentioned being afraid to speak up -one said he was fired for helping a coworker who was having symptoms Indicates need for continued efforts to employers and enforcement partnership. 9% of workers interviewed had called number, and 6% of cbo’s had called hotline themselves or knew a worker who called that number.
  • Social Marketing with Social Media by Suzanne Teran

    1. 1. Using Social Marketing Methods to Improve Working Conditions Suzanne Teran, MPHLabor Occupational Health Program UC Berkeley
    2. 2. Communicating Our Power and HopeThe Domestic Worker Safety and Dignity CampaignLabor Occupational Health Program, UC Berkeley La Colectiva de Mujeres Underground Advertising
    3. 3. Other Campaign Elements
    4. 4. KEY OUTCOMES• Marked increase in number of jobs.• 74% of employer survey respondents recalled seeing the ads.• Very positive reactions to the ads – 70% of employers “liked them a lot.”• Marked increase in number of Colectiva members.• Women’s sense of pride – theme of increased confidence.• Leadership and media skills.
    5. 5. I was so moved seeing ourphotograph on BART and the bus.The bus driver recognized me andsaid "Hey, youre the one in thepicture." I feel so much happinessand pride to be part of La Colectiva.
    6. 6. 2010 Heat Campaign
    7. 7. California’s Heat Law Water Shade and rest Training Emergency Plan
    8. 8. Campaign strategy•Social marketing- analysis of benefits to target audience- workplace/community norm CommunityMEDIA support network Workers Employers Families
    9. 9. Billboards
    10. 10. Carteleras
    11. 11. Ads in stores
    12. 12. Hmong and Punjabi
    13. 13. Vans and lunch trucks
    14. 14. Radio Ads in Spanish and Hmong radio. Mixteco programming on Radio Bilingue.
    15. 15. Promotional items
    16. 16. Campaign Strategy Community Groups Worker Centers Consulates Clinics Churches Schools Promotora Networks
    17. 17. Easy-to-read fact sheets
    18. 18. Community posters
    19. 19. Multilingual DVD
    20. 20. Employer outreach• Cal/OSHA Trainings• Training materials
    21. 21. How to report a problem
    22. 22. Knowledge/awareness90%80%70%60%50% Saw/heard40% campaign30%20%10% 0% Workers Comm. Employers
    23. 23. AttitudePositive response to messages:• relevance,• usefulness,• believability
    24. 24. Behavior 54Talking to your co-workers about heat protection 84.9 55.3 Asking f or shade to rest, if needed 84.8 Per 70.1 Asking f or water on your job, if needed Cur 92.4 63.1 Resting in the shade to cool down 90.5 70.7 Drinking water regualrly during you work shif t 94.5 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
    25. 25. BehaviorFigure 2: Actions after seeing or hearing media campaign ads (N=199) Anything else 12.4 Report a problem at your worksite 12.7 Call the phone number on the ad 9Talk to your boss about heat saf ety 57.8 Look f or inf ormation 37.7 0 20 40 60 80 100
    26. 26. Behavior• We’ve received more anonymous calls to complain that they’re not being provided with shade or water.• At a training session, a group of workers complained about not having water or shade and this is something that you would not see in the past. The campaign empowers people to say I know this is the law.

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