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Chris Rourke - Beyond our shores: UX Research and Design for International Cultures.
Chris Rourke - Beyond our shores: UX Research and Design for International Cultures.
Chris Rourke - Beyond our shores: UX Research and Design for International Cultures.
Chris Rourke - Beyond our shores: UX Research and Design for International Cultures.
Chris Rourke - Beyond our shores: UX Research and Design for International Cultures.
Chris Rourke - Beyond our shores: UX Research and Design for International Cultures.
Chris Rourke - Beyond our shores: UX Research and Design for International Cultures.
Chris Rourke - Beyond our shores: UX Research and Design for International Cultures.
Chris Rourke - Beyond our shores: UX Research and Design for International Cultures.
Chris Rourke - Beyond our shores: UX Research and Design for International Cultures.
Chris Rourke - Beyond our shores: UX Research and Design for International Cultures.
Chris Rourke - Beyond our shores: UX Research and Design for International Cultures.
Chris Rourke - Beyond our shores: UX Research and Design for International Cultures.
Chris Rourke - Beyond our shores: UX Research and Design for International Cultures.
Chris Rourke - Beyond our shores: UX Research and Design for International Cultures.
Chris Rourke - Beyond our shores: UX Research and Design for International Cultures.
Chris Rourke - Beyond our shores: UX Research and Design for International Cultures.
Chris Rourke - Beyond our shores: UX Research and Design for International Cultures.
Chris Rourke - Beyond our shores: UX Research and Design for International Cultures.
Chris Rourke - Beyond our shores: UX Research and Design for International Cultures.
Chris Rourke - Beyond our shores: UX Research and Design for International Cultures.
Chris Rourke - Beyond our shores: UX Research and Design for International Cultures.
Chris Rourke - Beyond our shores: UX Research and Design for International Cultures.
Chris Rourke - Beyond our shores: UX Research and Design for International Cultures.
Chris Rourke - Beyond our shores: UX Research and Design for International Cultures.
Chris Rourke - Beyond our shores: UX Research and Design for International Cultures.
Chris Rourke - Beyond our shores: UX Research and Design for International Cultures.
Chris Rourke - Beyond our shores: UX Research and Design for International Cultures.
Chris Rourke - Beyond our shores: UX Research and Design for International Cultures.
Chris Rourke - Beyond our shores: UX Research and Design for International Cultures.
Chris Rourke - Beyond our shores: UX Research and Design for International Cultures.
Chris Rourke - Beyond our shores: UX Research and Design for International Cultures.
Chris Rourke - Beyond our shores: UX Research and Design for International Cultures.
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Chris Rourke - Beyond our shores: UX Research and Design for International Cultures.

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User experience research and User Centred Design must account for not only the user but also where they live. The surrounding culture, including traditions, language and even religion can have a big …

User experience research and User Centred Design must account for not only the user but also where they live. The surrounding culture, including traditions, language and even religion can have a big impact on the best user experience research methods, design recommendations and also the general uptake of solutions. For multi-national organisations with digital channels, getting this aspect right can mean the difference between a highly effective and enjoyable experience and one that underperforms and confuses users. The talk will explore some ways in which user-centred design research and recommendations can account for local cultures and international factors. How can local culture affect what methods work best and how design ideas can be presented most effectively? We will use examples from various parts of the world, including a case study of researching web accessibility in the Middle East. The project showed how some local cultural factors impacted web accessibility provisions, and recommends an approach to create a viable accessibility “market” including organisations, digital suppliers and people with disabilities. User Vision has worked with several multinational organisations from offices in the UK and the UAE, and will share experiences that they and others in the UX community have gained.

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  • Why do research internationalIts neededIts interesting Its funWe have reached the point where the technology barriers are being removed and there are often more local nuanced issuesthe knowledge and wisdom start to diverse and the attention start to shift from a technical point, to a more humanity perspective, in other words, a human-centered-approach of UX. The complexity of practicing UX is no longer about learning all the tools to research or design innovation, but about the people using the technologies. Where Local issues can make a difference LanguageExpectation dangers of overlooking culture – examples – some of them head slapping. Jumeirah, Emirates, HSBC Amana – check these reports
  • Put in some images of AD
  • Among people with disabilities Limited access to assistive technologiesUnaware of enhancementsFew requests for enhancementsIn ADGEs - inability to verify the quality of work by vendorsPhase 2 Review of existing Accessibility Guidelines:-Existing Abu Dhabi Government accessibility guidelines and style guidesMajor international guidelinesWeb Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 (W3C)Section 508 (USA)Governmental/Public Sector GuidelinesAustralian GovernmentNew Zealand GovernmentWide range of guidelines from EU nations, including the EU itselfRNIB, BBC and Lloyds TSB Bank.Phase 2 findings Most guidelines are based loosely on existing international de-facto standards such as WCAG 1.0 or WCAG 2.0Key disability groups are catered forBlind and visually impairedCognitively impairedPhysically impairedHearing impairedSizeable overlap in the guidelines specified, which combined with previous experience of the difficulties disabled users encounter when using the web, allowed us to create an optimal set of blueprint guidelinesMandatory and optional guidelines were specified within the blueprint, broken down into the following element types:-Page structure and contentNavigationForms and error handlingData tablesScripts and eventsImagesColourGuidelines produced were only a blueprint and were subject to possible change or restructuring during the creation of the final guidelines (Phase 4)Te fact they did not hear of the issue – THAT IS THE PROBLEM there is no comms to the government to tell them there is a problem
  • suppliers to ensure future complianceStraightforward, clear processes and checklists for assessing sites against the guidelinesA sample set of 20 sites assessed which can serve as examples to other ADGEsA list of suppliers which have proven accessibility skillsImplementation timetable provided within audits for the addressing of the issues raisedShortlisted vendors will potentially be involved in implementation of recommendations
  • Certainly I have seen this type of market grow in the UKAsk the audience of what are some high profile cases of sites running into accessibility troublesRiver IslandBMI babyIn MENA A history of AT being simply imported without adequate training and support locally had created a degree of reticence amongst purchasers to invest further. One of the key limitations on further expenditure is the limited range of choices for solutions which support Arabic speakers and potential purchasers report strong preferences for Arabic or bilingual solutions that support both English and Arabic. AE, Saudi Arabia etc. Responses from potential purchasers again reports a strong preference for bilingual solutions which support Arabic script and languageEgypt, Syria etcOther Middle East states have a lower level of spend on assistive technology. Whilst there is some use of English based products, these have limited value as English is not as widely spoken within these states. Key purchasers such as libraries and public bodies report severe limitations on the availability of entry level, assistive technologies that support Arabic. A number of products are in development and include on screen keyboards, magnification packages and hardware communication aids. However choice is limited and there remain key gaps in the market such as Voice recognition, software to support Learning Disability and solutions to support people with a hearing impairment. ADA = American Disability Association
  • Disability Living Allowance (DLA) - GOV.UKPeople with disabilities formed a civil rights movement inspired by that of the 1960s, arguing that their isolation and segregation was not a natural result of disability, but rather of physical and attitudinal barriers. They said inaccessible spaces and people’s assumptions about their abilities were the problem. The Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 now ask us to think of disability discrimination as we do race or gender discrimination.Dates for dda , equality actThis kind of protest (cameron) would not be very welcome in placed in the middle east
  • http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2009/dec/05/middle-east-disability-povertyHanaaHelmy, an Ashoka fellow who runs a centre for children with cerebral palsy in a south Cairo suburb. "People often ask me why I bother," said Helmy. "The idea that children with cerebral palsy could be self-dependent and integrated with Egyptian society is completely alien; most people think they'd be better off dead.“As the NGO Handicap International says in its profile of Egypt, "ordinary" Egyptians "hardly consider [disabled people] as regular capable citizens having their own strengths and weaknesses, rights and duties".Prevents those with disabilities being taken seriously as independent agents, leaving them at the mercy of negative stereotypes.
  • In some developing arab countries – disabled people are the ones most likely to be the ones you see begging overnment – not going to rock the boat too muchIs the NGO finded by govt
  • Like a maslow hierarchy of needsNational level Developing countries are more worried about getting wide & stable internet access & infrastructureSome countries are more open to working with external expertsProject levelMay not be aware of the accessibility issueBudgets & projects don’t allow it Was in initial project plan but droppedThere is no legal framework there to allow something like a private lawsuit to happen – or any desire by NGOs to lock horns with companies like this Are there channels for them to point out accessibility failures?Are the NGOs aware of content related solutions (as opposed to plugins, software or assistive tech)?Do people receiving feedback relating to accessibility understand the nature of the complaint?
  • Also official aram translation wcag 2 The Mada National Web Accreditation Program is comprised of three levels. They are “Access Committed,” for organisations that make a concrete commitment towards establishing an accessible web presence by a certain date, “Access Certified,” to those organisations that have achieved a certain level of accessibility, and the “Access Award,” for those websites that have shown excellence in the field of e-accessibility.MADA & Qatara e accessibility There are three things that I would see as crucial to mention about the process 1. Need for end to end support in the early stages – audit, advice and training 2. Certification is important so Mada have launched a scheme to accredit web sites for levels of accessibility in the region. In the future we aim to offer accreditation to individual designers3. Assistive Technologies and eAccessibility are two sides of the same coin – one without the other is a barrier to digital inclusion MADA serviceseAccessibility PolicyWeb audits and reviews Funding accessibility related toolsWeb Accreditation Program & AwardAssistive Tech showcase for people with a disability in Qatar & regionPromote AT awareness & training Supporting development of Arabic language ATA wider ecosystem needs to be in place to make accessibility actually happenCulture and tradition is an important part to that ecosystem
  • Want to talk about 2 main topics for the rest1. How the international factgors affect user experience – where usability problems appear that are essentially due to culture, tradition, labnguageWhat this means for ou
  • We take with us our expectations of web style and how things should lookHere is a popular web portal in the UKHere is one in China – Sina.com personally I find it a bit anxiety inducing to look at , even without knowing the fact that half those images are moving around in one way or the otherAnd that that is just the top of a very LONG LONG pageSo in a similar way other cultures look at sites we think are fine – with their perspective here are some examples from different industries and places in the world
  • Image not well relating to Middle Eastern audience Thiose with English as 2nd language often rely more on the imagesProtecting business – not seen as insurance – its an abstraction too much. Many thought it waqs security servicesReading the stories of people - much more popular amoung local populatiopn than western expats
  • Why were the conversions so much lower in France for a Middle eastern airline? Various reasons “If the site does not work for me, I’d even question the safety of the plane”1. AttitudesTesting in France for airline - very proud of Air france - would pay more for that , built up levels of trust that dotn have with others. Middle east airlines have to work harder to earn their trustFound felt if the site does not work for them – they question the safety of the plane. And starting off from a difficult pointt anyway And more worried about Middle eastern onesEnglish Text
  • Some of these seem super obvious when you look back in hindsight or when you see thenm happening in the usability testing – but it takes the intenational research to show these problems, to convince the powers that be back home there is a problem There appears to be lower awareness of these than in other countries in which testing has been undertaken. Very few knew the regional code – and this issue was exacerbated by most wanting to enter a mobile number – which, of course, do not have regional prefixes.
  • Some of the images chosen were highly inappropriate and drew criticism. There was a very strong demand for images which reflect Islamic culture. Especially since they were not a local bank but a global one – they had to work harder to convince potential customers they had the creds for Islamic banking - this image undermined that Independent Shariah scholars ensure that our services are Shariah compliant and meet Islamic legal guidelines.
  • Mix of languages – very offputtingProbably some important messge in Chinese – followed by English buttonsFew things more annoying than having some cntent in local language some in English Especially when the Dropdown invites yuou in in Local language then – you see englishAll of these are the types of things that seem blingingly obvious when I show then here But they go on – they went on – as business as usual for a long timeThey are the silent lose4s that contriobuted to user confusion and lower conversion rates Until an overt effort is made to research this – they are unknown
  • Using UCD methods in international markets requires making some changes in the Methodology􀂙And we would like to share them - and to learn what lessons YOU have learned as well􀂙Methodological lessons to help planinternational user studies􀂙Remote testing: when and how it canbe useful􀂙Preparing yourself for internationalresearchSome top tips in performing international UCD research – some of these are cultural related some are just good adviceTradition punctuality – more no shows, late showsThis is some advice in terms of How to perform research in different culturesHow to recommend changes differently based on the cultureAccount for more time than expected between interviews
  • Use a cross-cultural research teamUse a mix of research methodsStart with a broad focusConduct inquiry in local languageGain access through local partnersAdapt sampling strategiesAllow sufficient time􀂙Adapt data collection methodsBOTH Local AND “foreign” perspectives areneeded􀂙Local researchers can interpret􀂙“Foreign” researchers see things that are notapparent to local staff• “If you want to know about water, don’t ask afish”􀂙“Honored guests” and “Normal folks”together can make a visit run smoothly􀂙Cross-cultural learning should be 24 x 7!
  • Maybe mention how whitney was thrown when someone said they were “chuffed” with the interface while researching in the UK “Never Settle”US – Never settle for less, keep strivingMandarin – Don’t agree negotiationIndonesian – Don’t sit downOne ;arge phone company found there were differences in interpreting these words “How about some Learning Games on the site”US - OK, sounds fineJapan and Far East - no way!Mention the one about whitnet IEEE ideaof Games for learning engineering principles – idea went down very well in the US – in China and far east – NO!
  • Immersion day before doing research – get comfortable with the culture, habits – have locval contact tell you about things, turns of phrase etcConsider whether to take notes by notebook not pc. Or at all Appropriate dress – arab countries – especially conservative ones – less noticeable – yest you still have to tell them they are being videod. More for the camera consciousOpen ended interviewsLeads to personas & story boardsAdditional respect for elderly Work with an organization that already has tiesto local communities􀂙Be aware that you will be associated with thatorganization’s goals in the eyes of participants􀂙Monitor potential impacts (plus and minus) ofthis linkage􀂙Recruit locally􀂙May need to find “alternative routes” in toparticular (esp. to disadvantaged) populationsAdapt sampling strategies􀂙 Sampling criteria have very different meanings indifferent parts of world• Income• Education• Usage of ICTs• Family constellation􀂙 You may need to use very different methods ofobtaining participants depending on the requirementsof the sample such as:• Door-to-door• Posting on community bulletin boards (electronic or physical)􀂙 “Screening” per se may not make sense, especially ifyou are working in rural areasorgAllow sufficient time􀂙 Cross-cultural studies take more time to plan andexecute than mono-cultural studies􀂙 Rapport-building is even more critical and is always thefirst goal of the study• Guests may need to share info about themselves• Observe rituals to build rapport􀂙 Make sure local colleagues are also comfortable􀂙 More background information is often needed so youcan make sense of the data􀂙 Therefore, visits usually last longer􀂙 Also allow more time between visits to recover
  • Use and adapt a mix of methods􀂙• e.g., Latin American website study– Usability evaluations found puzzling results– Ethnographies helped unravel the mystery􀂙Also consider other methods like artifactwalkthroughs, demonstrations, participatorydesign methods, cultural probes, etc.􀂙You may (will!) need to adapt these to yourlocal participants!
  • Keep an eye on the time – think about timezones when planning, working iwht partners Get better image of the clocksTransporting equipment & dataInternational Customs – nightmare storuies about getting into - or rather NOT getting into – Saudi Arabia . Ive had tto do some quick talkting to explain what an eye tracker when bringing it to Dubai Use the cloud for backup – things get lost, corruptedPilot test at home before going abroad – London of course cosmohttp://www.netlimiter.com/ band shaperEthnographic apraoch – saves you time of going to home environments , gets them talking, conmfortableThis a form of ethnography where the recruits are asked to document their daily life around 2-3 broad topics, and take lots of pictures. We then hand them digital cameras, disposable cameras, in some case where theft was a big issue we've even handed out polaroid cameras. We use this data then as an ice-breaker as well as a story trigger when we visit them in thier homes/ or context (never away from the context that they conduct these activities in as this already adulterates data). As you well know the gems of insight lie in the little stories people have in their daily life which rarely come through traditional qualitative research methods. As such this methodology has helped my team often identify opportunity spaces for innovation or reframing a product road map objective too. I have used this methodology in the US, South Africa, India, Vietnam, China, Mexico and Brazil - with almost always good success. The only fall back is that it tends to be a little time consuming as eventually we have a lot of photos (typically 1000-1500) per user. A good tagging protocol and a sorting software helps this process greatly. Hope this helps!RegardsAnjali
  • Tradeoff – UX expert vs language expert In China, for example, whenforeigners are part of the team, people might assume that they are the most important people and try to talk to them. If your plan was to quietly observe the interaction, that won’t work.Alternatively, participants may want to talk only to the local people on the team, even if they are just there to take notes.Interpreters can make or break a session. If you do researchacross languages, simultaneous interpreters are a fact of life. Agood one can seem completely transparent, but the quality is veymixed. When the quality is bad, it can be deadly. Some things towatch for are:The deadly monotone. Interpreters who give you a flow ofwords with no connection to the way the participant actuallyspoke. This happens more with interpreters working “behindthe glass” than when they are in the room with the participant.When it does, it can be very difficult to stay engaged.• Too much summarizing. Interpreters who summarize answersor interject their own explanations may not be accurately representingwhat the participant is saying.• Dialects and accents. Interpreters who speak a different localdialect may have trouble with the terminology or accent ofparticipants, or even of the moderator.If you do use an interpreter, make sure both the team and theparticipant understand the roles: who is running the interview orconversation, who is taking notes.One of the assumptions I made in a project in Hong Kong was thatif we screen for people who can speak English then we won’t needa translator. We realized after the first interview that “speakingEnglish” means different things for different people and we willneed a translator in some cases.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Welcome to UCD2012 Sponsored by Supported bySupporters Sponsors Organiser
    • 2. Beyond our shores: UX Research and Design for International Cultures November 9th, 11:30 Chris Rourke User Vision This document and its content is Copyright ©2012 Chris Rourke and UCD UK Limited.Supporters Sponsors Organiser 2
    • 3. International cultures and UX  A case study: accessibility in a different culture  Localisation and culture in design  Conducting International UX Research3
    • 4. Introduction to Abu Dhabi & the UAE  Wealthy, oil-based economy  Culturally conservative  Ambitious eGovernment plans  Raise awareness of accessibility amongst Government Entities  For Counter, Kiosk, Phone & Online4
    • 5. Three Key Phases 1. Baseline of Current Accessibility Landscape 2. Develop National Accessibility Guidelines 3. Evaluate Current sites5
    • 6. 1. Baseline of Current Landscape  Assess current accessibility awareness, provisions  Meetings with stakeholders, disability groups  Low awareness of web accessibility among  People with disabilities  Government departments  Digital agencies Can’t we just Its not a problem. Do we create a If it was we would create an separate page have heard about information for each it. page for disabled disability? people?6
    • 7. 2. Develop Guidelines  Created Mandatory & Optional Guidelines  Rationale & technical details provided for each  Guidelines ordered by element type:-  Use of images and colour  Navigation  Forms and form validation  etc  Rather than by the 4 “POUR” principles of WCAG 2.07
    • 8. 3. Evaluate Current Infrastructure 1. Assess Sites  All sites tested failed to meet mandatory guidelines 2. Assess Vendors / Digital agencies  Interviews, tests and meetings to select a shortlist8
    • 9. Job done!!  Insight into accessibility within Abu Dhabi government  Detailed review of several sites  A list of suppliers who know accessibility  Easy to use guidelines, checklist & technical guide So….…We’re all set then, right?9
    • 10. NO  Guidelines on their own don’t make a site accessible  Need to have  Motivation to make sites accessible  Skills to make accessible sites  Skills to review sites for accessibility10
    • 11. Web accessibility “Market” Assistive Technology – Provision, training & People With • Raise awareness • Work with NGOs language support Disabilities • Campaign • Sue? NGO’s (e.g. Specialists Guidelines (WCAG 2.0) RNIB, Zayed, ADA Researchers Laws (E.g. Equality Act, ADA) ) Consultants Standards (BS8878) Awareness (e.g. fixtheweb) Suppliers / Company / agencies organisation • Hear the feedback• Feel the pressure (from clients) • Feel the Pressure (PR, legal)• See a competitive opportunity • Understand benefits• Learn the requirements & guidelines • Learn what’s required• Apply regularly • Fix the site & Future proof Company standards CSR efforts11
    • 12. 1. Bottom up or top down?  Tradition of disability activism in the UK and US  See www.itsourstory.org  Not in Middle East12
    • 13. 2. Perceptions “People with disabilities in this region still face obstacles in being included in society alongside people without disabilities.” World Bank - Disability in Middle East and North Africa Region Although hard to quantify, people with disability are often not integrated or recognised as much as in the West http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2009/dec/05/middle-east-disability-poverty13
    • 14. 3. Expectations  What is the role of Disability Support groups / NGO’s?  To campaign on rights, to the government?  Provide skills & confidence to allow people with MIDDLE EAST WEST disabilities to look after themselves?  Provide technology to help adapt?  To give money & care assistance?14
    • 15. 4. Other factors  Resources  National level  Project level  Consequences  Legal framework & tradition  In West there is more chance of scrutiny, legal action  Awareness  Among people with disabilities  Channels to report accessibility failures15
    • 16. Ending on a positive note…  It takes time for guidelines to take effect  Some agencies are talking about accessibility  Accessibility considered in regional eGov Awards  Official Arabic Translation of WCAG 2.0  Regional Centres of Excellence16
    • 17. UX , UCD and the wider world  Localisation and culture in design  Conducting UX research internationally17
    • 18. 18
    • 19. Life and Pensions – Middle East  Varied audience – Western expats, local Arabs and more19
    • 20. Travel - France  Attitudes to Middle East20
    • 21. Travel - France  Localisation practicalities Your name must be shown exactly as it appears in your passport21
    • 22. Financial Services – Middle East  International bank selling Islamic banking products “If this is Islamic Finance – I should see images relating to Islam. Not…Bhuddism??”22
    • 23. Travel – Hotels - China  Users annoyed by the mixture of languages23
    • 24. Performing UX Research Abroad  Set your expectations  Takes more time  Is more expensive  Has many logistical complications  Can be exhausting  Expect to get less done in a research session - more chat about weather etc before testing  Participants may not have a tradition of punctuality  Be aware of local customs and culture – e.g. Arab countries  Prayer times  Shaking hands  Crossed legs – soles showing  Ramadan24
    • 25. Performing UX Research Abroad  Use a cross-cultural research team  Use a mix of research methods  Gain access through local partners  Adapt sampling / recruiting strategies  Adapt data collection methods25
    • 26. Language – Devils in the detail  People in different countries and locations perceive even the same words differently  “How often do you use the mobile Internet”  Asia- “mobile Internet” meant only web sites tailored for mobile use  Europe and the United States - any web site accessed through a phone26
    • 27. International Research  Understand context of where you are researching  Arrive a day or 2 early, observe, learn local news, events  All of your time in-country is part of your research!  Recruiting  Local partner for access  Adapt sampling strategies  “Screening” may not make sense,  Put participants at ease  Appropriate dress  Show interest in their culture  Consider inbuilt laptop camera27  Be patient – pace of questions, rapport building
    • 28. Usability AND ethnography inform each other  Consider ethnographic approach  E.g. Provide cameras to participants, they take photos of their environment – great icebreaker  Artefacts  Walkthroughs, demonstrations, participatory  Design methods, cultural probes,28
    • 29. International Research - logistics  Keep an eye on the time  www.timeanddate.com  Plan in detail, backup to the cloud  Transporting equipment & data  International Customs  Use the cloud for backup  Pilot test at home first  Use bandwidth shaper to create typical speed  Same for OS, browser, resolution etc29
    • 30. One team or several partners? Same team does all visits • Perhaps with translator • More consistent • More time • More travel Different teams work in parallel • Pre-test preps critical • Quicker fieldwork • Beware translation issues • Careful analysis needed30
    • 31. My Wall of Thanks General Sheikh Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan, Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi , Deputy Supreme Commander of the UAE Armed Forces, Chairman of the Abu Dhabi Executive Council Mark Palmer Whitney Quesenbery Dan Szuc Christina Li David Banes31 Jamie Sands Susan Dray Shadi Abou-Zahrah
    • 32. Thank you Chris Rourke Managing Director 0131 225 0850 chris@uservision.co.uk @uservision @crourke www.uservision.co.uk We’re hiring!32
    • 33. Welcome to UCD2012 Sponsored by Supported bySupporters Sponsors Organiser

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